Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold te…

Occurrence dataset published by Antarctic Biodiversity Information Facility (ANTABIF)

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Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid database


This database includes spatial data of Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid distribution (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) collected during many oceanographic campaigns led in the Southern Hemisphere from 1872 to 2010. The dataset lists occurrence data of echinoid distribution south of 35°S latitude, together with information on taxonomy (from species to genus level), sampling sources (cruise ID, sampling dates, ship names) and sampling sites (geographic coordinates and depth). Echinoid occurrence data were compiled from the Antarctic Echinoid Database (David et al., 2005a), which integrates records from oceanographic cruises led in the Southern Ocean until 2003. This database has been upgraded to take into account data from oceanographic cruises led after 2003. The dataset now reaches a total of 6160 occurrence data that have been checked for systematics reliability and consistency. It constitutes today the most complete database on Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic echinoids.

Temporal coverages

Date range: Jan 1, 1872 - Jan 1, 2010

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Language of Data


Benjamin Pierrat
PhD student
UMR CNRS 6282 Laboratoire Biogéosciences Université de Bourgogne, 6 boulevard Gabriel 21000 Dijon France 0380396364
Metadata author
Benjamin Pierrat
PhD student
UMR CNRS 6282 Laboratoire Biogéosciences Université de Bourgogne, 6 boulevard Gabriel 21000 Dijon France 0380396364
Administrative contact
Benjamin Pierrat
PhD student
UMR CNRS 6282 Laboratoire Biogéosciences Université de Bourgogne, 6 boulevard Gabriel 21000 Dijon France 0380396364


Published by

Antarctic Biodiversity Information Facility (ANTABIF)

Publication Date

Mar 26, 2012

Registration Date

Mar 26, 2012

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The sampling area ranges from 35°S to 71°S latitude and from 180° W to 180°E longitude. The 35°S limit is coincident with the position of the Subtropical Convergence (Tchernia, 1980; Knox, 1983), whic… more


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Other Contacts

Benjamin Pierrat
PhD student
UMR CNRS 6282 Laboratoire Biogéosciences Université de Bourgogne, 6 boulevard Gabriel 21000 Dijon France 0380396364
Principal investigator
Bruno David
UMR CNRS 6282 Laboratoire Biogéosciences Université de Bourgogne, 6 boulevard Gabriel 21000 Dijon France 0380396371
Principal investigator
Thomas Saucède
UMR CNRS 6282 Laboratoire Biogéosciences Université de Bourgogne, 6 boulevard Gabriel 21000 Dijon France 0380396307
Alain Festeau
Techn. uB
UMR CNRS 6282 Laboratoire Biogéosciences Université de Bourgogne, 6 boulevard Gabriel 21000 Dijon France 0380396353
Pierrat Benjamin

Taxonomic Coverage

This database is devoted to all echinoid species inhabiting ocean areas south of 35S latitude (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Echinoids are well represented in the Antarctic benthic communities in terms of frequency, abundance and species richness. They are frequently collected both at shallow depths over the continental shelf and in deeper waters of the continental slope and ocean basins. With 82 species ever described that represent about 10% of echinoid species worldwide, the Southern Ocean is particularly rich in echinoid species. The Antarctic echinoid fauna is characterised by a relative high morphological diversity and high rate of endemism (66% of species - David et al. 2005b). It should be noticed that Antarctic echinoid diversity is represented by a few orders (7) among which the two orders Spatangoida and Cidaroida include 64.6% of Antarctic species. As a comparison, South Australian and New Zealand areas comprise 113 echinoid species, 62 genera and 12 orders, while southern South America only 36 species, 23 genera and 8 orders, and the Southern Ocean 82 species, 30 genera and 7 orders. Identifications and taxonomic accuracies were based on Mortensen, T. (1928, 1935, 1943, 1950, 1951) and David et al. (2005b).

