Buthus ibericus Lourenço & Vachon, 2004
- GBIF Backbone Taxonomy
- Buthus ibericus
Buthus ibericus Lourenco & Vachon, 2004
24. Buthus ibericus Lourenco & Vachon, 2004, nomen protectum
= Buthus halius (C. L. Koch, 1839) (nomen oblitum) (comb. n., syn. n.). Holotype lost according to Fet and Lowe (2000) , Portugal.
Buthus ibericusLouren��o & Vachon, 2004: 88-91, fig. 31-42, Fern��ndez 2004 : 222; Teruel and P��rez-Bote 2005 : 273-276, fig. 1; Armas and Gonz��lez-Molin�� 2009 : 553-554; Fet 2010 : 4; Sousa et al. 2010 : 207; Rossi 2012 : 274-275, 277-278; Pedroso et al. 2013 : 300; Teruel and Melic 2015 : 6-9.
Androctonus halius C. L. Koch 1839a : 69-70, pl.CLXIII, fig. 383; Gervais 1844a : 43; C. L. Koch 1850 : 90; Simon 1879 : 96.
Buthus occitanus (MIS): Berejano and P��rez-Bote 2002 : 59.
1 M holotype (MNHN N�� RS8605), San Jos�� del Valle (36.6247��, -5.6646��), C��diz , Spain. Paratypes: 2 F (MNHN, N�� RS8654), 1 M, 2 F (CRBA, N�� CRBA-21826), and 2 F (MNCN N�� 20.02/14857), all from the same locality.
this species seems to have a wide distribution range in the western part of the Iberian Peninsula, although the limits of its distribution remain poorly defined.
B. ibericus was first described from Spain and subsequently reported for Portugal (e.g. Sousa et al. 2010 , Rossi 2012 ). Simon (1879) synonymized Androctonus halius with B. occitanus based on its type locality, which was wrongly stated to be Spain (page 98), because Simon considered B. occitanus (as B. europaeus ) to be the only good species in Spain. Koch���s original description is not by itself enough to synonymize both species. However, Koch���s fig. 383 illustration of Androctonus halius includes a basal lobe in the movable finger (Fig. 13a and B), which is the key diagnostic character for B. ibericus ( Louren��o and Vachon 2004 , Rossi 2012 ), together with its type locality (Portugal), supports this synonymy. Nonetheless, according to the I.C.Z.N. article 23.9, the junior synonym can remain valid to maintain taxonomic stability. To our knowledge the name B. halius has not been used since 1879 (article 126.96.36.199), and more than 25 works have been published in the past 12 years by more than 10 authors using the name B. ibericus (article 188.8.131.52). Not all works are cited here because they are neither taxonomic nor faunistic. As such we propose to maintain as valid the junior synonym B. ibericus (nomen protectum) according to prevailing usage (article 23.9.1), and to consider the senior synonym B. halius a nomen oblitum. Rossi, 2012 (page 278), for B. ibericus , states erroneously “Sexual dimorphism is not noticeable in the chela manus”, which is in contrast to the original descriptions of both Koch (1839) and Louren��o and Vachon (2004) and to the complementary description in Teruel and P��rez-Bote (2005) . In both works it can be observed that the male manus is more bulbous than the female���s , which results in the males having a smaller length to width ratio. The type locality of B. ibericus was precisely located following the indications of I��igoS��nchez , the original collector.
Figure 13. Reproduction of C. L. Koch���s 1839 B. halius figure 382 (plate CLXIII). Right pedipalp che-lae detail from three Buthus species published in the same work: A B. paris (as Androctonus clytoneus ), fig. 384 (same plate) B B. halius with an arrow pinpointing the basal lobe C B. paris , fig. 352 (pl. CLI). All images were taken as provided by the pdf copy available in the BHL, which was made available by the Ernst Mayr Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University.