Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788

Species in English Wikipedia Species Pages

AnimaliaChordataMammaliaRodentiaSciuridaeSciurusSciurus

Name Usage verbatim data

This listing shows the original information as received by GBIF from the data publisher, without further interpretation processing.

Taxon

dc:modified

2014-05-01T07:12:49Z

dwc:family

Sciuridae

dwc:scientificNameAuthorship

Gmelin, 1788

dwc:class_

Mammalia

dwc:kingdom

Animalia

dwc:phylum

Chordata

dwc:taxonRank

Species

dc:identifier

408169

dwc:genus

Sciurus

dc:source

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_gray_squirrel

dwc:order

Rodentia

dwc:subgenus

Sciurus

http://unknown.org/taxobox

{name=Eastern gray squirrel
''Sciurus carolinensis'', status=LC, status_system=iucn3.1, status_ref=, image=Eastern Grey Squirrel.jpg, regnum=[[Animal]]ia, phylum=[[Chordate|Chordata]], classis=[[Mammal]]ia, ordo=[[Rodent]]ia, familia=[[Sciuridae]], genus=''[[Sciurus]]'', subgenus=''[[Sciurus#Species|Sciurus]]'', species='''''S. carolinensis''''', binomial=''Sciurus carolinensis'', binomial_authority=[[Johann Friedrich Gmelin|Gmelin]], 1788, subdivision_ranks=[[Subspecies]]{{cite book|last1=Thorington|first1=R.W., Jr.|last2=Hoffmann|first2=R.S.|year=2005|pages=754–818|editor1-last=Wilson|editor1-first=D.E.|editor2-last=Reeder|editor2-first=D.M|url=http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3|chapter=Sciurus (Sciurus) carolinensis|chapterurl=http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?s=y&id=12400104|title=Mammal Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference|edition=3rd|publisher=The Johns Hopkins University Press|isbn=0-8018-8221-4|oclc=26158608}}, subdivision=* ''S. c. carolinensis'' * ''S. c. extimus'' * ''S. c. fuliginosus'' * ''S. c. hypophaeus'' * ''S. c. pennsylvanicus'', synonyms=Matecumbei, Minutus, Hiemalis, Leucotis, Migratorius, range_map=Sciurus carolinensis range map.svg, range_map_width=, range_map_caption=Range in red
(excludes introduced populations)}

dwc:scientificName

Sciurus carolinensis

Descriptions - 0

dc:license

CC-BY-SA 3.0

dc:description

As the name suggests, the eastern gray squirrel has predominantly gray fur, but it can have a brownish color. It has a usual white underside as compared to the typical brownish-orange underside of the fox squirrel.New York's Wildlife Resources: pp. 2. Department of Natural Resources at Cornell University It has a large bushy tail. Particularly in urban situations where the risk of predation is reduced, both white- and black-colored individuals are quite often found. The melanistic form, which is almost entirely black, is predominant in certain populations and in certain geographic areas, such as in large parts of southeastern Canada. Genetic variations within these include individuals with black tails and black-colored squirrels with white tails (see Tree squirrel for more information on these color variations).The head and body length is from , the tail from and the adult weight varies between .BBC: Science and Nature, "Grey squirrel: Sciurus carolinensis"Red & Gray Squirrels in Massachusetts, MassWildlife. Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and WildlifeThe tracks of an eastern gray squirrel are difficult to distinguish from the related fox squirrel and Abert's squirrel, though the latter's range is almost entirely different from the gray's. Like all squirrels, the eastern gray shows four fingers on the front feet and five on the hind feet. The hind foot-pad is often not visible in the track. When bounding or moving at speed, the front foot tracks will be behind the hind foot tracks. The bounding stride can be two to three feet long.Murie, Olaus Johan and Elbroch, Mark (2005) Peterson Field Guide to Animal Tracks, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, p. 79, ISBN 061851743X.

dc:language

en

dc:type

Description

Descriptions - 1

dc:license

CC-BY-SA 3.0

dc:description

Gray squirrels were eaten in earlier times by Native Americans and their meat is still popular with hunters across most of their range in North America. Today, it is still available for human consumption and is occasionally sold in the United Kingdom."Wild meat: Squirrel nutcase". The Economist, Vol. 402 Number 8772 (3 March 2012).

