Coleoptera of Togo: data of the LEA Insect Collection of the University of Lome
CitationRadji R, Akpene K (2018). Coleoptera of Togo: data of the LEA Insect Collection of the University of Lome. Version 1.3. Université de Lomé. Occurrence dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/6nppyd accessed via GBIF.org on 2019-07-16.
DescriptionThis database aims to be a component of a larger one: A national Coleoptera diversity database in Togo. Indeed, like other African countries, various ecosystems of Togo, such as forests and wetlands, are undergoing intensive degradation due to agricultural practices and rapid population growth (UICN/PACO 2008). The loss of biodiversity associated with ecosystem degradation and habitat destruction, especially in insects is well documented (Ehrlich 1988, Lugo 1988, Samways 1994, Turner 1996, Erwin 1997, Orgeas and Ponel 2001). This is the case of the Missahoe Classified Forest (FCM) located in Kloto prefecture where the most of the Coleoptera specimens constituting this dataset were collected. Due to its immense entomological diversity, this forest has been a modelsinces the 1980’ for entomology and ethnobiology research for scholars in Togo and other researchers in West African and Northern region. For instance, Milan (2011) compiled a catalog of 269 species of Rhopalocera Lepidoptera during a mission in the FCM and the Museum of IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture) in Cotonou-Benin included specimens of insects collected in this forest (Curletti and Goergen 2011). Unfortunately, in the early 1990s, intensive hunting for purposes of national and especially international trade of Lepidoptera, Phasmoptera and Coleoptera (MERF/PNUD 2010) threatened these groups and affected a large food web (Klimaszewski 2000). Besides the effects on species populations and ecosystems, human populations in the region are affected in other ways, as insects in general occupy an important place in their health, socio-cultural, artistic and aesthetic activities (Van Huis 1996, 2003a, 2003b). Indeed, this dataset contains records of pests and species used as food by various ethnic groups in Togo. Among the stock pest, the following species can be cited: Callosobruchus maculatus F., Callosobruchus rhodesianus P. and Bruchidius atrolineatus P. of Chrysomelidae family (Giga and Smith 1987, Glitho 1990, Ketoh et al. 2000, 2002, Amevoin et al. 2006, Doumma et al. 2011) are associated with cowpea, Vigna ungucilata L. (Fabaceae). Prostephanus truncatus H. (Bostrichidae), an invasive species, constuting serious pest of stored maize and cassava that was introduced in Togo in 1980 (Hodges 1994, Mendiola-Olaya et al. 2000, Tyler and Hodges 2002, Muatinte et al. 2014); Sternochetus mangiferae F. (Curculionidae), develops mainly on mango and constitutes a species of quarantine in the countries where it is absent (Follett 2002, De Roffignac et al. 2007, Louw 2010, Muriuki 2011, OEPP/EPPO 2011, CABI 2017); and Apate monachus F. (Bostrichidae), attacks coffee tree, Coffea liberica W. Bull ex Hiern (Rubiaceae), aged 4 to 5 years and digs galleries in the lower half of the trunk (D’Aguilar et al. 1962).With regard to edible insects, species belonging to Buprestidae (Sternocera interrupta Olivier), Curculionidae (Rhynchophorus phoenicis Fabricius), Cerambycidae (Petrognatha gigas Fabricius), Dytiscidae (Cybister tripunctatus Olivier, Cybister senegalensis Aubé) and Scarabaeidae families (Oryctes monoceros Olivier, Heteroligus meles Billberg, Augosoma centaurus Fabricius, Pachnoda cordata Drury, Gnathocera trivittata Swederus) (Van Huis 2003b, Agbidye et al. 2009, Badanaro 2015, Kelemu et al. 2015, Kumar et al. 2017) can be mentioned.In addition, there is very few online data on Coleoptera in the West African region (Figure 1). Currently, the largest dataset is contributed by the « Denver Museum of Nature & Science ». However, despite its size, all its recods come from a few localities of Ivory Coast (6,174 occurrences), and more than 90% of these belongs to just four species in the Scarabaeidae family. Given this striking lack of data on Coleoptera in this area, our dataset contributes significatively to a better knowledge of these insects (Togo in Figure 1). The present dataset specifically: (1) provides label data of the Coleoptera specimens kept at the Insect Collection of LEA; (2) allows to follow up the population dynamics of these species in time and space at national level for their conservation, and (3) contributes to knowledge of their distribution according to the different agro-ecological zones in West Africa, setting a baseline for future ecological studies.
Study ExtentThe dataset described in this article consists exclusively of insect samples collected between 1990 and 2013 in various locations in the 5 ecological zones of Togo. Nearly half of this collection (47.39%) comes from the southwestern part of ecological zone IV and dates from 2005 while about 16% of the specimens were collected in 2001.