Echinoidea (Sea urchins)
Arbacioida, Cassiduloida, Cidaroida, Clypeasteroida, Echinoida, Echinothurioida, Holasteroida, Pedinoida, Salenoida, Spatangoida, Temnopleuroida
Apatopygidae, Arachnoididae, Arbaciidae, Aspidodiadematidae, Asterostomatidae, Brissidae, Cidaridae, Clypeasteridae, Diadematidae, Echinidae, Echinolampadidae, Echinometridae, Echinothuriidae, Fibulariidae, Hemiasteridae, Laganidae, Loveniidae, Mellitidae, Palaeotropidae, Pedinidae, Phormosomatidae, Plexechinidae, Pourtalesiidae, Saleniidae, Schizasteridae, Spatangidae, Temnopleuridae, Toxopneustidae, Urechinidae
Abatus, Aceste, Amblypneustes, Ammotrophus, Amphipneustes, Anametalia, Antrechinus, Apatopygus, Aporocidaris, Araeosoma, Arbacia, Aspidodiadema, Austrocidaris, Brachysternaster, Brisaster, Brissopsis, Brissus, Caenopedina, Calveriosoma, Centrostephanus, Ceratophysa, Clypeaster, Coelopleurus, Ctenocidaris, Cyclaster, Cystechinus, Cystocrepis, Delopatagus, Dermechinus, Diadema, Echinocardium, Echinocrepis, Echinocyamus, Echinolampas, Echinosigra, Echinus, Encope, Eupatagus, Evechinus, Fellaster, Fibularia, Genicopatagus, Goniocidaris, Gracilechinus, Gymnopatagus, Helgocystis, Heliocidaris, Hemiaster, Heterobrissus, Histocidaris, Holopneustes, Hygrosoma, Kamptosoma, Linopneustes, Loxechinus, Mellita, Microcyphus, Moira, Notocidaris, Ogmocidaris, Orechinus, Pachycentrotus, Paleotrema, Paramaretia, Peronella, Phormosoma, Phyllacanthus, Pilematechinus, Plexechinus, Polyechinus, Poriocidaris, Pourtalesia, Prionocidaris, Protenaster, Pseudechinus, Pseudoboletia, Rhopalocidaris, Rhynchocidaris, Salenia, Salenocidaris, Salmaciella, Solenocystis, Spatagocystis, Spatangus, Sperosoma, Sterechinus, Stereocidaris, Stylocidaris, Temnopleurus, Tetrapygus, Toxopneustes, Tripneustes, Tripylaster, Tripylus, Tromikosoma, Urechinus
Abatus agassizii ,Abatus beatriceae ,Abatus bidens ,Abatus cavernosus, Abatus cf.curvidens ,Abatus cordatus ,Abatus curvidens ,Abatus elongatus ,Abatus ingens ,Abatus nimrodi ,Abatus philippii ,Abatus shackletoni ,Abatus sp. ,Aceste bellidifera ,Aceste ovata ,Amblypneustes formosus ,Amblypneustes grandis ,Amblypneustes ovum ,Amblypneustes pachistus ,Amblypneustes pallidus ,Amblypneustes pulchellus ,Ammotrophus cyclius ,Amphipneustes aff similis ,Amphipneustes bifidus ,Amphipneustes brevisternalis ,Amphipneustes davidi ,Amphipneustes koehleri ,Amphipneustes lorioli ,Amphipneustes marsupialis ,Amphipneustes mironovi ,Amphipneustes rostratus ,Amphipneustes similis ,Amphipneustes sp. ,Anametalia regularis ,Antrechinus drygalskii ,Antrechinus mortenseni ,Antrechinus nordenskjoldi ,Apatopygus recens ,Aporocidaris eltaniana ,Aporocidaris incerta ,Aporocidaris milleri ,Aporocidaris usarpi ,Araeosoma coriaceum ,Araeosoma owstoni ,Araeosoma sp. ,Araeosoma thetidis ,Arbacia dufresnii ,Arbacia spatuligera ,Aspidodiadema tonsum ,Austrocidaris canaliculata ,Austrocidaris lorioli ,Austrocidaris pawsoni ,Austrocidaris spinulosa ,Brachysternaster chesheri ,Brisaster antarcticus ,Brisaster edentatus ,Brisaster moseleyi ,Brisaster tasmanicus ,Brissopsis lyrifera ,Brissopsis nsp. ,Brissopsis oldhami ,Brissus agassizii ,Caenopedina alanbakeri ,Caenopedina mirabilis ,Caenopedina novaezealandiae ,Caenopedina otagoensis ,Caenopedina porphyrogigas ,Caenopedina pulchella ,Caenopedina sp. ,Calveriosoma gracile ,Centrostephanus rodgersii ,Ceratophysa ceratopyga ,Clypeaster australasiae ,Clypeaster virescens ,Coelopleurus australis ,Coelopleurus floridanus ,Ctenocidaris aff nutrix ,Ctenocidaris aff. speciosa ,Ctenocidaris