Records of Avifauna of Wetlands arou…

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Full Title

Records of Avifauna of Wetlands around Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, India

Description

Keoladeo National Park (KNP) is one of the six natural World Heritage Sites in India inscribed by UNESCO. KNP is famous for its rich avifaunal diversity, resulting from its location in a semi-arid landscape on the Central Asian Flyway. Several species of migratory bird of this wetland also move to nearby satellite wetlands for foraging whenever the water in KNP is inadequate. In this context, ecological surveys were carried out during 2009–2011 as part of a long-term monitoring exercise to develop a database of the migratory birds that use KNP and its satellite wetlands. The objective of developing the database was to prepare a comprehensive landscape-level management plan. Twelve satellite wetlands within a 100 km radius of KNP were surveyed. The data set lists distribution data of the avifauna, including the status and taxonomic information, descriptions of the wetlands (with localities, county and geographic coordinates) and sampling details (collector and sampling dates). The data set includes 33,238 records corresponding, with 15 families involved. This data record is a significant contribution to the knowledge management system of the avifauna of this region. It will be useful for future studies on birds and their habitats and conservation.

Purpose

All over the world there is increasing interest in the conservation of water birds and their wetland habitats. These habitats are under pressure due to certain environmental changes and human activities (Turner et al. 2000; Froneman et al. 2001). India is estimated to have about 58.2 million hectares of wetlands (Prasad et al. 2002). Many of these wetlands are distributed around the Indo-Gangetic plains. Numerous direct and indirect pressures arising from different types of economic development and associated activities are having adverse impacts on these wetlands habitat. Apart from the natural wetlands of India, which support 20% of the known biodiversity (Deepa and Ramachandra 1999), there are many man-made wetlands, such as dams and ponds, in the country that also support floral and faunal diversity. The importance of artificial wetlands has been studied by many authors, and they have suggested that these wetlands can provide suitable habitats for water birds (Tourenq et al. 2001, McKinstry and Anderson 2002, Paracuellos and Telleria 2004, Santoul et al. 2004, Okes et al. 2008, Rendon et al. 2008). Keoladeo National Park (KNP), a protected area, is a man-made wetland of the Gangetic plains that attracts several thousands of migratory birds in winter. Significant numbers of birds also visit the nearby satellite wetlands daily for foraging, but these wetlands are not protected. A few scattered studies have been carried out on the avifauna of this region (Bhadouria et al. 2010). Narwade et al. (2011) have provided data available in the literature on the birds of northeast India. But so far no comprehensive dataset has been published on the avifauna of the region. The purpose of this paper is to document a data set, comprising 33,238 sight records of birds belonging to 15 families (Fig.2) from the satellite wetlands of KNP. Biodiversity data are neither accessible nor discoverable (Chavan and Ingwersen, 2009).We believe that this dataset is a significant contribution to the knowledge management system of the avifauna of this region and that it will be useful for future studies on birds and their habitats. Further, this data set will help develop a landscape-level management plan for KNP and its satellite wetlands, with a special focus on the birds.

Temporal coverages

Date range: Jul 1, 2009 - Dec 31, 2011

Language of Data

 

Administrative contact
Bhumesh Singh Bhadouria Bhadouria
Project Asssociate
Wildlife Institute of India Chandrabhani, Dehradun, Uttarakhand IN, 248001 248001 Dehradun Uttarakhand India 0135-2640304
Metadata author
Bhumesh Singh Bhadouria
Project Asssociate
Wildlife Institute of India Chandrabhani 248001 Dehradun Uttarakhand India 0135-2640305
Originator
Bhumesh Singh Bhadouria
Project Asssociate
Wildlife Institute of India Chandrabhani 248001 Dehradun Uttarakhand India 0135-2640304