dc:language

en

dc:type

As food

Descriptions - 2

dc:license

CC-BY-SA 3.0

dc:description

In the wild, eastern gray squirrels can be found inhabiting large areas of mature, dense woodland ecosystems, generally covering 100 acres (40 hectares) of land. These forests usually contain large amounts of dense understory vegetation that provides them sufficient amount of food sources and favorable shelters. Oak-hickory hardwood forests are preferred over coniferous forests.Eastern gray squirrels generally prefer constructing their dens upon large tree branches and within the hollow trunks of trees. They also have been known to take shelter within abandoned bird nests. The dens are usually lined with moss plants, thistledown, dried grass, and feathers. These perhaps provide and assist in the insulation of the den, used to reduce heat loss. A cover to the den is usually built afterwards.Close to human settlements, eastern gray squirrels are found in parks and back yards of houses within urban environments and in the farmlands of rural environments.The Leading America Zoo Site on the Net. americazoo.com IntroductionsThe eastern gray squirrel is an introduced species in a variety of locations in western North America: in western Canada, to the southwest corner of British Columbia and to the city of Calgary, Alberta;Hinterland Who's Who – Eastern Grey Squirrel. Hww.ca in the United States, to the states of Washington and Oregon and, in California, to the city of San Francisco and the San Francisco Peninsula area in San Mateo and Santa Clara Counties, south of the city. It has become the most common squirrel in many urban and suburban habitats in western North America, from north of central California to southwest British Columbia. At the turn of the 19th to 20th centuries, the eastern gray squirrel was introduced into South Africa, Ireland, and England.In South Africa, though exotic, it is not usually considered an invasive species owing to its small range (only found in the extreme southwestern part of the Western Cape, going north as far as the small farming town of Franschhoek), as well because it inhabits urban areas and places greatly affected by humans, such as agricultural areas and exotic pine plantations. Here, it mostly eats acorns and pine seeds, although it will take indigenous and commercial fruit, as well.The Grey Squirrel – Sciurus carolinensis of Southern Africa. Home.intekom.com Even so, it is unable to use the natural vegetation (fynbos) found in the area, a factor which has helped to limit its spread.Sciurus carolinensis (Grey Squirrel). Biodiversityexplorer.org It does not come into contact with native squirrels due to geographic isolation (a native tree squirrel, Paraxerus cepapi, is found only in the savanna regions in the northeast of the country)Tree Squirrel | Rodent | Southern Africa. Krugerpark.co.za and different habitats.It spread rapidly across England and then became established in both Wales and parts of southern Scotland. On mainland Britain, it has almost entirely displaced the populations of native red squirrels. On the island of Ireland, this displacement has not been as rapid because there was only a single introduction, in County Longford. Schemes have been introduced to control the population in Ireland to encourage the native red squirrels. Eastern gray squirrels have also been introduced to Italy, and the European Union has expressed concern it will similarly displace the red squirrel from parts of the European continent. Displacement of red squirrels In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, the eastern gray squirrel is not regulated by natural predators.http://www.forestry.gov.uk/forestry/infd-6l4fdh This has aided its rapid population growth and has led to the species being classed as a pest. Measures are being devised to reduce its numbers, including one plan for celebrity television chefs to promote the idea of eating the squirrels. In areas where relict populations of red squirrel survive, such as the islands of Anglesey and Brownsea, programs exist to eradicate gray squirrels in an effort to allow red squirrel populations to recover.Red squirrel conservation, squirrel ecology and grey squirrel management. The Friends of the Anglesey Red SquirrelsAlthough complex and controversial, the main factor in the eastern gray squirrel's displacement of the red squirrel is thought to be its greater fitness and, hence, a competitive advantage over the red squirrel on all measures.Wauters, L. A., Gurnell, J., Martinoli, A., & Tosi, G. (2002): Interspecific competition between native Eurasian red squirrels and alien grey squirrels: does resource partitioning occur?, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 52(4): pp. 332–341 The eastern gray squirrel tends to be larger and stronger than the red squirrel and has been shown to have a greater ability to store fat for winter. The squirrel can therefore compete more effectively for a larger share of the available food, resulting in relatively lower survival and breeding rates among the red squirrel. Parapoxvirus may also be a strongly contributing factor; red squirrels have long been fatally affected by the disease, while the eastern gray squirrels are unaffected but thought to be carriers. However, there have recently been several cases of red squirrels surviving as they have developed an immunity - although it is worth noting that their population is still being massively affected. The red squirrel is also less tolerant of habitat destruction and fragmentation which has led to its population decline, while the more adaptable eastern gray squirrel has taken advantage and expanded.Similar factors appear to have been at play in the Pacific region of North America, where the native American red squirrel has been largely displaced by the eastern gray squirrel in parks and forests throughout much of the region.Ironically, "fears" for the future of the eastern gray squirrel arose in 2008, as the melanistic form (black) began to spread through the southern British population.20 January 2009: Black squirrels set to dominate. BBC News In the UK, if a "grey squirrel" (eastern gray squirrel) is trapped, under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, it is illegal to release it or to allow it to escape into the wild; instead, it should be humanely destroyed.Defra Rural Development Service Technical Advice Note 09 File:Eastern Gray Squirrel Philadelphia, PA.jpg|Eastern Gray Squirrel, city inhabitant of Philadelphia, PA File:2011.06.19 gray squirrel, Kensington Gardens, London, UK 008cc.jpg|Gray squirrel, London, UK File:Grey Squirrel Stripes Mobile Alabama Southeast Gulf Coast .JPG|A gray squirrel, seven months of age near Mobile, Alabama File:Eastern Grey Squirrel-black.jpg|Black ([[Melanism|melanistic]]) eastern gray squirrel, [[Ottawa]], [[Ontario]]

