Uses of GBIF in scientific research

Peer-reviewed research citing GBIF as a data source, with at least one author from South Africa.
Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.

List of publications

  • Nxumalo MM, Lalla R R (2016)

    Hydrocleys nymphoides (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Buchenau: first record of naturalisation in South Africa

    BioInvasions Records 5.

    Hydrocleys nymphoides (water poppy), an aquatic plant native to South America, has been recorded as invasive on several continents (Europe, Australia and Asia). Here we report on the first known natura lized population in South Africa, in a dam in the KwaZulu-Natal (K ZN) Midlands region, near the town of Howick. This popu lation, first detected and identified in 2009, had by the end of the 2013 summer seas on occupied 1.8ha (30% of the dam). Surveys of 34 surrounding water bodies during the period between 2012 and 2013 did not result in detection of any new populations. The only other population (0.1 ha) was recorded growin g in cultivation at the Durban Botanic Gardens. This note re ports on the history of H. nymphoides in South Africa, details its current and potential distribution, looks at the risk it poses, and outlines plans for nation-wid e eradication.

    Keywords: South, invasive alien aquatic plant, water poppy

  • Assis J, Zupan M, Nicastro K, Zardi G, McQuaid C, Serrão E (2015)

    Oceanographic Conditions Limit the Spread of a Marine Invader along Southern African Shores.

    PloS one 10(6) e0128124.

    Invasive species can affect the function and structure of natural ecological communities, hence understanding and predicting their potential for spreading is a major ecological challenge. Once established in a new region, the spread of invasive species is largely controlled by their dispersal capacity, local environmental conditions and species interactions. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is native to the Mediterranean and is the most successful marine invader in southern Africa. Its distribution there has expanded rapidly and extensively since the 1970s, however, over the last decade its spread has ceased. In this study, we coupled broad scale field surveys, Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) and Lagrangian Particle Simulations (LPS) to assess the current invaded distribution of M. galloprovincialis in southern Africa and to evaluate what prevents further spread of this species. Results showed that all environmentally suitable habitats in southern Africa have been occupied by the species. This includes rocky shores between Rocky Point in Namibia and East London in South Africa (approx. 2800 km) and these limits coincide with the steep transitions between cool-temperate and subtropical-warmer climates, on both west and southeast African coasts. On the west coast, simulations of drifting larvae almost entirely followed the northward and offshore direction of the Benguela current, creating a clear dispersal barrier by advecting larvae away from the coast. On the southeast coast, nearshore currents give larvae the potential to move eastwards, against the prevalent Agulhas current and beyond the present distributional limit, however environmental conditions prevent the establishment of the species. The transition between the cooler and warmer water regimes is therefore the main factor limiting the northern spread on the southeast coast; however, biotic interactions with native fauna may also play an important role.

    Keywords: South, invasive alien aquatic plant, water poppy

  • Brummitt N, Bachman S, Griffiths-Lee J, Lutz M, Moat J, Farjon A et al. (2015)

    Green Plants in the Red: A Baseline Global Assessment for the IUCN Sampled Red List Index for Plants.

    PloS one 10(8) e0135152.

    Plants provide fundamental support systems for life on Earth and are the basis for all terrestrial ecosystems; a decline in plant diversity will be detrimental to all other groups of organisms including humans. Decline in plant diversity has been hard to quantify, due to the huge numbers of known and yet to be discovered species and the lack of an adequate baseline assessment of extinction risk against which to track changes. The biodiversity of many remote parts of the world remains poorly known, and the rate of new assessments of extinction risk for individual plant species approximates the rate at which new plant species are described. Thus the question 'How threatened are plants?' is still very difficult to answer accurately. While completing assessments for each species of plant remains a distant prospect, by assessing a randomly selected sample of species the Sampled Red List Index for Plants gives, for the first time, an accurate view of how threatened plants are across the world. It represents the first key phase of ongoing efforts to monitor the status of the world's plants. More than 20% of plant species assessed are threatened with extinction, and the habitat with the most threatened species is overwhelmingly tropical rain forest, where the greatest threat to plants is anthropogenic habitat conversion, for arable and livestock agriculture, and harvesting of natural resources. Gymnosperms (e.g. conifers and cycads) are the most threatened group, while a third of plant species included in this study have yet to receive an assessment or are so poorly known that we cannot yet ascertain whether they are threatened or not. This study provides a baseline assessment from which trends in the status of plant biodiversity can be measured and periodically reassessed.

