Database of Vascular Plants of Canad…

Checklist dataset published by Université de Montréal Biodiversity Centre

  • 5,972

    Species
  • 28,068

    Taxa
View species

Summary

Full Title

Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (VASCAN)

Description

The Database of Vascular Plants of Canada or VASCAN (http://data.canadensys.net/vascan) is a comprehensive and curated checklist of all vascular plants reported in Canada, Greenland (Denmark), and Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France). VASCAN was developed at the Université de Montréal Biodiversity Centre and is maintained by a group of editors and contributors. For every core taxon in the checklist (species, subspecies, or variety), VASCAN provides the accepted scientific name, the accepted French and English vernacular names, and their synonyms/alternatives in Canada, as well as the distribution status (native, introduced, ephemeral, excluded, extirpated, doubtful or absent) of the plant for each province or territory, and the habit (tree, shrub, herb and/or vine) of the plant in Canada. For reported hybrids (nothotaxa or hybrid formulas) VASCAN also provides the hybrid parents, except if the parents of the hybrid do not occur in Canada. All taxa are linked to a classification. VASCAN refers to a source for all name, classification and distribution information. All data have been released to the public domain under a CC0 waiver and are available through Canadensys and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). VASCAN is a service to the scientific community and the general public, including administrations, companies, and non-governmental organizations.

Additional Information

The data paper for this dataset is also available on GitHub at https://github.com/peterdesmet/vascan-data-paper.

Temporal coverages

Living time period: 17th to 21st century

Language of Data

 

Administrative contact
Luc Brouillet Brouillet
Professor
Université de Montréal Biodiversity Centre 4101 rue Sherbrooke est, Montreal, Quebec CA, H1X2B2 H1X2B2 Montreal Quebec Canada
Metadata author
Peter Desmet
Biodiversity Informatics Manager
Université de Montréal Biodiversity Centre 4101 rue Sherbrooke est H1X2B2 Montreal Quebec Canada
Originator
Luc Brouillet
Professor
Université de Montréal Biodiversity Centre 4101 rue Sherbrooke est H1X2B2 Montreal Quebec Canada

Published by

Université de Montréal Biodiversity Centre

Publication Date

Sep 17, 2013

Registration Date

May 10, 2011

Served by

Canadensys repository

Networks

Links

Alternative Identifiers

External Data

Metadata Documents

Taxonomic Coverage

This checklist covers all vascular plants (Equisetopsida, Tracheophyta) reported in the area described in the section 'Geographic Coverage'. The core taxa considered are species, subspecies or varieties, and their hybrids. For these taxa, we provide synonyms, the accepted and alternative French and English vernacular names, and the habit (tree, shrub, herb and/or vine) of the plant in Canada. For reported hybrids (nothotaxa or hybrid formulas) we also indicate the hybrid parents, except if the parents of the hybrid do not occur in Canada. This core information is not provided for higher taxa, although the calculated distribution based on lower taxa can be consulted and downloaded from the VASCAN website (http://data.canadensys.net/vascan). All taxa are linked to a classification: Chase & Reveal (2009) for the higher classification, Christenhusz et al. (2011a) for lycophytes, Smith et al. (2006) for monilophytes (modified in Rothfells et al. 2012), Christenhusz et al. (2011b) for the gymnosperms, and the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009) for flowering plants. At the generic level and below, the Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1993+) is the main source of classification, unless taxonomic literature more recent than the volume published for a given taxon provides a taxonomy more reflective of current data. The source used is indicated for each taxon in the dataset. The classification includes 16 ranks. They are, in hierarchical order: class, subclass, superorder, order, family, subfamily, tribe, subtribe, genus, subgenus, section, subsection, series, species, subspecies and variety. Varieties within subspecies are accepted, so quadrinomial names are present, but forms are not included.

