Sinfonevada: Dataset of Floristic di…

Occurrence dataset published by Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory. Andalusian Environmental Cent…

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Summary

Full Title

Sinfonevada: Dataset of Floristic diversity in Sierra Nevada forest (SE Spain)

Description

The Sinfonevada database is a forest inventory that contains information on the forest ecosystem in Sierra Nevada mountains (SE Spain). The Sinfonevada dataset contains more than 7,500 occurrence records belonging to 270 taxa (15 of them are threatened) from floristic inventories of the Sinfonevada Forest inventory. Expert field workers collected the information. The whole dataset suffered a quality control executed by botanists with wide expertise in Sierra Nevada flora. This floristic inventory was created to gather information useful to properly manage Pinus plantations in Sierra Nevada. This is the only dataset that shows a comprehensive view of the forest flora in Sierra Nevada. This is the reason why it is being used to assess biodiversity in the very dense pine plantations existing in Sierra Nevada. Thanks to this dataset, managers have improved their ability to decide where execute forest treatments avoiding biodiversity loss. The dataset is integrated in the Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.

Temporal coverages

Date range: Jan 1, 2004 - Dec 1, 2005

Language of Data

 

Metadata author
Antonio Jesús Pérez Luque
Metadata Provider
Laboratorio de Ecología (iEcolab), Centro Andaluz de Medio Ambiente (CEAMA), Universidad de Granada
Avenida del Mediterráneo s/n 18006 Granada Granada Spain +34 958 249748
Originator
Antonio Jesús Pérez Luque
Tecnical Contact
Laboratorio de Ecología (iEcolab), Centro Andaluz de Medio Ambiente (CEAMA), Universidad de Granada
Avenida del Mediterráneo s/n 18006 Granada Granada Spain +34 958 249748

Taxonomic Coverage

Most of the species recorded in the inventories belong to class Magnoliopsida (6042 records; 76.28 %) and Liliopsida (1171 records; 14.78 %). Among the top ten of the orders includes Poales (1153 records; 14.56 %) for Liliopsida class, Lamiales (1062 records; 13.41 %) for Magnoliopsida and Pinales (569 records; 7.18 %). 57 families are represented in these collection with Poaceae, Fabaceae and Lamiaceae as the families with major number of records. The collection includes 270 taxa belonging to 159 genera being Pinus and Thymus the most represented in the database.

KINGDOM
Plantae
PHYLUM
Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta
CLASS
Gnetopsida, Liliopsida (Monocotyledones), Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledones), Pinopsida, Polypodiopsida
ORDER
Apiales, Asparagales, Asterales, Brassicales, Caryophyllales, Cucurbitales, Cupressales, Dipsacales, Ephedrales, Ericales, Fabales, Fagales, Gentianales, Geraniales, Lamiales, Liliales, Malpighiales, Malvales, Pinales, Poales, Polypodiales, Ranunculales, Rosales, Santalales, Sapindales, Saxifragales, Solanales, Umbellales
FAMILY
Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Araliaceae, Asparagaceae, Asteraceae, Berberidaceae, Brassicaceae, Capparaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cistaceae, Clusiaceae, Colchicaceae, Convolvulaceae, Coriariaceae, Crassulaceae, Cupressaceae, Cyperaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Dipsacaceae, Ephedraceae, Ericaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Geraniaceae, Iridaceae, Juglandaceae, Juncaceae, Lamiaceae, Leguminosae, Oleaceae, Orchidaceae, Paeoniaceae, Pinaceae, Plantaginaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Resedaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Salicaceae, Santalaceae, Sapindaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Smilacaceae, Thymelaeaceae, Ulmaceae, Umbelliferae, Urticaceae, Violaceae

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Description

Sierra Nevada (Andalusia, SE Spain), is a mountainous region with an altitudinal range between 860 m and 3482 m a.s.l. covering more than 2000 km2 . The cl… more