Published by

Wildlife Institute of India

Publication Date

Jan 20, 2015

Registration Date

Oct 3, 2013

Served by

Wildlife Institute of India

Links

External Data

Metadata Documents

Taxonomic Coverage

This is an observation-based collection of data on the avifauna found in KNP and the 12 satellite wetlands that were surveyed. All birds were recorded between July 2009 and December 2011. The taxonomic coverage of this data set spans the class Aves. The largest number of records was from the family Anatidae (N=24,873), followed by the Phalacrocoracidae (N=3558), Threskiornithidae (N=1450), Scolopacidae (N=1302), Rallidae (N=605), Ardeidae (N=522), Recurvirostridae (N=419), Ciconiidae (224), Podicipedidae (N=116), Laridae (N=91) and Jacanidae (N=55).The families with the least records were the Campephagidae (N=6), Charadriidae (N=6), Alcedinidae (N=6) and Accipitridae (N=5).

RANK_NOT_SPECIFIED
Tachybaptus ruficollis, Tachybaptus ruficollis, Phalacrocorax niger, Phalacrocorax niger, Phalacrocorax fuscicollis, Phalacrocorax carbo, Egretta garzetta, Ardea cinerea, Casmerodius albus, Mesophoyx intermedia, Bubulcus ibis, Ardeola grayii, Mycteria leucocephala, Anastomus oscitans, Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus, Platalea leucorodia, Dendrocygna javanica, Anser anser, Anser indicus, Tadorna ferruginea, Sarkidiornis melanotos, Nettapus coromandelianus, Anas strepera, Anas penelope, Anas poecilorhyncha, Anas clypeata, Anas acuta, Anas crecca, Netta rufina, Aythya ferina, Gallinula chloropus, Fulica atra, Metopidius indicus, Vanellus indicus, Tringa erythropus, Tringa totanus, Tringa stagnatilis, Tringa nebularia, Calidris minuta, Philomachus pugnax, Himantopus himantopus, Sterna aurantia, Chlidonias hybrida, Ceryle rudis

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Description

This paper describes a distributional dataset of the birds occurring in KNP and 12 satellite wetlands. These wetlands lie at the edge of the Gangetic plain but near the margin of the Thar Desert, at t… more

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Geographic Coverage

This paper describes a distributional dataset of the birds occurring in KNP and 12 satellite wetlands. These wetlands lie at the edge of the Gangetic plain but near the margin of the Thar Desert, at the junction of the Gambhir and Banaganga rivers (Fig.3). Further, these wetlands are also part of the Central Asian Flyway.The details of Geographic locations of wetlands presented in table no.1.

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Study area description

KNP, with an extent of 2873 ha, lies at the edge of the Gangetic plain(27° 8′ to 27° 12′ N and 77° 30′ to 77° 34′ E), near the margin of the Thar Desert, in a depression at the junction of the Gambhir and Banaganga rivers (Fig.1). KNP has a climate with hot summers and freezing cold winters. The mean maximum temperature ranges from 20.9°C, in January, to 47.8°C, in May, while the minimum mean temperature varies from 6.8°C, in December, to 26.5°C, in June. The mean annual precipitation is 743 mm, with rain falling on an average of 39 days per year, mainly during the monsoon, in July and August. More than 350 species of bird have been recorded in KNP, with a high diversity of migratory birds during winter. Indeed, KNP is known as “Birders Paradise” as the park lies on the Central Asian Flyway, one of the Asia Pacific global migratory flyways. It is a wintering ground for a large number of migratory waterfowl that breed in the Palaearctic region. Due to its rich avian biodiversity value, the park has been declared a Ramsar site as well as a World Heritage Site. The populations of both the migratory and resident water birds in the region have been declining due to a prolonged drought and a scarcity of water in its reservoirs. Birds known to reside within KNP move to the nearby satellite wetlands whenever there is a shortage of water inside the park (Mathur et al. 2009). There are 27 satellite wetlands located within a 100 km radius of KNP.

