Cionus scrophulariae (Linnaeus 1758) Douglas & Bouchard & Anderson & Tonnancour & Vigneault & Webster 2013
Cionus scrophulariae (Linnaeus, 1758) new to Canada
This adventive Palaearctic species, which is associated with Scrophularia and Verbascum (Scrophulariaceae), is known to be established in New York (Anderson 2002).
Quebec: Montreal,19.vi.2009, on Verbascum thapsus, CERL 15531, R. Limoges (1, CRLI).
Biology. Forests, meadows, shrublands; in mountains up to 1800 m a. s. l. Adults occur in V – VIII (Gumovsky 1997). On Scrophulariaceae: Scrophularia scopolii (Penecke 1928); Verbascum thapsus, V. lychnitis, V. phlomoides (Wingelmüller 1937; Smreczyński 1976); S. canina, S. nodosa, S. umbrosa (Wingelmüller 1937; Hoffmann 1958); Limosella aquatica (record is probably based on misidentified Scrophularia umbrosa) (Smreczyński 1976).
Records. CRI ČER ČRK DNI DON * IFR KHM KHR KYI LWI ODE POL * RIV SUM TER VIN VOL ZAK ŽIT [Andrzejowski 1823; Hummel 1827: 41; Krynicki 1832: 145; Chernay 1854: 170, 246; Belke 1859 a: 53; Belke 1859 b: 75; Nowicki 1864: 38; Belke 1866: 504; Miller 1868: 27; Łomnicki 1870: 82; Lindemann 1871: 199; Weise 1876: 108; Król 1877: 56; Łomnicki 1884: 32; Łomnicki 1886: 218; Cherkunov 1889: 192; Kulikowski 1897: 210; Rybiński 1903 b: 152; Łomnicki 1905: 82; Ksenzhopolskij 1913: 76; Penecke 1928: 378; Shapiro 1930: 144; Penecke 1932: 355; Tveritina 1956 b: 138; Kryshtal 1959: 79; Endrődi 1970: 394; Mazur & Kuśka 1994: 308; Gumovsky 1997: 55; Barsov et al. 1998: 150; Kubisz et al. 1998: 276; Mazur 2002: 226; Caldara 2004 a; Caldara 2013 a: 124].
Distribution. Europe, Madeira, Caucasus, Levant, West Siberia (Caldara 2013 a).
Material examined. Zakarpatska Prov.: 6 spec. (ZIN) Rakhiv Distr., Yasynya, Zaslavsky leg., 29. v. 1958; 6 spec. (KUMN) Tyachiv Distr., Velyka Uholka, Plyaiskyi River shore Yunakov leg., 19. vii. 2001; 7 spec. (KUMN) Rakhiv Distr., Marmarosh, basin of Kvasnyi River, trail along Kvasnivtshik River to Polonyna Lysytsha Yunakov leg., 25. vii. 2001; 8 spec. (KUMN) Rakhiv Distr., Chornohora Mt. Range, Polonyna Breskul, N. Yunakov leg., 21. vii. 2001; Volyn Prov.: 2 spec. (ZIN) Lutsk Distr., Zhabche, Olsufyev leg., 17. vi. 1901; 6 spec. (ZIN) Markovichi, A. Yakovlev leg., 14. v. 1898; 1 spec. (KrC) Shatsk Distr., Pishcha, Ladinka ponds, A. M. Kravchenko leg., 8. vi. 2003; Khmelnytskyi Prov.: 1 spec. (ZIN) Kamianets-Podilskyi Distr., Bahovitsa, Grum-Grzhimailo leg., vi. 1895; 4 spec. (ZIN) idem, 19. v. – 8. vi. 1895; Zhytomyr Prov.: 1 spec. (ZIN) Zhytomyr env., Birulya leg., 15. vi. 1897; 1 spec. (ZIN) idem, 17. vi. 1897; 9 spec. (KUMN) Novograd-Volynsky env., Mikhailov leg., 15. vi. 1915; 10 spec. (KUMN) idem, 12. vii. 1909; Vinnytsia Prov.: 1 spec. (ZIN) Verkhivka, N 48.449871, E 29.144449, A. Chekini leg., 30. v. 1901; Poltava Prov.: 3 spec. (ZIN) Poltava, D. Ogloblin leg., 5. vi. 1910; 1 spec. (ZIN) Poltava env., Th. Lukjanovitsh leg., 4. vi. 1922; 1 spec. (ZIN) idem, 15. vi. 1922; 1 spec. (ZIN) idem, 3. v. 1926; 1 spec. (ZIN) Poltava, Th. Lukjanovitsh leg., 12. v. 1922; 1 spec. (ZIN) idem, 14. vi. 1922; 1 spec. (ZIN) Poltava Distr., Rudne, Lukjanovitch leg., 12. vi. 1922; 5 spec. (ZIN) Poltava Distr., Svinkovka, D. Ogloblin leg., 10. vi. 1912; Kharkiv Prov.: 2 spec. (ZIN) Zmiiv, Arnoldi leg., vi. 1917; 4 spec. (KUMN) Vovchansk Distr., Ogurtsovo, Siverskyi Donets River Loboda B. M. leg., 13. vi. 2010; Donetsk Prov.: 2 spec. (ZIN) Novoselivka, Svyatohirsk Monastery, Arnoldi leg., 28. v. 1937; 2 spec. (ZIN) Novoselivka, Siversky Donets River, Svyatohirsk Monastery, Arnoldi leg., 28. v. 1937; 1 spec. (ZIN) Svyatohirsk Monastery, Arnoldi leg., 10. vi. 1937; Crimea: 3 spec. (ZIN) Tavel, Kiritschenko leg., 6. v. 1907; 3 spec. (KUMN) 13 km SSE Simferopol, Krasnolissya env. Yunakov leg., 14. vi. 2010.