KINGDOM
Plantae (plants)
CLASS
Equisetopsida (vascular plants)
FAMILY
Acanthaceae, Acoraceae, Adoxaceae, Alismataceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Asparagaceae, Aspleniaceae, Asteraceae, Athyriaceae, Balsaminaceae, Berberidaceae, Betulaceae, Bignoniaceae, Blechnaceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Butomaceae, Buxaceae, Cabombaceae, Cactaceae, Campanulaceae, Cannabaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Celastraceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Cistaceae, Cleomaceae, Clethraceae, Colchicaceae, Commelinaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cornaceae, Crassulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Cupressaceae, Cyperaceae, Cystopteridaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Diapensiaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Droseraceae, Dryopteridaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Elatinaceae, Equisetaceae, Ericaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Frankeniaceae, Gentianaceae, Geraniaceae, Grossulariaceae, Haemodoraceae, Haloragaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Hydrangeaceae, Hydrocharitaceae, Hymenophyllaceae, Hypericaceae, Hypoxidaceae, Iridaceae, Isoëtaceae, Juglandaceae, Juncaceae, Juncaginaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Lentibulariaceae, Liliaceae, Limnanthaceae, Linaceae, Linderniaceae, Loasaceae, Loranthaceae, Lycopodiaceae, Lythraceae, Magnoliaceae, Malvaceae, Marsileaceae, Martyniaceae, Melanthiaceae, Melastomataceae, Menispermaceae, Menyanthaceae, Molluginaceae, Montiaceae, Moraceae, Myricaceae, Nartheciaceae, Nelumbonaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Oleaceae, Onagraceae, Onocleaceae, Ophioglossaceae, Orchidaceae, Orobanchaceae, Osmundaceae, Oxalidaceae, Paeoniaceae, Papaveraceae, Penthoraceae, Phrymaceae, Phytolaccaceae, Pinaceae, Plantaginaceae, Platanaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Podostemaceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygalaceae, Polygonaceae, Polypodiaceae, Pontederiaceae, Portulacaceae, Potamogetonaceae, Primulaceae, Pteridaceae, Ranunculaceae, Resedaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Ruppiaceae, Rutaceae, Salicaceae, Salviniaceae, Santalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sarraceniaceae, Saururaceae, Saxifragaceae, Scheuchzeriaceae, Schizaeaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Selaginellaceae, Simaroubaceae, Smilacaceae, Solanaceae, Staphyleaceae, Tamaricaceae, Taxaceae, Thelypteridaceae, Thymelaeaceae, Tofieldiaceae, Typhaceae, Ulmaceae, Urticaceae, Verbenaceae, Violaceae, Vitaceae, Woodsiaceae, Xanthorrhoeaceae, Xyridaceae, Zosteraceae, Zygophyllaceae

Browse Classification

0 Georeferenced data

View records

All records | In viewable area

Description

The checklist covers all vascular plants reported in Canada, Greenland (more

About

What does this map show?

Geographic Coverage

The checklist covers all vascular plants reported in Canada, Greenland (Denmark), and Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France). The latter two regions are added because their floras are intimately related to that of Canada and it is useful for Canadians and others to know about them. Provincial distributions are provided to help Canadians visualize the relationship among the floras of their provinces and territories. VASCAN does not intend to replace regional or provincial lists but to act as a complement to them. The covered regions are, in alphabetical order: Alberta, British Columbia, Greenland, Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saskatchewan, and Yukon. The distribution status of the plant is indicated per region. These can be grouped as present (native, introduced or ephemeral), previously reported but currently considered absent (excluded, extirpated), doubtful or not reported (absent). The latter status is not recorded in the database (null value). Excluded taxa are those considered not currently occurring in a region, due either to non-recurring ephemeralness, misidentification, lack of supporting documentation, or when specimens are old and the taxon has not been observed again in more than 50 years. All distribution statuses are defined at http://data.canadensys.net/vascan/about/#distribution. The VASCAN website (http://data.canadensys.net/vascan) provides a distribution map for each taxon. For higher taxa, these are calculated based on lower taxa, with the distribution statuses ordered as such: native, introduced, ephemeral, excluded, extirpated, doubtful, absent. E.g., if two species within the same genus are respectively native and doubtful in a certain region, the genus is considered native for that region. The website also provides a checklist builder (http://data.canadensys.net/vascan/checklist), where users can generate their own list of taxa based on several criteria (taxonomy, region, distribution status, or a combination of these) and download this as a Darwin Core Archive or text file.

Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (VASCAN)

show all

Study area description

The study area occupies the northern half of North America (excluding Alaska). The area of Canada is 9,984,670 km2, of Greenland (or Kulaalit Nunaat, an autonomous country within the kingdom of Denmark) 2,166,086 km2, and Saint Pierre and Miquelon (collectivité territoriale, France) 242 km2. The latter is 20 km off the coast of Newfoundland's Burin Peninsula and its characteristics are those of boreal eastern Canada. From west to east, the main physiographic regions are the Western Cordillera, the sedimentary Interior Plains, the Canadian and Greenland Shields (mostly igneous rocks), the sedimentary Great Lakes and St. Lawrences Lowlands, and the Appalachian Mountains. The sedimentary Hudson Bay Lowlands basin lies at the centre of the shield, a northern area of sedimentary plains and mountains. The Canadian Arctic borders the Arctic Ocean in northern Canada and northern Greenland. An ice cap covers 81% of Greenland. The dominant vegetation type of the area is the boreal forest, which occupies much of Canada from Yukon and northeastern British Columbia to Newfoundland. To the north, Arctic tundra prevails: it can be divided into low Arctic (with a nearly continuous plant cover, sometimes shrubby) and high Arctic (including polar deserts); these types are the only ones found in Greenland. To the south of the boreal forest, from west to east, are the humid Pacific Coastal forest, the Cordilleran forest, the Prairie grasslands, the eastern temperate forests (southern Ontario and Quebec), and the Atlantic or Acadian forests. The population of Canada is concentrated in a narrow belt along its border with the United States, where most of the impacts on ecosystems (urbanization, agriculture) is concentrated. Logging, mining, and hydroelectric development occur in the boreal forest, and mining is now rapidly developing in the Arctic. About 9.9% (Environment Canada, 2011) of the terrestrial area of Canada is protected (7.5% according to the World Bank, 2013) and 40% of Greenland. Based on the data in VASCAN, the area harbors a total of 5,124 vascular plant species, 3,829 native and 1,295 introduced (25% of the flora). Of the native species of Canada, 156 are considered legally at risk, with a further 34 of conservation concern (COSEWIC, 2009+).

Design description

The goal of the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (VASCAN) is to provide an up-to-date, documented checklist of the names of vascular plants in Canada, Greenland, and Saint Pierre and Miquelon, both scientific and vernacular, and the distribution of the plants at the provincial/territorial level. VASCAN was developed from the need to validate vascular plant name and distribution data from eastern Canada (Ontario and eastward), Greenland, and Saint Pierre and Miquelon for the Flora of North America project (FNA) and from the need to provide French vernacular names for taxa present in Quebec in the FNA. It expanded when Parks Canada wanted to harmonize the names from vascular plant species lists of its parks across the country. At the time we also realized that - aside from The Flora of Canada by Scoggan (1978-1979) that was in need of updating - not only was there no standardized scientific name list for the country - despite worthwhile efforts from Kartesz (1999) and USDA NRCS (2011) - but also no standardized source of Canadian English and French vernacular names. Names used for plants in English Canada are not necessarily those used in the United States, and thus U.S. sources were not always appropriate for this goal. Finally, several national organizations, such as Parks Canada, Forest Canada, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), and NatureServe Canada, expressed the need for a web-based list of Canadian taxa, with data on provincial/territorial distribution.

Funding

Partial funding came from Parks Canada, the Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility (CBIF), NatureServe Canada, the Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI), and the Gouvernement du Québec (grant to the Université de Montréal Biodiversity Centre and Canadensys). Most of the compilation work, however, was contributed in kind by the home institution of each collaborator.

Project Personnel

Editor
Luc Brouillet

Associated parties

Publisher
Université de Montréal Biodiversity Centre 4101 Sherbrooke est H1X2B2 Montreal Quebec Canada
Processor
Patrick O'Reilley
Université de Montréal Canada
Programmer
David Shorthouse
Biodiversity Informatics Manager
Université de Montréal Biodiversity Centre 4101 rue Sherbrooke est H1X2B2 Montreal Quebec Canada

Methodology

Study extent

See the section 'Geographic coverage' and 'Project details - Study area description'.

Sampling description

The data are sampled manually from literature by the editors,though recent additions are based on specimens maintained at institutional herbaria across Canada (see Thiers). All floras covering Canada, Greenland, and Saint Pierre and Miquelon were considered for literature-based data entry, but only the most recent provincial and territorial floras (see the section 'Citations - Bibliography') were systematically searched to establish the distribution status of each taxon in each region (see the section 'Geographic coverage'). Scoggan’s Flora of Canada (1978-1979) was systematically searched, as were Kartesz (1999) and the Flora of North America (FNA Ed. Comm. 1993+). English and French vernacular names are based on usage in Canada and, for introduced taxa, on vernaculars from the countries of origin (when the taxon is from Europe). Alternate (synonym) vernaculars are provided when several names are in usage (notably regional names), but an accepted vernacular is recommended for general usage throughout the country. The method of selection of vernacular names follows Darbyshire et al. (2000). The source of the information is referenced for all scientific names, vernacular names and distributions in the dataset.