Design description

This data set was developed to determine the current distribution patterns of bird species in the wetlands around KNP. Direct as well as indirect methods were used to estimate the populations of these species in the study area. Water birds were counted over a period of 3 years, from 2009 to 2011. All the birds present in the wetland were identified and counted (Bibby et al. 1993). Birds were located by walking along the edge of the wetland with a pair of binoculars and a telescope. Birds were identified to species level by consulting Ali (1996), Ali and Ripley (1986) and Bhusan et al. (1993). The data set is exported in the Darwin Core v1. format and uploaded to the IPT of the GBIF Indian node (www.ibif.gov.in/ipt). Darwin Core Archive direct observation-based species occurrence data of birds of fragmented wetlands around KNP. Chavan and Penav (2011) and GBIF best practice guidelines (2013) were followed for the creation of metadata.

Funding

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and United Nations Foundation (UNF)

Project Personnel

Author
Bhumesh Singh Bhadouria

Associated parties

Programmer
Dinesh Singh Pundir
TG-IV(3)
Wildlife Institute of India Chandrabani 248001 Dehradun Uttarakhand India
Publisher
Gautam Talukdar
Scientist
Wildlife Institute of India Chandrabani 248001 Dehradun Uttarakhand India
Administrative contact
Anoop K.R.
Director
Rajasthan Forest Department Keoladeo National Park 321001 Bharatpur Rajasthan India

Methodology

Study extent

This paper describes a distributional dataset of birds occurring in KNP and 12 satellite wetlands. These wetlands lie at the edge of the Gangetic plain but near the margin of the Thar Desert, at the junction of the Gambhir and Banaganga rivers (Fig.3). Further, these wetlands also lie on the Central Asian Flyway. Kealadeo National Park with an extent of 2873 ha, lies at the edge of the Gangetic plain (27° 8′ to 27° 12′ N and 77° 30′ to 77° 34′ E). The details of Geographic locations of wetlands presented in table no.1.

Sampling description

Water birds were counted over a period of 3 years, from 2009 to 2011.Wetlands were identified and selected for this purpose on the basis of reports and official documents available at KNP’s administration. Birds were located by walking along the edge of the wetland, using binoculars and telescopes. Birds were identified to species level by consulting Ali (1996), Ali and Ripley (1986) and Bhusan et al. (1993). The GPS locations of all the wetlands were recorded. The aerial distance of each wetland from KNP was calculated using an online aerial distance calculator.

Quality control

All the birds present were counted and identified as described in Bibby et al. (1993) and by consulting subject experts. Further identification of individuals up to species level was done by consulting Ali (1996), Ali and Ripley (1986) and Bhusan et al. (1993). All the collected data were entered in an MS Excel worksheet and the quality of the data entered was ensured through checks.

Method Steps

  1. Water birds were counted over a period of 3 years, from 2009 to 2011.The counting was done between 12:00 and 17:00 hours, using binoculars and telescopes. Birds were located by walking along the edge of the wetland where most of the surface area and the edge of the water were visible. All the birds present were identified and counted as described in Bibby et al. (1993) and identified to species level by consulting Ali (1996), Ali and Ripley (1986) and Bhusan et al. (1993). The bird species richness at each site was determined as the total number of species observed (Ludwig and Reynolds, 1988).

References

Ali, S. 1996. The Book of Indian Birds. Bombay Natural History Society, Oxford University Press, Mumbai.

Ali, S. and Ripley S.D.,1986. Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan, Vol. V. Oxford University Press, London.

Bhusan, B., Fry, G., Hibi, A., Mundkur, T., Prawiradilaga, D.M., Sonobe, K. and Usui, S. 1993. A Field Guide to the Water Birds of Asia.Wildlife Society, Japan.

Bibby, C., Burgess, N. and Hill, D. 1993.Bird Census Techniques. Academic Press Limited, London.