Biological notes. Wingelmüller (1937) reported this species from Scrophularia nodosa, S. canina and S. auric- ulata (as S. aquatica), Hoffmann (1958) confirmed this species from S. canina, Smreczyński (1976) confirmed also S. nodosa and added Limosella aquatica. A detailed biology including the description of immatures, and feeding of imagoes and immatures on S. nodosa including seasonal dynamics was reported by Read (1977). The first author reared one specimen from the larva found on S. canina ssp. hoppii (W. D. J. Koch) P. Fourn. in Karawanken Mts. (Kärnten, Austria), the second author collected this species from S. nodosa and S. canina in Italy.
Figs 2 a – f.
Redescription. Male. Body stout, suboval. Head: rostrum moderately stout, medium long (l / w 5.1, Rl / Pl 1.40), black; in lateral view slightly evenly curved, same width from base to antennal insertion, then very slightly narrowed to apex; in dorsal view basal part to antennal insertion of nearly same width, slightly laterally constricted, at apex wider than at base, moderately dorsoventrally flattened, parallel-sided; at entire length longitudinally, rugulose-like densely punctured, leaving only small shiny glabrous medial area at the most apex; from base to antennal insertion covered with sparse, subrecumbent thin whitish yellow elongate scales, at rostrum base with several backwardly oriented, scattered broader yellowish scales, similar to those on pronotum, apical part of rostrum with long, forwardly oriented whitish and dark brown seta-like scales. Head between eyes narrow, approximately 0.4 rostrum width at base. Eyes slightly rounded, not protruding from head outline. Antennae reddish-brown with darkened club, inserted at approximately 0.7 of rostrum length; funicle of 0.7 scape length, segment 1 slightly wider than segment 2, more than twice as long as wide, segment 2 about 2.7 × as long as wide, segments 3 – 5 subquadrate; club oval, about 2.6 × as long as wide, of approximately 0.9 funicle length, completely covered with tiny dark hairs and sparse erect whitish sensilla. Pronotum: black, wider than long (Pl / Pw 0.66), with semidensely, evenly distributed small round punctures, covered with densely distributed, overlapping, mostly forwardly oriented subrecumbent elongate (l / w 3 – 5), pale yellowish scales; widest at base, in posterior half conically forwardly convergent, then abruptly narrowed, with broad, slightly indistinct constriction, in lateral view flat in basal half, then abruptly straightly falling to anterior margin. Prosternum: anterior margin with deep, round, relatively narrow, sharply incised, at sides well bounded emargination not reaching coxae. Scutellum: black, subtriangular, rounded at apex, unevenly densely covered with backwardly oriented elongate, whitish and yellowish scales more concentrated on sides and apex. Elytra: blackish brown, in anterior 2 / 3 very slightly rounded to subparallel, in posterior third broadly rounded, very slightly elongate (El / Ew 1.20), widest at about mid-length, at base markedly wider than pronotum (Ew / Pw 1.82), humeri considerably prominent, subrotund, moderately convex on disc; interstria 1 markedly broadened, interstria 2 considerably narrowed, slightly constricted laterally in approximately half of medial length and shortly before elytral apex encompassing black tomentous, clearly outlined subrotund macula; anterior macula posteriorly, apical macula anteriorly with white patches formed by clustered whitish to yellowish elongate scales; odd interstriae of same width or slightly narrower than even ones, both moderately vaulted, odd interstriae with alternating black tomentous and whitish or yellowish, evenly distributed patches formed by densely