SamplingSampling of insect specimens took place as follows:1. Coleoptera specimens sampling A combination of several active and passive methods has been used to increase the chances of catching Coleoptera species. These methods are: threshing, hunting by sight, trapping, fruit incubation, rearing and collection by the strainer.1.1. Threshing, hunting and trappingThreshing, hunting and trapping (Franck 2008, Nageleisen and Bouget 2009) were used at the level of transects in the FCM and the Botanical Garden of the University of Lome, where field trips were organized. Threshing has been done in some trees. As for hunting by sight, according to Martin (1983), it makes it possible to detect trophic links between the species. This active hunting at sight with sweep nets, pliers, knives, machetes or even the hand, was made along the transects where the vegetation was studied thanks to a botanist of the Laboratory of Botany and Plant Ecology at the University of Lome. The stems and foliage of the plants were scanned and searched to detect and capture Coleoptera adults.Similarly, various active and/or passive traps were used: - aerial traps hanging on trees and baited; - fluorescent ultraviolet light traps placed above a sheet (night hunting).Specimens of insects captured by the various methods were anesthetized with ethyl acetate in jars. These will be sorted per trap type or capture method.1.2. Incubation of fruitsIncubation of various fruits made for the purpose of inventorying fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Vayssières et al. 2004, 2010a, 2010b, Gomina et al. 2012, 2014, Gomina 2015); allowed to sample some beetles. This is the example of S. mangiferae obtained from the incubation of mangoes and whose larvae develop in the nucleus of this fruit (De Roffignac et al. 2007, CABI, 2017).1.3. RearingThe specimens of bruchts were obtained by raising them on cowpea (Ketoh et al. 2000, 2002, Amevoin et al. 2006, Doumma et al. 2011).1.4. Sampling by the strainerThe use of the strainer for the sampling of beetle specimens has been done in the wetlands, in this case in the ponds and lagoon of Be of Lome.
Quality ControlThe quality of the data is taken into account by the various sampling methods (Martin 1983, Vayssières et al. 2004, Amevoin et al. 2006, Franck 2008, Nageleisen and Bouget, 2009), mounting and conservation. (Perron, 1993; Franck, 2008) of the different Coleoptera specimens constituting this dataset. Similarly, rigorous identification of samples using Lepesme (1953), Allard (1985, 1986), Delvare and Aberlenc (1989), Rigout (1989), Allard (1991, 1993), Rigout and Allard (1992), Robiche et al. (2002) and especially the expertise of specialists in the field at the IITA Museum and the “Royal Museum of Central Africa” have allowed the reliable identification of the various specimens collected.The precise coordinates of sampling sites of all the specimens (1,237 specimens or about 63.92%) from the Missahoe Classified Forest were replaced by that of the localities because these specimens are threatened through their anarchic hunting for trade (MERF/PNUD 2010). Likewise, the rest of the specimens collected by students, technicians and teachers were kept at the laboratory under the name of the sampling localities without the respectives coordinates. The coordinates of localities were obtained by using GPS “eTrex® 10, Garmin”. Then the map (Figure 2) was obtained by projecting these coordinates on a georeferenced map of the ecological zones of Togo with ArcGIS Software (ESRI 2014). When entering data into an Excel file, the names of the genera and species of the specimens and the names of the authors who identified them were verified online (http://www.google.com).
- After the capture (see detail under section “Sampling description”) of the specimens in the field, several steps were followed and allowed to obtain “Darwin Core Archive” from this dataset.1. Preparation of captured insect speciesOnly one sample at a time per station and per trap type or method of hunting was processed to avoid cross-contamination of samples and labeling problems of specimens. All individuals of different species were prepared (mounted) and keep in entomological boxes after oven drying for identification (Perron 1993, Franck 2008).2. Identification of insect speciesThe families of the various specimens were identified in the LEA using the keys of Delvare and Aberlenc (1989). The identification of samples up to the genus and species was done at the IITA Museum by comparison of the preserved specimens and in consulting Lepesme (1953), Allard (1985, 1986), Rigout (1989), Allard (1991, 1993), Rigout and Allard (1992), Robiche et al. (2002). Specimens that could not be identified at IITA were determined at the Royal Museum of Central Africa (RMCA) in Tervuren, Belgium.3. Dataset and dataset publicationThe raw data of the species identified concerning the biotope, the season and date of capture, the number of individuals caught per species and per a given capture method, the collector(s) were taken into account during setting up this dataset. After entering these data in an “Excel” file taking into account “Darwin Core Terms”, the resulting file was converted to a “Text” format file and subsequently cleaned using OpenRefine software. After cleaning the file, it was saved in “tsv” format before being imported into the IPT (Integrated Publishing Toolkit) of the GBIF-Togo Node hosted by GBIF France. Finally, after the Metadata Mapping and their publication on the IPT, the file “Darwin Core Archive” was generated.
Of the 319 Coleoptera taxa collected, 184 were identified up to the species level, and 69 to genus; thanks to specialists from IITA Museum in Cotonou-Benin and the Royal Museum of Central Africa (RMCA) in Tervuren, Belgium. According to Figure 6, the families of Scarabaeidae and Cerambycidae are the most abundant in the collection with respectively 31.35 and 21.94%. Similarly, the Scarabaeidae family is the most diverse (90 species) followed by that of Cerambycidae (55 species) (Table 1 and Annex 1).
Cicindelidae, Carabidae, Histeridae, Lycidae, Meloidae, Elateridae, Buprestidae, Erotylidae, Cleridae, Coccinellidae, Tenebrionidae, Lagriidae, Bostrichidae, Curculionidae, Passalidae, Lucanidae, Melyridae, Lampyridae, Chrysomelidae, Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae, Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae, Staphylinidaerank: family
The different specimens of Coleoptera composing this dataset were sampled in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems of the 5 ecological zones of Togo. In fact, 63.92% of the specimens representing 1,237 occurrences of the dataset come from the ecological zone IV, particularly from the FCM. Then, Lome and its peripheries (Agoe, Agbalepedo) located in ecological zone V, recorded secondly the maximum of occurrences (428 or 22.11%). Finally, in ecological zones II, III and I the maximum number of specimens was collected respectively in Kpewa, Atakpame and Sibortoti with respectively 5.37 (104 occurrences), 0.82 (16 occurrences) and 0.72% (14 occurrences) of 1,935 specimens collected.
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