dc:language

en

dc:type

Habitat

Descriptions - 3

dc:license

CC-BY-SA 3.0

dc:description

Like many members of the family Sciuridae, the eastern gray squirrel is a scatter-hoarder; it hoards food in numerous small caches for later recovery. Some caches are quite temporary, especially those made near the site of a sudden abundance of food which can be retrieved within hours or days for reburial in a more secure site. Others are more permanent and are not retrieved until months later. Each squirrel is estimated to make several thousand caches each season. The squirrels have very accurate spatial memory for the locations of these caches, and use distant and nearby landmarks to retrieve them. Smell is used once the squirrel is within a few inches of the cache.Squirrels have been known to use deceptive behavior to prevent other animals from retrieving cached food. They will pretend to bury the object if they feel that they are being watched. They do this by preparing the spot as usual, for instance digging a hole or widening a crack, miming the placement of the food, while actually concealing it in their mouths, and then covering up the "cache" as if they had deposited the object. They will also hide behind vegetation while burying food or hide it high up in trees (if their rival is non-arboreous). Such a complex repertoire suggests that the behaviors are not innate, and imply theory of mind thinking.Grant, Steve (21 October 2004) "The Squirrel's Bag Of Tricks: They Can't Get Out Of The Way Of Cars, But Other Behaviors Demonstrate Advanced Thinking (for A Rodent)", The Hartford Courant."Smart squirrels fool food thieves", BBC Home, 17 January 2008.The eastern gray squirrel is one of very few mammalian species that can descend a tree head-first. It does this by turning its feet so the claws of its hind paws are backward pointing and can grip the tree bark.Alexander, R. McNeill (2003): Principles of animal locomotion: pp. 162. Princeton University PressEastern gray squirrels build a type of nest, known as a "drey", in the forks of trees, consisting mainly of dry leaves and twigs. Males and females may share the same nest for short times during the breeding season and during cold winter spells squirrels may share a drey to stay warm. They may also nest in the attic or exterior walls of a house, where they may be regarded as pests, and as fire hazards due to their habit of gnawing on electrical cables (see Tree squirrel for more on interactions with humans). In addition, squirrels may inhabit a permanent tree den hollowed out in the trunk or a large branch of a tree.Eastern gray squirrels are crepuscular, or more active during the early and late hours of the day, and tend to avoid the heat in the middle of a summer day. They do not hibernate.The Grey Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), Grey squirrel Advisory File:Squirrels drey.JPG|Eastern gray squirrel drey File:Squirrel in a Tree.JPG|Eastern gray squirrel in a tree PredationPredators include humans, hawks, weasels, raccoons, domestic and feral cats, snakes, owls, and dogs. In its introduced range in South Africa, it has been preyed on by African Harrier-Hawks.Polyboroides typus (African harrier-hawk, Gymnogene) Reproduction Eastern gray squirrels can breed twice a year, but younger and less experienced mothers will normally have a single litter per year in the spring. Depending on forage availability, older and more experienced females may breed again in summer.http://www.ccenassau.org/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/Squirrel_factsheet.209103258.pdf In a year of abundant mast crop 36% of females will bear two litters, but none will do so in a year of poor mast crop.Koprowski, John L. (2 December 1994): Sciurus carolinensis, Mammalian Species, 480: pp. 1–9 Their breeding seasons are December to February and May to June, though this is slightly delayed in more northern latitudes. The first litter is born in February or March, the second in June or July, though, again, birthing