arranged, pale elongate scales giving impression that even interstriae are more vaulted, in subhumeral region on striae 7 – 8 densely arranged yellowish scales forming light irregular macula; striae very shallow, with irregular rows of small punctures; entire surface evenly sparsely covered with recumbent and subrecumbent thin, elongate (l / w 5 – 9) hair-like scales leaving integument visible. Venter: sparsely covered with whitish, long thin hair-like scales on lateral parts of meso- and metasternum, ventrites 3 – 4, entire metepisternum covered with densely arranged, often overlapping, yellowish elongate scales, margins of impression on ventrites 1 and 2, ventrites 3 and 4 most laterally, and median 2 / 3 of ventrite 5 covered with long, hair-like yellowish scales; mesosternal process very short, with shallow emargination at apex; metasternum slightly concave, evenly punctured, in median part transversally ribbed; ventrite 1, and most proximal part of ventrite 2 with medium deep impression; ventrite 1 1.8 × as long as ventrite 2, ventrites 1 – 2 combined 4.1 × as long as ventrites 3 – 4 combined, ventrites 3 – 4 combined of 0.8 length of ventrite 5. Legs: dark brown; profemora with small teeth, meso- and especially metafemora with very large triangular sharp teeth; femora covered with recumbent to subrecumbent elongate yellowish scales being in some extent unevenly distributed, forming indistinct transverse bands, tibiae and tarsi with suberect yellowish and brown elongate scales, at lateral tibial margins black and erect, tibiae with patches of light scales giving impression of transverse bands, onychia sparsely covered with whitish recumbent to subrecumbent hairs; protarsal onychia short, of 0.9 length of tarsomeres 1 – 3 combined; claws of almost same length. Penis: Figs 2 d – f, its body gradually tapered towards blunt apex. Female. Rostrum moderately longer (Rl / Pl 1.55), apical part in mid-length slightly narrowed, antennal insertion at about 0.6 of rostrum length. Ventrites 1 – 2 without impression, claws of equal length. Variability. Length ♂♂ 4.18 – 4.70 mm, ♀♀ 4.24 – 4.95 mm. This species is variable, especially in color and pat- tern of the vestiture and color of the integument, which may be reddish-brown on the elytra in some mature species. There is a marked variability in the shape of dorsal and preapical elytral maculae, especially specimens from the Caucasus and Transcaucasus have very large and striking lateral posthumeral light macula. As reported by Morris (2009), in England there are several populations of C. scrophulariae, which have underdeveloped scales on the pronotum. Body shape and proportions do not vary.
Diagnosis. This species is typified by the visible elytral integument, light maculae at margins of dorsal and preapical black macula, short antennal club, pronotum mostly completely covered with pale scales. Comparative notes. This species is most closely related to C. tuberculosus, but clearly differs from it by the shorter antennal club, and the pronotum without a medial bare area.
Distribution. This species is widely distributed, occurring in all of Europe including Scandinavia (we have no data from Portugal), common in the Caucasus and Transcaucasus. Data are available also from the Middle East (Lebanon and Syria) and West Siberia. The species occurs from the sea level up to 2,500 m a. s. l. according to the geographical latitude. In the Middle East and Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan) the species is restricted to high elevations above 2,000 m a. s. l. The presence of this species in Madeira is doubtful (Machado 2008).
Non-type specimens examined. We examined more than 540 specimens from the above countries and regions except for Madeira.