Quality control

New findings or corrections for plant distributions are communicated to the editors by contributors from each region (http://data.canadensys.net/vascan/about/#people). Contributors are local botanists, often associated with Canadian herbaria or Conservation Data Centers. All new reports must be documented by specimens deposited at institutional herbaria. Suggestions or corrections regarding names, taxonomy, or functionality of the VASCAN website are submitted by users and reviewers through a public Google Code issue tracker at http://code.google.com/p/canadensys/issues/list?can=2&q=label:vascan. Name suggestions are validated by the editors against names in Tropicos (http://www.tropicos.org), IPNI (http://www.ipni.org), GRIN (http://www.ars-grin.gov), or other plant name databases, before being manually corrected in the database.

Method Steps

  1. The data are stored in a relational database (MySQL), which powers the search, checklist builder, taxon and name pages of the VASCAN website. Editors update a development copy of the database through a secure web application. This allows them to make revisions without affecting the users of the website. Once they agree that the data are consistent, in which they are aided by the application, they can push that version of the database to production. At that moment, the application will also automatically generate a Darwin Core Archive of the data, using the GBIF GNA Profile (GBIF 2010) and following best practices for publishing checklists (GBIF 2011). This archive includes all data, except for calculated distributions, hybrid parents, and user credentials. The archive is then manually uploaded to the Canadensys Repository (http://data.canadensys.net/ipt), a GBIF Integrated Publishing Toolkit, and republished, at which time it will be assigned a new version number. The dataset is registered with the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), which allows that organization to harvest, display and distribute the data at any time.

References

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnaen Society 161: 105–121. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x , http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x

Chase MW, Reveal JL (2009) A phylogenetic classification of land plants to accompany APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnaen Society 161 (2): 122–127. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.01002.x , http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.01002.x

Christenhusz MJM, Reveal JL, Farjon A, Gardner MF, Mill RR, Chase MW (2011a) A new classification and linear sequence of extant gymnosperms. Phytotaxa 19: 55–70. , http://www.mapress.com/phytotaxa/content/2011/f/pt00019p070.pdf

Christenhusz MJM, Zhang X-C, Schneider H (2011b) A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns. Phytotaxa 19: 7–54. , http://www.mapress.com/phytotaxa/content/2011/f/pt00019p054.pdf

COSEWIC (2009+) Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. http://www.cosewic.gc.ca/eng/sct6/index_e.cfm [accessed June 17, 2013]. , http://www.cosewic.gc.ca/eng/sct6/index_e.cfm

Darbyshire SJ, Favreau M, Murray M (2000) Common and scientific names of weeds in Canada. Research Branch, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Ont. Publ. 1397/B. 132 pp.

Environment Canada (2011) Canada’s Protected Areas. http://www.ec.gc.ca/indicateurs-indicators/default.asp?lang=en&n=478A1D3D-1 [accessed June 17, 2013]. , http://www.ec.gc.ca/indicateurs-indicators/default.asp?lang=en&n=478A1D3D-1

Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1993+) Flora of North America north of Mexico. 30 volumes. Oxford University Press, New York. http://www.fna.org , http://www.fna.org

GBIF (2010) GBIF GNA Profile Reference Guide for Darwin Core Archives, version 1.2, released on 1 April 2011, (contributed by Remsen DP, Döring M, Robertson T), Copenhagen: Global Biodiversity Information Facility, 28 pp. http://links.gbif.org/gbif_gna_profile_reference_guide , http://links.gbif.org/gbif_gna_profile_reference_guide

GBIF (2011) Publishing Species Checklists, (contributed by Remsen D, Döring M, Robertson, T, Ko B), Copenhagen: Global Biodiversity Information Facility, 53 pp. http://links.gbif.org/checklist_how_to , http://links.gbif.org/checklist_how_to

International Plant Names Index (IPNI) (2012) Published on the Internet. http://www.ipni.org [accessed 15 March 2013] , http://www.ipni.org

Kartesz JT (1999) A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. In: Kartesz JT, Meacham CA. Synthe- sis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill. (CD-ROM).

