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MaNIS/HerpNet/ORNIS georeferencing guidelines


Web document describing the georeferencing process in brief. Includes graphics, a glossary and a list of references. Last update from 2011.


Wieczorek, J.


University of California, Berkeley, Monday, September 24, 2001


This document contains information about assigning geographic coordinates, and maximum error distances for those coordinates, to locality descriptions. This document does not attempt to describe the tools and methods for finding named places on maps or in gazetteers. The process of assigning coordinates and errors, called "georeferencing" or "geocoding", can be rather complicated. The complexity of the process can be greatly reduced and the consistency of the results can be greatly increased by establishing some guidelines that cover most commonly encountered locality descriptions.

Bibliographic citation

Wieczorek, J. (2001). MaNIS/HerpNet/ORNIS Georeferencing Guidelines. Berkeley: University of California. Available online at


Jarrell, G.


Copyright © 2001-2011

Rights holder

University of California, Berkeley