The Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary is the most important sanctuary in north Bengal. It is located on the west bank of the Teesta River in the Terai plains of Darjeeling. It includes nine major forest ranges: Kalijhora, Latpanchor, Punding, Sukuna, Gulma, Toribari, Sevoke, Seventh Mile, and Latlong. Vegetation types include grassland, riparian forest, floodplain forest, sal forest, and mixed forest near the river, with drought deciduous hill forest at higher elevations. The Terai belt of the Sanctuary is an important corridor for elephants migrating from Nepal through West Bengal to Assam.