Type locality. Sweden. Type series. There is no other possibility of studying original Linnean collection (LSUK) except for a detailed online picture library of Linnean specimens (linnean-online. org) provided by the Linnean Society of London. Under the name Curculio scrophulariae, there are six pictures (No. 7566 – 7571) of seven pinned Cionus specimens. Specimens are mostly moldy and belong to three species. Specimens No. 7566 and No. 7567 bear labels “ Angl. Jones ” and “ England ” respectively, specimen No. 7568 is probably a Swedish specimen of C. montanus, specimen No. 7569 is unidentifiable but not C. scrophulariae. The remaining three conspecific specimens belong to C. scrophulariae as currently understood, and come highly probably from Sweden. A heavily moldy specimen No. 7570 is labeled “ originally pinned through det. label with Ist. S. L. Shute det. 1979 specimen ” and two pinned, relatively well-preserved specimens No. 7571 labeled “ 61 / 27 Scrophulariae ” on one pin coming high probably from Sweden should be regarded as syntypes of Curculio scrophulariae Linnaeus and correspond to Cionus scrophulariae (Linnaeus) as currently understood. In order to fix the taxon, we designated the upper specimen on the pin No. 7571 as the lectotype of Curculio scrophulariae Linnaeus. The lower syntype specimen on the same pin, and the syntype specimen on the pin No. 7570 should be regarded as paralectotypes accordingly. Synonyms. Alonso-Zarazaga (2008) designated the lectotype and five paralectotypes of Curculio scrophularis Geoffroy, which are deposited in coll. Geoffroy (MNHN). The lectotype is conspecific with the lectotype of Curculio scrophulariae Linnaeus. Brahm (1790) described Curculio affinis from the surroundings of Mainz in a relatively detailed way mentioning its marked similarity to C. scrophulariae, even questioning its specific rank. As Brahm´s collection is known to be destroyed (Meregalli & Alonso-Zarazaga, 2013), and the name is reported as nomen dubium and primary homonym (Alonso-Zarazaga et al., 2017), we designated the neotype of this taxon according to the provisions of Articles 75 and 10.6 of the ICZN (1999), since this name remains available although invalid as a primary homonym. A well-preserved, 4.28 mm long male with separated right antenna, remounted and dissected for genitalia, labeled “ Aschaffenburg Strieth 23.5.15 Col.: Schwarzer. / W. H. Muche. Rade-berg. Ankauf / Staatl. Museum für Tierkunde Dresden ” was designated as the neotype of Curculio affinis Brahm by adding the printed red label “ NEOTYPUS Curculio affinis Brahm M. Košťál et R. Caldara des. 2018 ”. The neotype is deposited in MTD. Cionus scrophulariae v. ferrugatus was described based on specimens from Dalmatia, Asia Minor and Syria. In coll. Reitter (HNHM), there are seven specimens morphologically and with locality labels corresponding to the original description. We designated a glued clumped male labeled “ Dalm / Dalmatia / Holotypus 1904. Cionus scrophulariae var. ferrugatus Reitter / v. egregius K. Dan. ... [illegible] / Coll. Reitter ” as the lectotype by adding the label “ LECTOTYPUS Cionus scrophulariae v. ferrugatus Reitter Michael Košťál des. 2013 [printed red label] ”. Ac- cording to the provisions of Articles 75 and 10.6 of the ICZN (1999), this name is available although invalid as a primary homonym. The lectotype is 4.25 mm long, completely preserved. The remaining six specimens were labeled as paralectotypes accordingly: 1 ♂ and 1 ♀ “ Dalmatia / Dalm / Paratypus 1904. Cionus scrophulariae v. ferrugatus Reitter / Coll. Reitter ”, 1 ♂ “ Asia min. Bulghar Dagh / Bulghar Dagh / Paratypus 1904. Cionus scrophulariae v. fer- rugatus Reitter / Coll. Reitter ”, 1 ♂ “ Syria. Eibes / Eibes. Syr / Paratypus 1904. Cionus scrophulariae v. ferrugatus Reitter / Coll. Reitter ”. The lectotype and all paralectotypes are consubspecific with C. scrophulariae (Linnaeus) and were labeled accordingly “ Cionus scrophulariae (L.) Michael Košťál det. 2013 ”.
Cionus scrophulariae (Linnaeus 1758) Eu As
Cionus scrophulariae group
Elytral integument visible, dorsal macula on posterior and preapical macula on anterior sutural part with patches of light scales, pronotum in dorsal view always densely to confluently covered with scales hiding integument at least on sides.