The University of Kansas invertebrate paleontology collection is ranked among the top 10 largest fossil invertebrate collections in the country and has over 850,000 fossil invertebrate and microfossil specimens from all over the world, including more than 8,200 type or figured specimens. These specimens have been used for research by paleontologists for over 120 years. The collection has taxonomic strengths in Cambrian trilobites from Antarctica
and the Great Basin, United States
; Upper Paleozoic invertebrates of the mid-continent; Cambrian soft-bodied faunas from Utah; Mesozoic cephalopods from the mid-continent. Research access to the collections is arranged on a case-by-case basis.