Rothfells CJ, Sundue MA, Kuo L-Y, Larsson A, Kato M, Schuettpelz E, Pryer KM (2012) A revised family-level classification for eupolypod II ferns (Polypodiidae: Polypodiales). Taxon 61: 515–533.

Scoggan HJ (1978–1979) The Flora of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Publications in Botany 7, 4 volumes.

Smith AR, Pryer KM, Schuettpelz E, Korall P, Schneider H, Wolf PG (2006) A classification for extant ferns. Taxon 55: 705–731. doi: 10.2307/25065646 , http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/25065646

Thiers B [continuously updated]. Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/ [accessed 15 March 2013] , http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/

Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org [accessed 15 March 2013] , http://www.tropicos.org

USDA, ARS (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service), National Genetic Resources Program (2013) Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. http://www.ars-grin.gov [accessed 22 April 2013] , http://www.ars-grin.gov

USDA, NRCS (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Services) (2011) The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA. , http://plants.usda.gov

World Bank. 2013. World Development Indicator Data: Terrestrial protected areas (% of total land area). http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS [accessed June 17, 2013] , http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Aiken SG, Dallwitz MJ, Consaul LL, McJannet CL, Boles RL, Argus GW, Gillett JM, Scott PJ, Elven R, LeBlanc MC, Gillespie LJ, Brysting AK, Solstad H, Harris JG (2007) Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. CD-ROM. NRC Research Press and Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Ont. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data/index.htm , http://nature.ca/aaflora/data/index.htm

Böcher TW, Fredskild B, Holmen K, Jakobsen K (1978) Grønlands Flora. Haase P, Forlag S, Copenhagen.

Cody WJ (2000) Flora of Yukon. 2nd edition. NRC Press, Ottawa.

Douglas, GW, Meidinger D, Pojar J, editors (1998–2003) Illustrated Flora of British Columbia. 8 volumes. British Columbia Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management & Min. Forests, Victoria, B.C.

Erskine DS (1960) 1985 The Plants of Prince Edward Island (revised by P. M. Catling, 1985). Can. Dept. Agr. Publ. 1798.

Etcheberry R (1989) Plantes de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon. Unpublished manuscript.

Etcheberry R, Abraham D, Muller S (2010) Nouvelles espèces de plantes vasculaires pour les îles Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon et commentaires sur la flore de l’archipel. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 111: 85–105.

Harms VL (2003) Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Saskatchewan and the provincially and nationally rare native plants in Saskatchewan. University Extension Press, U. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. 328 p.

Hinds HR (2000) Flora of New Brunswick. 2nd. ed. University of New Brunswick, Fredericton.

Klinkenberg B, editor (2008) E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia. Lab. Advanced Spatial Analysis, Dept. Geography, U. British Columbia. http://www.eflora.bc.ca , http://www.eflora.bc.ca

Marie-Victorin Fr (1995) Flore laurentienne. 3e éd. mise à jour et annotée par Brouillet L, Hay SG, Goulet I, Blondeau M, Cayouette J, Labrecque J. Presses de l’Univ. de Montréal, Montreal.

Meades SJ, Hay SG, Brouillet L (2000) Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador. http://www.digitalnaturalhistory.com/meades.htm , http://www.digitalnaturalhistory.com/meades.htm

Moss EH (1983) Flora of Alberta. 2nd ed. University of Toronto Press.

Newmaster SG, Lehela A, Oldham MJ, Uhlig PWC, McMurray S (1998) Ontario Plant List. Ontario Forest Research Institute, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. Forest Information Paper No. 123. 550 pp.

Newmaster SG, Ragupathy (2012+) Flora Ontario Integrated Botanical Information System (FOIBIS). http://www.uoguelph.ca/foibis/ , http://www.uoguelph.ca/foibis/

Porsild AE, Cody WG (1980) Vascular Plants of Continental Northwest Territories, Canada. Canadian National Museum of Natural Sciences. Ottawa, Ont.

Roland AE (1998) Roland’s Flora of Nova Scotia. Revised by Zinck M. Nimbus Publishing & N.S. Museum. Halifax, N.S.