    Keywords: South, invasive alien aquatic plant, water poppy

  • Cheek M (2015)

    First official record of a naturalised population of Mimosa albida Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. var. albida in Africa

    BioInvasions Records 4.

    Mimosa albida var. albida is a woody shrub indigenous to Central and South America that is well adapted to disturbed habitats. This paper is the first formal report of this species outside of cultivation in Africa. A total of 61 plants were recorded along a 1.5km arc of the Mkhomazi River in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Effort s are underway to eradicate the population.

    Keywords: South Africa, ornament al plants, riparian weeds

  • Gallien L, Saladin B, Boucher F, Richardson D, Zimmermann N (2015)

    Does the legacy of historical biogeography shape current invasiveness in pines?

    The New phytologist.

    Why are some introduced species more successful at establishing and spreading than others? Until now, characteristics of extant species have been intensively investigated to answer this question. We propose to gain new insights on species invasiveness by exploring the long-term biogeographic and evolutionary history of lineages. We exemplify our approach using one of the best-studied invasive plant genera, Pinus. We notably estimated the historical biogeography of pines and the rates of trait evolution in pines. These estimates were analysed with regard to species invasiveness status. The results revealed that currently invasive species belong to lineages that were particularly successful at colonizing new regions in the past. We also showed that highly mobile lineages had faster rates of niche evolution, but that these rates are poor proxies for species adaptive potential in invaded regions (estimated by niche shift among native and invaded regions). In summary, working at the interface of ecology, historical biogeography and evolutionary history offers stimulating perspectives to improve our understanding of the drivers of invasion success.

    Keywords: Pinus, biological invasions, evolutionary history, invasiveness, migration, model averaging, niche shift, tree invasions

  • González-Moreno P, Diez J, Richardson D, Vilà M (2015)

    Beyond climate: disturbance niche shifts in invasive species

    Global Ecology and Biogeography n/a-n/a.

    Aim Analysing how species niches shift between native and introduced ranges is a powerful tool for understanding the determinants of species distributions and for anticipating range expansions by invasive species. Most studies only consider the climatic niche, by correlating widely available presence-only data with regional climate. However, habitat characteristics and disturbance also shape species niches, thereby potentially confounding shifts attributed only to differences in climate. Here we used presence and abundance data for Oxalis pes-caprae, a species native to South Africa and invading areas globally, to understand how niche shifts may be influenced by disturbance at habitat and landscape scales in addition to climate. Locality Mediterranean climate areas world-wide. Methods We used available presence-only data and also conducted extensive surveys of the abundance of Oxalis (c. 11,000 plots) across different habitats in South Africa and in the introduced range in the Mediterranean Basin. We extended principal component analysis methods for measuring niche shifts by using Bayesian generalized linear models to identify climatic and disturbance niche shifts. Results We found a large climatic niche expansion towards stronger seasonality and lower temperature in the introduced range, but this expansion was greatly reduced when considering only conditions available in both ranges. Oxalis occupied more natural landscapes in the native range that remained unoccupied in the introduced range (‘niche unfilling’). In contrast to the similar abundances in natural and disturbed habitats in its native range, Oxalis was more abundant in disturbed habitats in the introduced range. Conclusions The large climatic niche expansion most likely reflects significant plasticity of Oxalis rather than rapid evolution. Furthermore, the unfilling of its disturbance niche in the introduced range suggests high potential for further invasion of natural areas. Together, these findings suggest that the potential for future spread of invasive species may be underestimated by approaches that characterize species niches based only on climate or partial information about their distributions.

    Keywords: Bayesian, Oxalis pes-caprae, biological invasions, invasion risk, niche conservatism, non-native species, reciprocal distribution modelling

  • Jaca TP P (2015)

    Abutilon grandifolium

    Flowering Plants of Africa 64 76-83.

