Study area description
The area includes the paramo complex Chiles - Cumbal (Chiles, Cumbal, Azufral volcanoes), also the Galeras volcano in the Nariño province. And the Tatama - Frontino complex, also the Paramillos in Argelia, in the provinces of Cauca, Choco and Risaralda.
The volcanoes of Cumbal (4760m), Chiles (4764m), Azufral (4070m)and Galeras (4276m) are located in the municipalities of Cumbal, Chiles, Tuquerres and Pasto, Sandona, Consaca and Yacuanquer,Florida, Ancuya, Tangua, El Encanto, Guaitaerilla, Tuquerres, Guachucal and Carlosama.
For the Tatama area, it includes the paramo located on the upper part of the Tatama massif (4100m) which is placed in the central part of the western cordillera. The paramo is located along the border of the provinces of Risaralda and Choco.
The vegetation study in the Cauca province, had a focus in the Cerro Plateado in de municipality of Argelia. Particularly in the high watershed of the Plateado river (which joints the San Juan de Micay rivers)
The vegetation studied included species from middle paramo, subparamo and superparamo ecosystems. With releves of zonal, extrazonal and azonal paramo vegetation.
At the time of studies most of the paramo vegetation in the area was not known.
The method used for paramo vegetation sampling was based on the Braun-Blanquet or Zürich-Montpellier schools which take the relevé as the main sampling unit. The releves were made of zonal and azonal paramo vegetation. The Braun-Blanquet method is based on dominant species that are grouped in associations and then at a higher level in alliances. This is the standard methodology used in Europe, SouthAfrica, United States, Japan and in the world in general. One of the final goals of the methodology mainly in Europe is to get to nature conservation, which is also the goal in the Colombian paramos.
Rangel, O. and Ariza C., 2000.
Literature study funded by Instituto Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales (ICN)-Universidad Nacional De Colombia.
Sturm H., and O. Rangel 1985, funded by:
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Insituto de Ciencias Naturales (ICN) from Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Empresa de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Bogota
The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD)
Fondo Colombiano de Insvestigaciones Cientificas (COLCIENCIAS)
Hugo de Vries Laboratory (IBED-University of Amsterdam)
Dierikx L. and M. Kaandorp, 1986 funded by
University of Amsterdam (Werkgroep Studiereizen Ontwikkelingslanden (WSO), The Hague and the Vakgroep Bijzondere Plankunde.
ECOANDES project funded by:
Insituto geografico "Agustin Codazzi" (Colombia), Insituto de Ciencias Naturales-ICN from Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Hugo de Vries Laboratory (IBED-University of Amsterdam) and Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research-WOTRO (Grant No. W84-188).
M.L. Becking, 1995. Funded by:
Treub Fonds, Paramillos phase I, The Netherlands.
Hugo de Vries fonds, Paramillos phase II, The Netherlands
Proyecto Biopacifico, Colombia
Fondo FEN, Colombia