Allobates bacurau Simões, 2016
- GBIF Backbone Taxonomy
- Published in
- Simões, Pedro I. 2016. A new species of nurse-frog (Aromobatidae, Allobates) from the Madeira River basin with a small geographic range. Zootaxa 4083(4): 501–525.
- Allobates bacurau
Diagnosis. Allobates bacurau is characterized by: (1) skin texture of dorsum granular, flat granules scattered from the level of tympanum to the urostyle region, more evident from mid to posterior dorsum; (2) paired dorsal digital scutes present; (3) distal tubercle absent on Finger IV; (4) discs on fingers II and III unexpanded, discs of fingers I and IV weakly expanded; (5) dermal lateral fringes and basal webbing absent on fingers; (6) metacarpal ridge absent; (7) Finger III swollen in male specimens, width of swelling variable among males; Finger III not swollen in females; (8) carpal pad absent; (9) male excrescences absent on thumbs; (10) thenar tubercle conspicuous; (11) black gland absent on arm; (12) tarsal keel present, tubercle-like, strongly curved; (13) disc of Toe I weakly expanded; discs of toes II, III and IV moderately expanded; (14) basal webbing present between toes III and IV; (15) metartarsal fold absent; (16) cryptic external coloration; background color of dorsum tan brown, with darker brown spots scattered from the level of tympanum to posterior dorsum; large diamond, “ X ” or hourglass-shaped marks absent on dorsum; dorsal surface of thigh grayish brown in life, light brown in preserved specimens, with no transverse bars; dorsal surface of arm yellow to dark copper in life, cream in specimens preserved for at least five years; pale dorsolateral stripe present, well defined, variable in width among specimens; a dark brown lateral stripe surrounds the whole body, reaching leg-body insertion; pale oblique lateral stripe absent; pale ventrolateral stripe present, partially diffuse, extending from behind the eyes to groin, cream in preserved specimens, iridescent white in live individuals; small, brown irregular blotches or marbling present ventrolaterally from snout to groin; pale paracloacal mark present; (17) dark throat-collar absent; (18) color of throat generally cream in preserved specimens, appearing light brown in specimens with higher concentration of melanophores on throat skin; density of melanophores on throat variable among specimens; throat light to dark gray in life; (19) central abdominal region immaculate, white to translucent in live male and female specimens; throat region with a variable number of melanophores in both sexes; chest and posterior third of throat light to dark gray in live males, white to translucent in live females, with parietal peritoneum projecting anteriorly from the level of chest and visible through skin; (20) iris metallic gold with tiny black flecks and a light gold pupil ring; (21) large intestine unpigmented; (22) testis unpigmented; (23) mature oocytes pigmented, pigments dark brown; (24) median lingual process absent; (25) tympanum inconspicuous; (26) vocal sac single; (27) maxillary teeth absent or inconspicuous; (27) habit is diurnal, males calling during daytime; (28) advertisement calls characterized by distinctively long trills (7 – 11 s) formed by approximately 60 – 80 short notes, emitted at an average rate of seven notes per second; (29) very small snout-to-vent length (SVL), adult males 14.4 mm on average (range 14.0 – 14.7 mm), adult females 14.8 mm on average (range 14.7 – 14.9 mm). The new species is assigned to genus Allobates by the combination of characters 14, 17, 22, 24, 27 and 29. Species comparisons. The new species has a small geographic distribution in central Brazilian Amazonia (see Geographic distribution section below), located at least 600 km from the nearest country border. Thus, we restrict comparisons to Allobates species occurring in Brazil and to three additional species distributed outside the country, but which closely resemble the new species in external morphology.
Etymology. The specific epithet is in reference to the Portuguese word “ bacurau ” (modified from the original native Tupi word “ wakura’wa ”), which designates several species of nighthawks (Family Caprimulgidade). Inhabitants of Manicoré have historically entitled themselves “ Povo Bacurau ” (“ The Nighthawk People ”). The origin of this habit is disputed, but it possibly relates to the nickname of a notable citizen, Mr. Francisco A. Vieira Nunes (1939 – 1997), a writer and politician who gained prestige as a social worker and activist for Hansen’s disease awareness. The epithet is applied as a noun in apposition.
Holotype. INPA-H 35398 (original field number APL 12647). An adult male collected by P. I. Simões on 4 th of December 2007, at Estrada do Miriti, in the outskirts of the city of Manicoré, on the right bank of the Madeira River, State of Amazonas, Brazil (05 ° 52 ’ 05 " S, 61 ° 17 ’ 13 " W). Advertisement calls of holotype recorded at 11: 30 h and 25.2 ° C. Paratypes. INPA-H 35397, 35399 – 35409 (original field numbers APL 12644 – 12646, 12648 – 12656), ten males, two females. Collected by P. I. Simões on 4 th – 5 th of December 2007, proceeding from the same locality.
- Allobates bacurau Simões, 2016