aotearoa ,Ctenocidaris geliberti ,Ctenocidaris gigantea ,Ctenocidaris nutrix ,Ctenocidaris pacifica ,Ctenocidaris perrieri ,Ctenocidaris polyplax ,Ctenocidaris rugosa ,Ctenocidaris sp. ,Ctenocidaris speciosa ,Ctenocidaris spinosa ,Cyclaster regalis ,Cystechinus wyvillii ,Cystocrepis cf. setigera ,Cystocrepis new genus ,Delopatagus brucei ,Dermechinus horridus ,Diadema palmeri ,Diadema setosum ,Echinocardium cordatum ,Echinocrepis cuneata ,Echinocyamus platytatus ,Echinolampas crassa ,Echinosigra amphora ,Echinus gilchristi ,Echinus sp. ,Encope emarginata ,Eupatagus valenciennesii ,Evechinus chloroticus ,Fellaster zealandiae ,Fibularia nutriens ,Fibularia plateia ,Genicopatagus affinis ,Goniocidaris clypeata ,Goniocidaris corona ,Goniocidaris florigera ,Goniocidaris impressa ,Goniocidaris parasol ,Goniocidaris sibogae ,Goniocidaris tubaria ,Goniocidaris umbraculum ,Gracilechinus multidentatus ,Gymnopatagus magnus ,Helgocystis carinata ,Heliocidaris erythrogramma ,Heliocidaris tuberculata ,Hemiaster expergitus ,Heterobrissus erinaceus ,Heterobrissus gigas ,Histocidaris australiae ,Histocidaris elegans ,Histocidaris sp. ,Holopneustes inflatus ,Holopneustes porosissimus ,Holopneustes purpurascens ,Hygrosoma luculentum ,Hygrosoma sp. ,Kamptosoma asterias ,Kamptosoma sp. ,Linopneustes brachypetalus ,Loxechinus albus ,Mellita platensis ,Microcyphus annulatus ,Microcyphus compsus ,Microcyphus zigzag ,Moira lethe ,Notocidaris cf lanceolata ,Notocidaris cf. mortenseni ,Notocidaris gaussensis ,Notocidaris hastata ,Notocidaris lanceolata ,Notocidaris mortenseni ,Notocidaris platyacantha ,Notocidaris remigera ,Notocidaris sp. ,Ogmocidaris benhami ,Orechinus monolini ,Pachycentrotus australiae ,Pachycentrotus bajulus ,Paleotrema nsp. ,Paleotrema sp. ,Paramaretia multituberculata ,Paramaretia peloria ,Paramaretia tuberculata ,Peronella hinemoae ,Peronella peronii ,Phormosoma bursarium ,Phormosoma rigidum ,Phormosoma sp. ,Phyllacanthus irregularis ,Phyllacanthus parvispinus ,Pilematechinus vesica ,Plexechinus planus ,Plexechinus sp. ,Plexechinus sulcatus ,Polyechinus agulhensis ,Poriocidaris sp. ,Pourtalesia aurorae ,Pourtalesia debilis ,Pourtalesia hispida ,Pourtalesia laguncula ,Pourtalesia tanneri ,Prionocidaris callista ,Prionocidaris sp. ,Protenaster australis ,Pseudechinus albocinctus ,Pseudechinus flemingi ,Pseudechinus huttoni ,Pseudechinus magellanicus ,Pseudechinus marionis ,Pseudechinus notius ,Pseudechinus novaeamsterdamiae ,Pseudechinus novaezealandiae ,Pseudechinus sancti-pauli ,Pseudoboletia indiana ,Rhopalocidaris gracilis ,Rhopalocidaris sp. ,Rhynchocidaris triplopora ,Salenia pattersoni ,Salenocidaris hastigera ,Salmaciella oligopora ,Solenocystis imitans ,Spatagocystis challengeri ,Spatangus capensis ,Spatangus lutkeni ,Spatangus mathesoni ,Spatangus multispinus ,Spatangus recens ,Spatangus thor ,Sperosoma sp. ,Sterechinus agassizi ,Sterechinus antarcticus ,Sterechinus bernasconiae ,Sterechinus dentifer ,Sterechinus diadema ,Sterechinus neumayeri ,Sterechinus sp ,Sterechinus sp. ,Stereocidaris microtuberculata ,Stereocidaris nsp. ,Stereocidaris sceptriferoides ,Stereocidaris sp. ,Stylocidaris brevicollis ,Stylocidaris conferta ,Stylocidaris reini ,Temnopleurus alexandri ,Temnopleurus michaelseni ,Temnopleurus reevesi ,Tetrapygus niger ,Toxopneustes pileolus ,Tripneustes angulosus ,Tripneustes gratilla ,Tripylaster philippii ,Tripylus abatoides ,Tripylus cordatus ,Tripylus excavatus ,Tripylus reductus ,Tromikosoma sp. ,Urechinus antipodeanus ,Urechinus naresianus