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Geographic Coverage

Sierra Nevada (Andalusia, SE Spain), is a mountainous region with an altitudinal range between 860 m and 3482 m a.s.l. covering more than 2000 km2 . The climate is Mediterranean, characterized by cold winters and hot summers, with pronounced summer drought (July-August). The annual average temperature decreases in altitude from 12-16ºC below 1500 m to 0ºC above 3000 m a.s.l., and the annual average precipitation is about 600 mm. Additionally, the complex orography of the mountains causes strong climatic contrasts between the sunny, dry south-facing slopes and the shaded, wetter north-facing slopes. Annual precipitation ranges from less than 250 mm in the lowest parts of the mountain range to more than 700 mm in the summit areas. Winter precipitation is mainly in the form of snow above 2000 m of altitude. The Sierra Nevada mountain range hosts a high number of endemic plant species (c. 80; Lorite et al. 2007) for a total of 2,100 species of vascular plants (25% and 20% of Spanish and European flora, respectively), being considered one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean region (Blanca et al. 1998). This mountain range has several legal protections: Biosphere Reserve MAB Committee UNESCO; Special Protection Area and Site of Community Importance (Natura 2000 network); and National Park. The area includes 61 municipalities with more than 90,000 inhabitants. The main economic activities are agriculture, tourism, cattle raising, beekeeping, mining, and skiing (Bonet el al. 2010). The SINFONEVADA forest inventory was conducted in the main forests of Sierra Nevada mountainous region (Figure 1) (for a description of Sierra Nevada see study area of the Project section). The main forest units of Sierra Nevada (Figure 5) are pine plantations (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinaster Ait., Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. salzmannii (Dunal) Franco, and Pinus sylvestris L.), evergreen holm oak Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp forests, deciduous broadleaf forests (Quercus pyrenaica Willd, Acer opalus subsp. granatense (Boiss.) Font Quer & Rothm., Sorbus aria (L.) Crantz), and autochthonous pine Pinus sylvestris L. var. nevadensis Christ forests.

Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory

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Study area description

Sierra Nevada (Andalusia, southeast Spain), is a mountainous region with an altitudinal range between 860 m and 3482 m a.s.l. covering more than 2000 km2. The climate is Mediterranean, characterized by cold winters and hot summers, with pronounced summer drought (July-August). The annual average temperature decreases in altitude from 12-16ºC below 1500 m to 0ºC above 3000 m a.s.l., and the annual average precipitation is about 600 mm. Additionally, the complex orography of the mountains causes strong climatic contrasts between the sunny and dry south-facing slopes and the shaded and wetter north-facing slopes. Annual precipitation ranges from less than 250 mm in the lowest parts of the mountain range to more than 700 mm in the summit areas. Winter precipitation is mainly in the form of snow above 2000 m of altitude. Sierra Nevada mountain range hosts a high number of endemic plant species (c. 80) (Lorite et al. 2007) in a total of 2.100 species of vascular plants (25 % and 20 % of Spain and Europe flora respectively), being considered one of the most important biodiversity hotspot in the Mediterranean region (Blanca et al. 1998). It has several legal protections: Biosphere Reserve MAB Committee UNESCO; Special Protection Area and Site of Community Importance (Natura 2000 network); and National Park. There are 61 municipalities with more than 90.000 inhabitants. The main economic activities are agriculture, tourism, cattle raising, beekeeping, mining and skiing (Bonet el al. 2010).

Design description

Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory (OBSNEV) (Bonet et al. 2011) is a long-term research project which is being undertaken at Sierra Nevada Biosphere Reserve (SE Spain). It is intended to compile the information necessary for identifying as early as possible the impacts of global change, in order to design management mechanisms to minimize these impacts and adapt the system to new scenarios (Aspizua et al. 2010, Bonet el al. 2010). The general objectives are to: • Evaluate the functioning of ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada Nature Reserve, their natural processes and dynamics over a medium-term timescale. • Identify population dynamics, phenological changes, and conservation issues regarding key species that could be considered indicators of ecological processes. • Identify the impact of global change on monitored species, ecosystems, and natural resources, providing an overview of trends of change that could help foster ecosystem resilience. • Design mechanisms to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of management activities performed in the Sierra Nevada in order to implement an adaptive management framework. • Help to disseminate information of general interest concerning the values and importance of Sierra Nevada. The Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory has four cornerstones (Figure 2): 1) a monitoring program with 40 methodologies that collect information on ecosystem functioning; 2) an information system to store and manage all the information gathered; 3) a plan to promote adaptive management of natural resources using the knowledge amassed through the monitoring programme; and 4) an outreach program to disseminate all the available information to potential users. The Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory is linked to other national (Zamora and Bonet 2011) and international monitoring networks: GLOCHAMORE (Global Change in Mountain Regions) (Björnsen 2005), GLOCHAMOST (Global Change in Mountain Sites) (Schaaf 2009), LTER-Spain (Long-Term Ecological Research). Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory is collecting socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types found in Sierra Nevada. This information is being integrated in an Information System (http://obsnev.es/linaria.html - Pérez-Pérez et al. 2012. (Free access upon registration). The dataset described here is a good example of this idea. We have created a relational database to store the floristic inventories prepared in 2004-2005. Thanks to this work, all this valuable and unique information will be available to scientists and environmental managers worldwide.

