Passiflora suberosa L.Sp.Pl.
- GBIF Backbone Taxonomy
- Passiflora suberosa
Passiflora suberosa L. Sp. Pl. 958. 1753
Taxon classification Plantae Malpighiales Passifloraceae
2. Passiflora suberosa L. Sp. Pl. 958. 1753. Figs 25, 26, 27, 28
Slender, climbing, perennial vine 1-5(-10) m long or more, commonly sparsely to densely pubescent with unicellular or multicellular curved trichomes on leaf, petiole, stem, stipule, sepal, and tendril (very rare) (0.14-)0.20-1.13 mm long, 0.02-0.03 mm wide, also often minutely antrorsely appressed-puberulent on leaf, petiole, stem, stipule, and sepal with unicellular, curved trichomes, 0.05-0.10 mm long, 0.02-0.03 mm wide. Flowering stems 0.5-3.1 mm in diameter, terete or somewhat compressed, greenish yellow to reddish purple to red, with the base woody and cork-covered. Stipules (1.5-)2.2-8.4(-11.6)mm long, 0.1-1.3 mm wide, narrowly ovate-triangular, acute or rarely slightly attenuate; petioles 0.4-2.7(-3.7) cm long, with 2 (very rarely 1), opposite to alternate, stipitate or sessile, cupulate, discoid or capitate nectaries (very rarely urceolate), 0.4-1.5 mm wide, 0.2-1.6 mm high, commonly borne in the distal three quarters of the petiole (0.27-0.93 of the distance from the base toward the apex of the petiole). Laminas (1.4-)3.0-14.2(-19.0) cm long, (0.8-)1.6-10.0(-17.1) cm wide, not peltate or sometimes slightly peltate (the distance from leaf base to point of petiole insertion 2.3-2.5 mm), commonly membranous, 3-lobed, rarely unlobed, ovate, commonly with base cordate or cuneate to acute, lateral lobes (0.9-)1.4-7.5(-12.0) cm long, 0.3-3.0(-4.8) cm wide, ovate to oblong (very rarely obovate), acute (rarely obtuse or rounded), central lobe ovate to elliptic, sometimes obovate, central vein (1.4-)3.0-9.0(-14.2) cm long, angle between the lateral lobes (21-)40-140°, ratio of lateral lobe to central vein length (0.30-)0.38-0.87, margins entire, rarely crenate, hyaline, primary veins 1-3 (when more than one, veins diverge and branch at base or diverge and branch above base), laminar nectaries absent or sometimes with 1-10 submarginal nectaries associated with the minor veins of the abaxial surface, rarely associated with a crenation of the leaf margin, rarely with 2-4 nectaries proximal to the lateral leaf veins, 0.3-1.0 mm in diameter, circular to widely elliptic, sessile; tendril 0.2-1.1 mm wide, present at flowering node except in inflorescence. Flowers borne in leaf axils or sometimes in indeterminate axillary or terminal inflorescences; inflorescences 2.0-4.0 cm long, associated reduced laminas 2.0-4.3 mm long, 1.5-3.1 mm wide. Pedicels 2.3-17.9 mm long, 0.2-0.7 mm wide, 2 per node; bract(s) absent or rarely with one or two narrowly ovate-triangular bracts present at (0.23-)0.42-0.88 of the distance from the base toward the apex of the pedicel, 0.4-1.5(-2.3) mm long, 0.1-0.2 mm wide, acute; spur(s) absent. Flowers 12.3-49.1 mm in diameter with stipe (0.2-)1.4-11.5 mm long, 0.3-1.0 mm wide; hypanthium (3.0-)4.0-8.8 mm in diameter; sepals 4.0-14.6(-20.5) mm long, 2.0-5.0(-6.4) mm wide, ovate-triangular, acute to rounded, reflexed at anthesis, abaxially and adaxially greenish yellow to very light greenish yellow (5GY 7/4, 8/4-8/2) or white; coronal filaments in 2 series (very rarely 1 series), the outer 20-36, 2.5-8.1 mm long, 0.1-0.8 mm wide, linear, sometimes capitellate, erect (ca. 70°) or slightly spreading (ca. 110°) or spreading (ca. 180°-220°), greenish yellow with yellow tips (5Y 8/10), or flushed with reddish purple (5RP 5/6-3/6) at base and greenish yellow at middle with yellow tips, or reddish purple (5RP 3/8-4/8) at base, greenish yellow at middle and yellow toward tips, ratio of outer coronal row to sepal length 0.34-0.95, the inner (10-)18-45(-53), 1.5-3.9 mm long, 0.1-0.3 mm wide, linear, capitate, erect to slightly spreading, greenish yellow, or greenish yellow with yellow tips, or greenish yellow flushed with reddish purple at base and yellow toward tips, or reddish purple with greenish yellow tips, ratio of inner coronal row to outer coronal