Macroecology of Southern Ocean echinoids: Distribution, Biogeography and Ecological Niche Modelling

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Study area description

The study area covers the Southern Ocean, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate areas, from the Antarctic continent to 35°S latitude. The aim of the project was to constitute the most complete and consistent echinoid dataset for the Southern Ocean, a vast ocean area that is known for suffering from under-sampling (Griffiths 2010), especially in sectors of East Antarctica, Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas. The dataset latitudinal range (< 35°S) allows determining possible faunal connections between Antarctic seas and adjacent areas of South America, New Zealand and South Australia.

Design description

This dataset was developed to determine the current distribution patterns of Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic echinoid species at the scale of the whole Southern Ocean and to highlight the forcing factors that may control them. The ecological niche modelling (ENM) of 19 echinoid species showed that distribution is mainly structured according to two patterns: (1) a first one represented by species that are not limited to the south of the Polar Front and distributed from the Antarctic coasts to the Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate areas, and (2) a second one with species restricted to the Antarctic area. In addition, a similarity analysis of echinoid fauna between bioregions of the Southern Ocean was performed at species and genus levels. The analysis reveals faunal connections between southern South America and Sub-Antarctic areas, interpreted as a result of echinoid paleobiogeographic and evolutionary history. Trans-Antarctic faunal connections were also demonstrated and interpreted as a result of West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapses and setting up of trans-Antarctic seaways during the Pleistocene. Among the environmental parameters that may control echinoid distribution, three parameters seem to be the main forcing factors of echinoid distribution: depth, sea-ice cover and sea surface temperature. However, the respective contributions of these parameters vary among species. Differences are particularly emphasized in the case study of the genus Sterechinus, S. neumayeri being the species the most dependent on environmental conditions that prevail along the Antarctic coasts (sea surface temperature and sea-ice cover), while S. antarcticus does not seem to be so much under the control of these parameters. However, S. antarcticus is not present over the whole area of its potential distribution, what can be explained as the result of either (1) oceanographic factors (role of the Polar Front as a biogeographic barrier), (2) biotic interactions (inter-specific competition) or (3) temporal contingencies (ongoing range expansion).


Phd school E2S Dijon research allowance, CAML/TOTAL, ANR ANTFLOCKS (n°07-BLAN-0213-01), ECOS project (n°C06B02) and BIANZO I and II projects

Project Personnel

Pierrat Benjamin



Study extent

The study area includes the Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate regions. Five regions are particularly focussed on: (1) the Southern Ocean with the Antarctic Peninsula, the South Orkney Island, the Weddell Sea, Dronning Maud Land, Enderby Land, the Mawson Sea, Adelie Land, the Ross Sea, the Amundsen Sea and the Bellingshausen Sea, (2) the Sub-Antarctic Islands composed of Prince Edward, Crozet, Bouvet, Kerguelen and Heard Islands, (3) the South American coast, with the Argentinean coast, the Clilean coast and the Falkand Island, (4) the New Zealand coast and (5) the South Australian coast inclusive of Tasman coast.

