- GBIF Backbone Taxonomy
- Published in
- Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J. M., Infante-Rivero, Edwin E., Barrio-Amorós, César L. (2011): A new frog of the genus Aromobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae) from Sierra de Perijá, Venezuela. Zootaxa 2919: 37-50, DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.277908
- Aromobates tokuko
Diagnosis. (1) Skin of posterior third of dorsum, flanks, prehumeral area, dorsum of thighs and shanks granular; (2) Paired dorsal digital scutes conspicuous and protuberant on all toes; (3) Distal subarticular tubercle under FIV circular and conspicuous; (4) FIV extending past distal subarticular tubercle of FIII; (5) FI shorter than FII; (6) Digital discs present; (7) Finger discs moderately expanded; (8) Lateral fringes absent on FI and FIV, preaxials on FII and FIII, present and conspicuous on all toes; (9) Metacarpal ridge absent or, if present, very weak and almost indistinct; (10) FIII of adult males not swollen; (11) Carpal pad absent; (12) Male excrescences on thumb absent; (13) Thenar tubercle small (approximately 1 / 3 of the palmar tubercle and equal in size and shape to the proximal subarticular tubercle of FII) elliptical and conspicuous; (14) Black arm gland in adult males absent; (15) Tarsal keel present, well-defined and slightly curved from proximal edge of inner metatarsal tubercle, transverse across tarsus, and reaching almost the mid-tarsus where it becomes slightly wider; (16) Toe discs slightly expanded, disc of TI barely wider than distal end of adjacent phalanx (including fringes), discs of TII – TV about 1.5 times wider than distal end of adjacent phalanx; (17) Toe webbing basal between TI – TIV; (18) Metatarsal fold flat and very weak, almost indistinct; (19) dorsum uniformly dark brown or with a pale brown background and irregularly-spaced dark brown spots; (20) Dorsolateral stripe present, pale golden to cream, from tip of snout to midbody or to upper level of the groin, eventually continual with paracloacal horizontal stripes; (21) Oblique lateral stripe present but diffuse, formed by small whitish spots coincident with small non-keratinized tubercles, extending from groin to midbody; (22) Paracloacal horizontal stripe present, diffuse to very well defined; (23) Ventrolateral stripe absent; (24) Throat grayish ivory (with profusion of evenly spaced melanophores when seen under magnification) on almost all males and some females, immaculate ivory on almost all females and some males; (25) Throat collar absent; (26) Chest and belly white to ivory, rarely with pale gray or pale brown spots on chest and anterior third of belly; (27) Ventral surface of arms, thighs, shanks and tarsi pale orange; (28) Palms and soles pale gray; (29) Axillae, groins and hidden parts of hind limbs weakly yellowish; (30) Iris golden and finely dotted with black, with a transversal wide blackish band and a bright golden pupil ring; (31) Large intestine unpigmented, creamish white; (32) Adult testis whitish; (33) Median lingual process absent; (34) Tympanum ill-defined, about 1 / 4 concealed posterodorsally; (35) Vocal sac structure not distinct; (36) Teeth present on the maxillary arch; (37) Small size, with males up to 23.2 mm of SVL and females up to 29.2 mm. Comparison with other species. Aromobates tokuko (characters in parentheses) differs by its small size from large species of the genus, such as A. alboguttatus (Boulenger, 1903), A. leopardalis (Rivero, 1978), A. meridensis (Dole & Durant, 1973), A. nocturnus (Myers, Paolillo & Daly, 1991), and A. capurinensis (Péfaur, 1993), all with maximum SVL> 31 mm (up to 29.2 mm). Aromobates alboguttatus has smooth dorsal skin (granular) and its venter is brown spotted with white (ivory white). Aromobates leopardalis has toes 1 / 3 webbed (basally webbed between TI – TIV), dorsal skin smooth with a few tubercles posteriorly (granular), a strongly spotted dorsum (without consistent pattern). Aromobates meridensis has FI slightly longer than FII (FI shorter than FII), subarticular distal tubercle of FIV indistinct (conspicuous), fringes absent on fingers (preaxial fringes on FII and FIII), tarsal keel straight and indistinct (slightly curved and well defined), dorsolateral stripes absent or, if present, very ill-defined (dorsolateral stripes always present, generally well-defined), and belly bright yellow with diffuse dark reticulation (belly immaculate ivory, occasionally with diffuse pale brown or grayish spots on anterior half, never reticulated). Aromobates nocturnus is the most peculiar and largest congener, with SVL reaching 62 mm (29.2 mm), fully webbed toes (basally