row length 0.21-0.76; operculum (0.7)1.0-3.0 mm long, plicate, greenish yellow, or greenish yellow with a flush of reddish purple at base, or reddish purple, margin white with minutely fimbrillate teeth; nectary 0.1-1.1 mm high, 0.3-1.8(-2.7) mm wide; limen recurved, erect or slightly inclined toward the operculum, 0.1-0.7 mm high, 0.1-0.6 mm wide, greenish yellow or greenish yellow with reddish purple tip, limen floor (1.3-)1.8-4.0 mm in diameter, greenish yellow or greenish yellow flushed with reddish purple; androgynophore (2.1-) 2.7-6.1(-12.6) mm long, 0.3-1.8 mm wide, greenish yellow or greenish yellow with a flush of reddish purple at base or greenish yellow with reddish purple spots and streaks; free portions of the staminal filaments 1.6-6.0(-6.8) mm long, 0.2-0.7 mm wide, linear, greenish yellow; anthers 1.4-3.3 mm long, 0.3-1.7 mm wide, pollen whitish or yellow; styles (1.7-)2.1-6.5(-7.7) mm long including stigmas, 0.1-0.5 mm wide, greenish yellow; stigmas 0.3-1.7 mm in diameter; ovary 1.2-4.1 mm long, 0.8-3.7 mm wide, ellipsoid to globose, greenish yellow. Berry 7.9-15.8 mm long, 7.4-13.4 mm in diameter, ovoid, ellipsoid or transversely ellipsoid, very dark purple (5P 2.5/2). Seeds ca. 8-34, 2.5-4.0 mm long, 1.5-2.5 mm wide, 1.0-1.8 mm thick, reticulate-foveate with each face marked with ca. 12-16 foveae, obovate in outline, acute at both ends, chalazal beak and micropyle inclined toward raphe; germination type epigeal.
Figure 25. Flower of Passiflora suberosa subsp. suberosa (Porter-Utley P-63) from material collected by C. Feuillet in St. John. Scale bar = 10 mm. Photo by C. Feuillet.
Figure 26. Distribution of Passiflora suberosa subsp. suberosa .
Figure 27. Flowers and fruits of Passiflora suberosa subsp. litoralis . a At edge of forest of Cryptocarya , Ficus , Hypolepis , Rubus , and Melastoma taceae , Jalisco, Mexico (MacDougal 478) Scale bar = 6.0 mm. Photo by J. M. MacDougal b From along a very dry roadside in Chiapas, Mexico (Porter-Utley & Mondragón 456) Scale bar = 6.0 mm.
Figure 28. Distribution of Passiflora suberosa subsp. litoralis .
Flowering and fruiting throughout the year.
In the New World tropics. Introduced in the Old World tropics. Growing in shrubs and trees or trailing on the ground in secondary successional areas, along the edges of semideciduous to deciduous, dry to wet tropical forests, both inland and near the seashore, 0-2500 m.
Passiflora suberosa subsp. suberosa and Passiflora suberosa subsp. litoralis have different geographic distributions, with Passiflora suberosa subsp. suberosa occurring in the Caribbean and Passiflora suberosa subsp. litoralis in Mexico, Central America, and South America. They only co-occur on the island of O’ahu , Hawaii, USA, where they have been introduced. The two subspecies are very similar vegetatively, but Passiflora suberosa subsp. litoralis is commonly conspicuously and densely pubescent with longer unicellular or multicellular curved trichomes, whereas Passiflora suberosa subsp. suberosa appears glabrous. Passiflora suberosa subsp. suberosa does not possess inflorescences present as condensed shoots with aborted lamina, but Passiflora suberosa subsp. litoralis may have them. The sepals of Passiflora suberosa subsp. suberosa are glabrous, and those of Passiflora suberosa subsp. litoralis are pubescent. The staminal filaments of Passiflora suberosa subsp. suberosa are often greater than 4 mm long, whereas those of Passiflora suberosa subsp. litoralis are less than 4 mm long. Passiflora suberosa subsp. suberosa also possesses a longer androgynophore (> 5 mm), and the androgynophore of Passiflora suberosa subsp. litoralis very rarely reaches a length of 5 mm. The fruits of Passiflora suberosa subsp. suberosa are larger (commonly> 1.0 cm) and usually ovoid, whereas Passiflora suberosa subsp. litoralis has depressed globose to globose to ellipsoid fruits that are commonly less that 1.0 cm long.
Key to the subspecies of Passiflora suberosa
|2a. Passiflora suberosa subsp. suberosa|
|2b. Passiflora suberosa subsp. litoralis|