MaNIS/HerpNet/ORNIS georeferencing guidelines

Web document describing the georeferencing process in brief. Includes graphics, a glossary and a list of references. Last update from 2011.


This document contains information about assigning geographic coordinates, and maximum error distances for those coordinates, to locality descriptions. This document does not attempt to describe the tools and methods for finding named places on maps or in gazetteers. The process of assigning coordinates and errors, called "georeferencing" or "geocoding", can be rather complicated. The complexity of the process can be greatly reduced and the consistency of the results can be greatly increased by establishing some guidelines that cover most commonly encountered locality descriptions.


Wieczorek, J. (2001). MaNIS/HerpNet/ORNIS Georeferencing Guidelines. Berkeley: University of California. Available online at


Wieczorek, J.


Jarrell, G.


University of California, Berkeley


Copyright © 2001-2011

Rights holder 

University of California, Berkeley