    Abutilon , established by Miller (1754), is a large genus in the Malvaceae family with more than 200 species. The Malvaceae are traditionally placed in the order Malvales, which includes important families such as Tiliaceae, Sterculiaceae and Bombacaceae (Mitchell 1982). The Malvales is a large and important natural order with its members found throughout the world, except in the Arctic regions (Masters 1868). These families are linked together by similarities in floral and pollen mor - phology, wood anatomy (Metcalfe & Chalk 1950; Manchester & Miller 1978) and leaf structure (Manchester 1992). Recent studies in molecular systematics also confirm these similarities among these four families, although phylogenetic relationship within the families remains unclear (Alverson et al . 1999)

    Keywords: Bayesian, Oxalis pes-caprae, biological invasions, invasion risk, niche conservatism, non-native species, reciprocal distribution modelling

  • Jacobs, L. E. O., van Wyk, E., Wilson J (2015)

    Recent discovery of small naturalised populations of Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake in South Africa

    BioInvasions Records ( 4.

    The discovery of a naturalised population of Melaleuca quinquenervia in South Africa in 2009 prompted an evaluation of the species’ distribution across South Africa. We found reco rds at seven localities in two of the nine provinces of South Africa, with natur alised populations at two sites — ~300 plants were discovered over 0.3ha in a confined-seep on a mountain slope, while at an old arboretum 12 large, planted trees and 9 naturalised trees were found. An additional herbarium record from Mozambique suggests that this glob al invader is present at other sites within the sub-region, and so while th e extirpation of populations in South Africa is recommended and lo oks feasible, further work is required to de termine the status and evaluate whether eradica tion from the sub-region as a whole is possible.

    Keywords: Myrta, early detection, eradication, invasive tree

  • Mainali K, Warren D, Dhileepan K, McConnachie A, Strathie L, Hassan G et al. (2015)

    Projecting future expansion of invasive species: Comparing and improving methodologies for species distribution modeling.

    Global change biology 21(12) 4464-4480.

    Modeling the distributions of species, especially of invasive species in non-native ranges, involves multiple challenges. Here, we developed some novel approaches to species distribution modeling aimed at reducing the influences of such challenges and improving the realism of projections. We estimated species-environment relationships with four modeling methods run with multiple scenarios of (1) sources of occurrences and geographically isolated background ranges for absences, (2) approaches to drawing background (absence) points, and (3) alternate sets of predictor variables. We further tested various quantitative metrics of model evaluation against biological insight. Model projections were very sensitive to the choice of training dataset. Model accuracy was much improved by using a global dataset for model training, rather than restricting data input to the species' native range. AUC score was a poor metric for model evaluation and, if used alone, was not a useful criterion for assessing model performance. Projections away from the sampled space (i.e. into areas of potential future invasion) were very different depending on the modeling methods used, raising questions about the reliability of ensemble projections. Generalized linear models gave very unrealistic projections far away from the training region. Models that efficiently fit the dominant pattern, but exclude highly local patterns in the dataset and capture interactions as they appear in data (e.g. boosted regression trees), improved generalization of the models. Biological knowledge of the species and its distribution was important in refining choices about the best set of projections. A post-hoc test conducted on a new Partenium dataset from Nepal validated excellent predictive performance of our "best" model. We showed that vast stretches of currently uninvaded geographic areas on multiple continents harbor highly suitable habitats for Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae; parthenium). However, discrepancies between model predictions and parthenium invasion in Australia indicate successful management for this globally significant weed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    Keywords: AUC, Parthenium hysterophorus, boosted regression trees, generalized additive models, generalized linear models, invasive species, model evaluation, nonequilibrium distribution, random forests, species distribution modeling

  • Richardson D, Le Roux J, Wilson J (2015)

    Australian acacias as invasive species: lessons to be learnt from regions with long planting histories

    Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science 1-9.

    Problems associated with invasiveness of non-native tree species used in forestry are increasing rapidly worldwide and are most severe in areas with a long history of plantings. Lessons learnt in areas with long histories of plantings and invasions may be applicable to areas with shorter planting histories. Most research towards understanding such tree invasions has focused on Pinus species, though all groups of trees that have been widely used in forestry are invasive to some extent. This paper explores the experience of Australian Acacia species (wattles). Unlike some other groups of trees, no particular set of traits clearly separates highly invasive from less- or non-invasive wattles. All species that have been widely planted over a long period have become invasive; the extent of invasions is largely a function of human usage. These findings imply that propagule pressure in concert with residence times are the main drivers of invasiveness in wattles (many factors mediate these drivers, including fire,...

    Keywords: biological invasions, forestry, sustainable forestry, tree invasions, wattles