Data accessed through the GBIF network is free for all—but not free of obligations. Under the terms of the GBIF data user agreement, users who download individual datasets or search results and use them in research or policy agree to cite them using a DOI, or Digital Object Identifier.
Good citation practices ensure scientific transparency and reproducibility by guiding other researchers to the original sources of information. They also reward data-publishing institutions and individuals by reinforcing the value of sharing open data and demonstrating its impact to their stakeholders and funders. Datasets published through GBIF are authored electronic data publications and, as such, should be treated as first-class research outputs and correctly cited.
While all example citations below are formatted in Harvard style, please adapt them to the style format required by your institution, publisher or agency. However, please do include each element of content—most importantly the DOI expressed as a URL.
Citing occurrence data downloads
When downloading data from GBIF.org, a registered user is immediately redirected to a page that includes the following information:
This citation appears again in the confirmation email sent to the registered user. Keep this reference close so you can cite it. Details of previous downloads can always be accessed in the registered user's list of downloads. Please contact GBIF if you need help finding a previous download.
The download page provides a record listing all contributing datasets as well as a snapshot of all search terms, filters and facets. Users can quickly update search results from the download page and will also see links to any citations once they are picked up in GBIF's literature tracking programme (for example).
Citing individual datasets
Most downloads from GBIF.org contain records from multiple datasets (as above), but in some instances, such as internal reporting or the advance publication of a dataset for research, users may want or need to cite a single dataset, as in this example:
Rivas Pava M D P, Muñoz Lara D G, Ruiz Camayo M A, Fernández Trujillo L F, Muñoz Castro F A, Pérez Muñoz N (2017). Colección Mastozoológica del Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad del Cauca. Version 1.1. Universidad del Cauca. Occurrence dataset https://doi.org/10.15472/ciasei accessed via GBIF.org on 2020-03-02.
Note, that as datasets may change over time, even single-dataset downloads are assigned new, unique DOIs which should used in citations. If appropriate, this can be done in combination with the original dataset citation, e.g.:
Telenius A, Jonsson C (2017). Molluscs of the Gothenburg Natural History Museum (GNM). GBIF-Sweden. Occurrence download https://doi.org/10.15468/dl.f14yjv accessed via GBIF.org on 2020-03-02.
Other citation examples
GBIF data accessed using third-party tools (e.g. rgbif, pygbif, spocc, dismo, etc.)
Accessing occurrence data from GBIF in R, Python and other programming languages is fast and easy. It is, however, important to always keep in mind that the citation requirements of the GBIF data user agreement still apply.
For most users, obtaining occcurrence data using the occ_download() function of the rgbif package is strongly recommended as this ensures that downloads are assigned DOIs for easy citation.
Tools returning results directly from the GBIF search API (e.g. spocc, dismo and the occ_data() and occ_search() functions of rgbif) will not assign single DOIs for data downloaded. It is up to the user to identify dataset publishers and properly acknowledge each of them when citing the data.
The rgbif package offers a function, gbif_citation(), that helps generate citations. Relevant approaches are described in more detail on the rgbif tool page.
Each species page includes a default citation, for example:
Note: If making assertions about the distribution of a given taxon, consider making a download of occurrences. This will ensure a persistent time-stamped snapshot of data with a DOI that can be cited in the same way as occurrence data downloads.
Custom data export
On occasion, the GBIF Secretariat provides direct assistance to users seeking somewhat more complicated exports of data shared through the GBIF network. To improve transparency, repeatability and open access to data, we recently started issuing DOIs for these results; please cite them, for example:
If you need assistance with a custom data export, please contact us at email@example.com.
Those wishing to cite GBIF's website in general can use the following example:
GBIF.org (year), GBIF Home Page. Available from: https://www.gbif.org
[13 January 2020].
Authored content at GBIF.org (web page)
Similarly, users can cite non-data pages on the GBIF website as, for example:
GBIF.org (year) Citation guidelines. Available from https://www.gbif.org/citation-guidelines
[13 January 2020].
Note: this approach is not an accepted alternative for citing data downloads.
GBIF as an infrastructure/entity
We recommend that those wishing to cite GBIF in a broader, more general context should use the following citation:
GBIF: The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (year) What is GBIF?. Available from https://www.gbif.org/what-is-gbif
[13 January 2020].