Chavan V and Ingwersen P (2009) (Towards a data publishing framework for primary biodiversity data: challenges and potentials for the biodiversity informatics community. BMC Bioinformatics 2009, 10 (Suppl 14):52doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-10-S14-S2

Deepa, R.S. and Ramachandra, T.V. 1999. Impact of urbanization in the interconnectivity of wetlands. Paper presented at the National Symposium on Remote Sensing Applications for Natural Resources: Retrospective and Perspective (XIX–XXI 1999), Indian Society of Remote Sensing, Bangalore, India.

Froneman, A., Mangnall, M.J., Little, R.M. and Crowe, T.M. 2001. Water bird assemblages and associated habitat characteristics of farm ponds in the Western Cape, South Africa. Biodiversity Conservation 10:251–270.

Ludwig, J.A. and Reynolds, J.F. 1988.Statistical Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 337 pp.

McKinstry, M.C. and Anderson, S.H. 2002.Creating wetlands for waterfowl in Wyoming.Ecological Engineering 18: 293–304.

Okes, N.C., Hockey, P.A.R. and Cumming, G.S. 2008. Habitat use and life history as predictors of bird responses to habitat change. Conservation Biology 22: 151–162.

Paracuellos, M. and Telleria, J.L. 2004. Factors affecting the distribution of a water bird community: The role of habitat configuration and bird abundance. Waterbirds 27(4): 446–453.

Prasad, S.N., Ramachandra, T.V., Ahalya, N., Sengupta, T., Kumar, A., Tiwari, A.K., Vijayan, V.S. and Vijayan, L. 2002. Conservation of wetlands of India: A review. Tropical Ecology 43(1):173–186

Rendon, M.A., Green, AJ.,Aquilera, E. and Almaraz, P. 2008. Status, distribution and long-term changes in the water bird community wintering in Doñana, south-west Spain.Biological Conservation 141: 1371–1388.

Santoul, F., Figuerola, J. and Green, A.J. 2004. Importance of gravel pits for the conservation of waterbirds in the Garonne river floodplain (southwest France). Biodiversity Conservation 13: 1231–1243.

Tourenq, C., Bennets, R.E., Kowalski, H., Vialet, E., Licchesi, J.-L., Kayser, Y. and Isenmann, P. 2001. Are rice fields a good alternative to natural marshes for waterbird communities in the Camargue, southern France? Biological Conservation 100: 335–343.

Turner, R.K., Van den Berg, J.C.J.M., Soderqvist, T., Barendregt, A., Van der Straaten, J., Maltby, E., and Ierland, E.C. 2000. Ecological–economic analysis of wetlands: Scientific integration for management and policy. Ecological Economics 35(1):7–23.

Arino, AH., Chavan V., Mackline JA., Ghose-Harihar M, Mathur V., GaijiS., Flemons P. (2013) GBIF Best Practice Guide for Content Need Assessment of Stakeholder Communities, Ver.1.0. Copenhagen: Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Pp. 62

Bhadouria, B.S., Mathur,V.B. and Sivakumar, K. 2010. A survey of avifaunal diversity in wetlands around Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. Bird Population 11:1–6.

Chavan V, Penev L (2011) The data paper: a mechanism to incentivize data publishing in biodiversityscience. BMC Bioinformatics 12 (Suppl 15): 52. doi:10.1186/1471-2105-12-S15-S2

Mathur, V.B., Sivakumar, K., Singh, B. and Anoop, K.R. 2009. A Bibliographical Review for Identifying Research Gap Areas: Keoladeo Ghana National Park, a World Heritage Site. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun.

Narwade, S., Kalra, M., Jagdish, R., Varier, D., Satpute, S., Khan, N., Talukdar, G., Mathur, V.B., Vasudevan, K., Pundir, D.S., Chavan, V. and Sood, R. 2011. Literature based species occurrence data of birds of northeast India. In: Smith, V. and Penev, L. (Eds.) e-Infrastructures for Data Publishing in Biodiversity Science. ZooKeys 150: 407–417. doi:10.3897/zookeys.150.2002