Sampling description

Echinoids were collected during oceanographic cruises led in the Southern Ocean from 1872 to 2003. The database has been upgraded with data collected from 2003 to 2010. Sample depth ranges go from the shoreline to the deep sea. Sampling was performed with different protocols and different gears, specific to each cruise (Agassiz Trawl, Box Core, Beam Trawl, Epibenthic Sledge…). Each echinoid sample was separated at sea from other specimens of the macrofauna, then identified and fixed in formaldehyde for old samples, in 100% ethanol for recent ones.

Quality control

Systematics reliability and consistency have been checked for by Bruno David, Thomas Saucède and Benjamin Pierrat, identification being based on species descriptions produced by Mortensen (1928, 1935, 1943, 1950, 1951) for Australian, New Zealand and South American species, on Synopses of the Antarctic benthos by David et al. (2005a) for Antarctic species.

Method Steps

  1. see sampling description above

Collection name

Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid database

Collection Identifier

Pierrat Benjamin, David Bruno, Saucede Thomas

Parent Collection Identifier

Pierrat Benjamin, David Bruno, Saucede Thomas

Specimen Preservation method



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Blount C, Worthington D (2002). Identifying individuals of the sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii with high-quality roe in New South Wales, Australia. Fisheries Research 58: 341-348.

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Dartnell AJ (1972). A brooding echinoid from Tasmania. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 97: 30-34.

Deheyn DD, Gendreau P, Baldwin RJ, Latz MI (2005). Evidence for enhanced bioavailability of trace elements in the marine ecosystem of Deception Island, a volcano in Antarctica. Marine Environmental Research 60: 1-33.

Gutt J, Koubbi P, Eléaume M (2007). Mega-epibenthic diversity of Terre Adélie (Antarctica) in relation to disturbance. Polar Biology 30: 1323-1329.

Ling SD (2008). Range expansion of a habitat-modifying species leads to loss of taxonomic diversity: a new and inpoverished reef state. Oecologia 156.

McKnight DG (1968). Additions to the echinoid fauna of New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 2: 90-110.

McKnight DG (1969). An Outline Distribution of the New Zealand Shelf Fauna. Bulletin of New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 195 pp. 91.

Mutschke E, Rios C (2006). Distribucion espacial y abundancia relativa de equinodermos en el estrecho de magallanes, Chile. Revista Cienca y Tecnologia del Mar 29: 91-102.

Oyarzún ST, Marín SL, Valladares C, Iriarte, JL (1999). Reproductive cycle of Loxechinus albus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in two areas of the Magellan Region (53ºS, 70-72ºW), Chile. Scientia Marina 63 (1): 439-449.

Pawson DL (1968). Echinoderms. Australian Natural History, 16(4): 129-133.

Rios C, Mutschke E (1999). Community structure of intertidal boulder-cobble fields in the Straits of Magellan, Chile. Scienta Marina 63: 193-201.

Rios C, Mutschke E, Montiel A, Gerdes D, Arntz WE (2005). Soft-bottom macrobenthic faunal associations in the southern Chilean glacial fjord complex. Scienta Marina 69: 225-236.

Griffiths HJ (2010). Antarctic Marine Biodiversity - What Do We Know About the Distribution of Life in the Southern Ocean? PLoS ONE 5: 1-11.

Knox GA (1983). The living resources of the Southern Ocean: a scientific overview. Antarctic Resources Policy: Scientific, Legal and Political Issues (ed. by Vicuna FO), pp 21-60. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Mortensen T (1928). A monograph of the Echinoidea. Cidaroidea., edn. Reitzel, C.A., Copenhagen.

Mortensen T (1935). A monograph of the Echinoidea. Bothriocidaroidea, Melonechinoidea, Lepidocentrida, Stirodonta, edn. Reitzel C.A., Copenhagen.

Mortensen T (1943). A monograph of the Echinoidea. Camarodonta II, edn. Reitzel, C.A., Copenhagen.

Mortensen T (1950). A monograph of the Echinoidea. Spatangoida I, edn. Reitzel C.A., Copenhagen.

Mortensen T (1951). A monograph of the Echinoidea. Spatangoida II, edn. Reitzel, C.A., Copenhagen.

Tchernia P (1980). Descriptive Physical Oceanography, edn. Pergamon Press, Oxford.