Isolated from continental life, evolution on islands can take it own course, allowing many unique lineages and high levels of endemism. In some sites, the age of endemic species vary significantly from the average, a phenomenon thought to be associated with the origin (oceanic vs. continental) of island life.
Focusing on monocots, this study seeked to identify islands with significant neo-, paleo-, or mixed-endemic flora and to investigate factors contributing to these patterns. Using GBIF-mediated plant occurrences representing 15,964 species found on 4,306 islands, the authors calculated a measure of phylogenetic endemism and identified 142 islands as being either paleo-, neo- or mixed-endemic—with a subset of 42 islands being an extreme cases of the latter—super-endemic islands.
The islands identified—irreplaceable for uniqueness and evolutionary history—can help guide biodiversity conservation. While distributed across the entire world, most are present at low latitudes. In addition, the authors found that habitat availability and climate stability were the most important environmental factors contributing to endemism.