may be advanced or delayed by a few weeks depending on climate, temperature and forage availability. In any given breeding season an average of 61 - 66% of females will bear young. If a female fails to conceive or loses her young to unusually cold weather or predation, she will re-enter estrus and have a later litter.Normally, one to four young are born in each litter, but the largest, possible litter size is eight. The gestation period is about 44 days. The young are weaned at around 10 weeks, though some may wean up to six weeks later in the wild. They begin to leave the nest after 12 weeks, with autumn born young often wintering with their mother. Only one in four squirrel kits will survive to one year of age, with mortality of around 55% for the following year. Mortality rates then decrease to around 30% for following years until they increase sharply at eight years of age.Eastern gray females can rarely enter estrus as early as five and a half months old,Lawniczak, M. (2002): Sciurus carolinensis. Animal Diversity Web but females are not normally fertile before at least one year of age. Their mean age of first estrus is 1.25 years. Male Eastern Greys are sexually mature between one and two years of age.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4018551 These squirrels can live to be 20 years old in captivity, but in the wild live much shorter lives due to predation and the challenges of their habitat. Communication As in most other mammals, communication among eastern gray squirrel individuals involves both vocalizations and posturing. The species has a quite varied repertoire of vocalizations, including a squeak similar to that of a mouse, a low-pitched noise, a chatter, and a raspy "mehr mehr mehr". Other methods of communication include tail-flicking and other gestures, including facial expressions. Tail flicking and the "kuk" or "quaa" call are used to ward off and warn other squirrels about predators as well as to announce when a predator is leaving the area. Squirrels also make an affectionate coo-purring sound that biologists call the "muk-muk" sound. This is used as a contact sound between a mother and her kits and, in adulthood, by the male when he courts the female during mating season.The use of vocal and visual communication has been shown to vary by location, based on elements such as noise pollution and the amount of open space. For instance, populations living in large cities generally rely more on the visual signals, due to the generally louder environment with more areas without much visual restriction. However, in heavily wooded areas, vocal signals are used more often due to the presence of less noise and a dense canopy restricting visual range.http://www.currentzoology.org/temp/%7B9776C11E-254E-42C9-8B99-06749C919867%7D.pdf Diet Eastern gray squirrels eat a range of foods, such as tree bark, tree buds, berries, many types of seeds and acorns, walnuts, and other nuts, and some types of fungi found in the forests, including fly agaric mushrooms (Amanita muscaria). They can cause damage by tearing the tree bark and eating the soft cambial tissue underneath. In Europe, sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) L. and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) suffer the greatest damage.Butler, F. and Kelleher, C. (eds) 2012. All-Ireland Mammal Symposium 2009. Irish Naturalists' Journal, Belfast, ISBN 978-0-956704-1-1Eastern gray squirrels have a high enough tolerance for humans to inhabit residential neighborhoods and will raid bird feeders for millet, corn, and sunflower seeds. On very rare occasions, when their usual food sources are scarce, eastern gray squirrels will also prey upon insects, frogs, small rodents including other squirrels, and small birds, their eggs and young. They will also gnaw on bones, antlers, and turtle shells – likely as a source of minerals sparse in their normal diet.Long, Kim (September 1995): Squirrels: a wildlife handbook: pp. 95. Big Earth Publishing