Funding

All the information contained in Sinfonevada was gathered by TRAGSA (Transformación Agraria S.A.), a public company funded by the Spanish Ministry of Environment. The Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory is funded by the Andalusian Regional Government (via Environmental Protection Agency) and by the Spanish Government (via ‘Fundación Biodiversidad’, what is a Public Foundation).

Project Personnel

Principal investigator
Regino Jesús Zamora Rodríguez

Associated parties

Author
Ramón Pérez Pérez
Researcher
Laboratorio de Ecología (iEcolab), Centro Andaluz de Medio Ambiente (CEAMA), Universidad de Granada
Avenida del Mediterráneo s/n 18006 Granada Granada Spain +34 958 249748
Author
Antonio Jesús Pérez Luque
Researcher
Laboratorio de Ecología (iEcolab), Centro Andaluz de Medio Ambiente (CEAMA), Universidad de Granada
Avenida del Mediterráneo s/n 18006 Granada Granada Spain +34 958 249748
Author
Francisco Javier Bonet García
Researcher
Laboratorio de Ecología (iEcolab), Centro Andaluz de Medio Ambiente (CEAMA), Universidad de Granada
Avenida del Mediterráneo s/n 18006 Granada Granada Spain +34 958 249748

Methodology

Study extent

The floristic inventories was conducted at the Sierra Nevada (Andalusia, southeast Spain). Forest cover in Sierra Nevada is dominated by pine plantations (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinaster Ait., Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. salzmannii (Dunal) Franco, and Pinus sylvestris L.) that covering approximately 40,000 ha. Most of them are plantations from the period 1960–1980. The main native forests of Sierra Nevada are dominated by the evergreen holm oak Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf,) Samp. occuping low and medium mountain areas (8,800 ha.) and Pyrenean oak Quercus pyeranaica Willd ranging between 1,100–2,000 m a.s.l. with an occupation area of about 2,000 ha.

Sampling description

SINFONEVADA Forest Inventory was done over an extensive network of 600 long-term permanent plots distributed within the main forest units of the Sierra Nevada: pine plantations, evergreen Q. ilex forests, and deciduous broadleaf forests. The network of plots is a random sample stratified by land cover and altitude, covering a gradient of 974–2439 m a.s.l. Each inventory plot has three sample units i) a forest inventory plot (20 x 20 m); ii) a 5-m radius subplot for the estimation of the regeneration; iii) and a 10-m radius subplot for species composition and abundance. Each live tree with a diameter at breast height (dbh) > 7.5 cm was tallied by species and dbh in the forest inventory plot. This information was used to calculate forest attributes (tree basal area, tree volume, canopy cover). The regeneration was measured in the 5-m radius subplot (78.5 m2 in area) as seedling abundance of the main tree species. The species composition and diversity was recorder within 10-m radius subplot (314 m2 in area) using the Braun-Blanquet cover-abundance scale (Braun-Blanquet, 1964).

Quality control

Prior to the store this information in the database, all the data were assessed by a quality control process. Each sampling plot was checked to ensure whether the geographical coordinates were correct. We used the databases of International Plant Names Index (IPNI, 2013) and Catalogue of Life/Species 2000 (Roskov et al 2013) to verify the taxonomical classification. The taxonomic identification of the specimens was done using Flora Iberica (Castroviejo et al. 1986-2005) for the published families and, for the rest of taxa, we used Valdés et al. (1987) and Tutin et al. (1964-1980).

Method Steps

  1. The SINFONEVADA Darwin Core Archive is a custom made SQL view of the original SINFONEVADA database obtained from a Forest Inventory. This information is stored within Information System of Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory. The view shows occurrence data collected in the floristic inventories associate with the forest inventory. We only included records that are accepted for publication.

Collection name

Sinfonevada: Dataset of floristic diversity in Sierra Nevada forest (SE Spain)

Collection Identifier

db6cd9d7-7be5-4cd0-8b3c-fb6dd7446472

Parent Collection Identifier

NA

References

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Gómez-Aparicio L, Zavala MA, Bonet-García FJ, Zamora R (2009) Are pine plantations valid tools for restoring Mediterranean forests? An assessment along abiotic and biotic gradients. Ecological Applications 19 (8): 2124–2141. , http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/08-1656.1

González-Moreno P (2009) Natural regeneration and biodiversity in pine plantations of Southern Spain: a landscape approach, Master's Thesis, Wageningen University, Netherlands

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