webbed), belly coloration mottled with grayish white in life (immaculate ivory, occasionally with diffuse pale brown or grayish spots on anterior third), and unique nocturnal (diurnal), aquatic (riparian), and releasing a mercaptanlike odor when molested (absent). Aromobates capurinensis is a larger frog, mean SVL of females 33.4 mm (25.5 mm), with dorsal skin smooth (granular), dorsolateral stripes present but indistinct (distinct), oblique lateral stripe absent (formed by small whitish spots). The seven other species of Aromobates (A. duranti [Péfaur, 1985], A. haydeeae [Rivero, 1978], A. mayorgai [Rivero, 1980], A. molinarii [La Marca, 1985], A. orostoma [Rivero, 1978], A. saltuensis [Rivero, 1980], and A. serranus [Péfaur, 1985]), are similar in size to Aromobates tokuko. Aromobates duranti has smooth dorsal skin (granular), FI longer than FII (FI shorter than FII), finger discs not expanded (expanded), and a gray venter with white spots (unicolor ivory without spots). Aromobates haydeeae has no fringes on fingers (fringes on FII and FIII), FI longer than FII (FI shorter than FII), tarsal fold ill-defined (well defined), dorsal color reddish copper (dark to light brown), and ventral parts orange (ivory white). Aromobates mayorgai has smooth dorsal skin with a few tubercles posteriorly (granular), ventral parts yellow (ivory white), and the oblique lateral stripe absent (formed by small whitish spots). Aromobates molinarii has FI and II equal in length (FI shorter than FII), fringes absent on fingers (preaxial fringes on FII and FIII), tarsal fold slight (well defined), toes moderately webbed (basally webbed), and the oblique lateral stripe absent (formed by small whitish spots). Aromobates orostoma has no fringes on fingers (fringes on FII and FIII), dorsal skin smooth (granular), and venter yellow (ivory white). Aromobates saltuensis has FI and FII equal in length (FI shorter than FII), dorsal skin smooth with a few tubercles posteriorly (granular), supratympanic bulge absent (present), and no tympanum (present). Aromobates serranus has a distinct tympanum (ill-defined), dorsum brown with blotches or reticulum (usually uniform, but not reticulated), and ventral parts creamy white with brown reticulation (immaculate ivory).
Etymology. The specific epithet “ tokuko ” is a noun in apposition and refers to the river drainage where the species occurs.
Holotype. Adult male, MHNLS 18479, from the surroundings of Ipika, Yukpa indigenous community, Río Tokuko basin, Municipio Machiques de Perijá, Sierra de Perijá, Estado Zulia, Venezuela (09 ° 52 ’ N, 72 ° 51 ’ W; elevation 595 m), collected on 26 November 2006, by F. Rojas-Runjaic and E. Infante. FIGURE 1. Aromobates tokuko sp. nov. Dorsal (a) and ventral (b) views of the male holotype (MHNLS 18479). Dorsal © and ventral (d) views of the female paratype (MHNLS 18568). Scale bars represent 10 mm. FIGURE 2. Aromobates tokuko sp. nov. (male holotype, MHNLS 18479). Ventral (a), dorsal (b), and lateral © views of the head. Details of left hand (d), and left foot (e). Scale bars represent 2 mm. Paratypes. Twenty-one specimens: four adult females (MHNL 18471, 18474, 18478, 18480) and two adult males (MHNLS 18473, 18476) with the same collection data as the holotype; four adult females (MHNLS 18490 – 91, 18493, 18495) collected on 27 December 2006, at the holotype locality; two adult males (MHNLS 18498 – 99) from Kusare waterfall, near Ipika, Río Tukuko basin, Municipio Machiques de Perijá, Sierra de Perijá, Estado Zulia, Venezuela (09 ° 52 ’ N, 72 ° 50 ’ W; elevation 579 m), collected on 28 December 2006 by F. Rojas-Runjaic and E. Infante; three adult females (MHNLS 18521 – 23) and one adult male (MHNLS 18520) collected on 11 April 2007, with the same collection data as the holotype; one adult female (MHNLS 18568) and three adult males (MHNLS 18566 – 67, 18569), from Kiriponsa, Yukpa indigenous community, Río Tokuko basin, Municipio Machiques de Perijá, Sierra de Perijá, Estado Zulia, Venezuela (09 º 52 ’ N, 72 º 52 ’ W; elevation 1005 m), collected on 12 April 2007 by F. Rojas-Runjaic and E. Infante; one adult female (MHNLS 19748) from near Terakibu, Yukpa indigenous community, Río Tokuko, Municipio Machiques de Perijá, Sierra de Perijá, Estado Zulia, Venezuela (09 º 52 ’ N, 72 º 49 ’ W; elevation 419 m), collected on 16 September 2008 by F. Rojas-Runjaic and P. Cabello. Referred specimens. Eight specimens: four juveniles (MHNLS 18477, 18481 – 83), with the same collection data as the holotype; three juveniles (MHNLS 18492, 18494, 18496) and one premetamorph (MHNL 18497), collected on 27 December 2006, with the same collection data as the holotype.
- Aromobates tokuko