dc:language

en

dc:type

Behavior

Descriptions - 4

dc:license

CC-BY-SA 3.0

dc:description

Sciurus carolinensis is native to the eastern and midwestern United States, and to the southerly portions of the eastern provinces of eastern Canada. The native range of the eastern gray squirrel overlaps with that of the fox squirrel (Sciurus niger), with which it is sometimes confused, although the core of the fox squirrel's range is slightly more to the west. The eastern gray squirrel is found from New Brunswick to Manitoba, south to East Texas and Florida. There are breeding eastern gray squirrels in Nova Scotia, but it is not known if this population was introduced or came from natural range expansion.Huynh H., Williams G., McAlpine D., and Thorington R., (2010): Establishment of the Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Nova Scotia, Canada, Northeastern Naturalist, 17(4): pp. 673–677 It has also been introduced into Ireland,McGoldrick, M. and Rochford, J. (2009): Recent range expansion by the Grey Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin 1788, I. Nat. J., 30: pp. 24–28 Britain, Italy, South Africa, and Australia (where it was extirpated by 1973). Eastern grey squirrels in Europe are a concern because they have displaced some of the native squirrels there.A prolific and adaptable species, the eastern gray squirrel has been introduced to, and thrives in, several regions of the western United States. The gray squirrel is an invasive species in Britain; it has spread across the country and has largely displaced the native red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris. In Ireland, the red squirrel has been displaced in several eastern counties, though it still remains common in the south and west of the country.Carey, M., Hamilton, G., Poole, A., and Lawton, C. (2007) The Irish Squirrel Survey 2007. COFORD, Dublin, ISBN 1902696603 There are concerns that such displacement might happen in Italy and that gray squirrels might spread from Italy to other parts of mainland Europe.Summary (of Bertolino S., Lurz. P.W.W., Rushton S.P. 2006, DIVAPRA Entomology & Zoology). Europeansquirrelinitiative.org

dc:language

en

dc:type

Distribution

Descriptions - 5

dc:license

CC-BY-SA 3.0

dc:description

The eastern gray squirrel or grey squirrel (depending on region), Sciurus carolinensis, is a tree squirrel in the genus Sciurus.

dc:language

en

dc:type

Abstract

Descriptions - 6

dc:license

CC-BY-SA 3.0

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The genus, Sciurus, is derived from two Greek words, skia, meaning shadow, and oura, meaning tail. This name alludes to the squirrel sitting in the shadow of its tail.Hamilton, H. (1990): Eastern Grey Squirrel. Hinterland Who's Who The specific epithet, carolinensis, refers to the Carolinas, where the species was first recorded and where the animal is still extremely common. In the United Kingdom and Canada, it is simply referred to as the "grey squirrel".

dc:language

en

dc:type

Etymology

Vernacular Names - 0

gbif:isPreferredName

true

dwc:vernacularName

Eastern gray squirrelSciurus carolinensis

dc:language

en

Distributions - 0

dwc:locality

Range in red(excludes introduced populations)

http://unknown.org/thumbnail

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8c/Sciurus_carolinensis_range_map.svg/220px-Sciurus_carolinensis_range_map.svg

http://unknown.org/link

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8c/Sciurus_carolinensis_range_map.svg

Images - 0

dc:title

http://unknown.org/thumbnail

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0a/Eastern_Grey_Squirrel.jpg/220px-Eastern_Grey_Squirrel.jpg

dc:license

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported

dc:source

BirdPhotos.com

dc:description

English: Eastern Grey Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Florida.

dc:created

3 March 2010

dc:creator

BirdPhotos.com

dc:publisher

Wikimedia Commons

dc:references

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eastern_Grey_Squirrel.jpg

dc:identifier

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0a/Eastern_Grey_Squirrel.jpg