Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.
Aguirre-Santoro J, Michelangeli F, Stevenson D (2016)
Molecular Phylogenetics of the Ronnbergia Alliance (Bromeliaceae, Bromelioideae) and insights into their morphological evolution.
Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 100 1-20.
The tank-epiphytic clade of berry-fruited bromeliads, also known as the Core Bromelioideae, represents a remarkable event of adaptive radiation within the Bromeliaceae; however, the details of this radiation have been difficult to study because this lineage is plagued with generic delimitation problems. In this study, we used a phylogenetic approach to investigate a well supported, albeit poorly understood, lineage nested within the Core Bromelioideae, here called the "Ronnbergia Alliance." In order to assess the monophyly and phylogenetic relationships of this group, we used three plastid and three nuclear DNA sequence markers combined with a broad sampling across three taxonomic groups and allied species of Aechmea expected to comprise the Ronnbergia Alliance. We combined the datasets to produce a well-supported and resolved phylogenetic hypothesis. Our main results indicated that the Ronnbergia Alliance was a well-supported monophyletic group, sister to the remaining Core Bromelioideae, and it was composed by species of the polyphyletic genera Aechmea, Hohenbergia and Ronnbergia. We identified two major internal lineages with high geographic structure within the Ronnbergia Alliance. The first of these lineages, called the Pacific Clade, contained species of Aechmea and Ronnbergia that occur exclusively from southern Central America to northwestern South America. The second clade, called the Atlantic Clade, contained species of Aechmea, Hohenbergia and Ronnbergia mostly limited to the Atlantic Forest and the Caribbean. We also explored the diagnostic and evolutionary importance of 13 selected characters using ancestral character reconstructions on the phylogenetic hypothesis. We found that the combination of tubular corollas apically spreading and unappendaged ovules had diagnostic value for the Ronnbergia Alliance, whereas flower size, length of the corolla tube, and petal pigmentation and apex were important characters to differentiate the Pacific and Atlantic clades. This study opens new perspectives for future taxonomic reorganizations and provides a framework for evolutionary and biogeographic studies.
Keywords: Atlantic Forest, Bromeliaceae, Bromelioideae, Caribbean, Chocó-Tumbes-Magdalena region, Ronnbergia Alliance
Alimi T, Fuller D, Herrera S, Arevalo-Herrera M, Quinones M, Stoler J et al. (2016)
BMC public health 16(1) 221.
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in South America has vastly improved in the past decade, leading to a decrease in the malaria burden. Despite the progress, large parts of the continent continue to be at risk of malaria transmission, especially in northern South America. The objectives of this study were to assess the risk of malaria transmission and vector exposure in northern South America using multi-criteria decision analysis. METHODS: The risk of malaria transmission and vector exposure in northern South America was assessed using multi-criteria decision analysis, in which expert opinions were taken on the key environmental and population risk factors. RESULTS: Results from our risk maps indicated areas of moderate-to-high risk along rivers in the Amazon basin, along the coasts of the Guianas, the Pacific coast of Colombia and northern Colombia, in parts of Peru and Bolivia and within the Brazilian Amazon. When validated with occurrence records for malaria, An. darlingi, An. albimanus and An. nuneztovari s.l., t-test results indicated that risk scores at occurrence locations were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than a control group of geographically random points. CONCLUSION: In this study, we produced risk maps based on expert opinion on the spatial representation of risk of potential vector exposure and malaria transmission. The findings provide information to the public health decision maker/policy makers to give additional attention to the spatial planning of effective vector control measures. Therefore, as the region tackles the challenge of malaria elimination, prioritizing areas for interventions by using spatially accurate, high-resolution (1 km or less) risk maps may guide targeted control and help reduce the disease burden in the region.
Keywords: Biostatistics, Environmental Health, Epidemiology, Medicine/Public Health, Public Health, Vaccine, general
Bocsi T, Allen J, Bellemare J, Kartesz J, Nishino M, Bradley B (2016)
Diversity and Distributions.
Aim Biogeographers have long known that plant species do not fully encompass their fundamental niche. Nonetheless, in practice, species distribution modelling assumes that plant distributions represent a reasonable approximation of their environmental tolerance. For ecological forecasting, projections of habitat loss due to climate change assume that many species will be unable to tolerate climate conditions outside of those found within their current distributional ranges. We aim to test how well occurrences in the native range approximate the climatic conditions in which plant species can survive. Location Continental USA. Methods We compared the climatic conditions between occurrences in the US native versus US non-native ranges using 144 non-invasive plant species. We quantified differences in January minimum temperature, July maximum temperature and annual precipitation as indicators of climatic tolerance. We also compared modelled potential distributions throughout the US based on native and total ranges to test how expanded climatic tolerance translates into predicted geographical range. Results Most species (86%) had non-native occurrences in climates outside those described by their native distributions. For the 80 species with lower minimum temperatures at non-native occurrences, the median expansion of minimum temperature tolerance was −2.9 °C. Similarly, for the 90 species with lower precipitation at non-native occurrences, the median expansion of minimum annual precipitation was −23 cm. Broader climatic conditions at non-native occurrences expanded the modelled potential geographical range by a median of 35%, with smaller range species showing larger expansions of potential geographical range. Main conclusions Our results show that plants' native ranges strongly underestimate climatic tolerance, leading species distribution models to underpredict potential range. The climatic tolerance of species with narrow native ranges appears most prone to underestimation. These findings suggest that many plants will be able to persist in situ with climate change for far longer than projected by species distribution models.
Keywords: Maxent, climate tolerance, climatic suitability, dispersal, ecological niche, endemic plants, range limits, range size, species distribution modelling
Bush M, Correa-Metrio A, McMichael C, Sully S, Shadik C, Valencia B et al. (2016)
Quaternary Science Reviews 141 52-64.
A sedimentary record from the Peruvian Amazon provided evidence of climate and vegetation change for the last 6900 years. Piston cores collected from the center of Lake Sauce, a 20 m deep lake at 600 m elevation, were 19.7 m in length. The fossil pollen record showed a continuously forested catchment within the period of the record, although substantial changes in forest composition were apparent. Fossil charcoal, found throughout the record, was probably associated with humans setting fires. Two fires, at c. 6700 cal BP and 4270 cal BP, appear to have been stand-replacing events possibly associated with megadroughts. The fire event at 4270 cal BP followed a drought that caused lowered lake levels for several centuries. The successional trajectories of forest recovery following these large fires were prolonged by smaller fire events. Fossil pollen of Zea mays (cultivated maize) provided evidence of agricultural activity at the site since c. 6320 cal BP. About 5150 years ago, the lake deepened and started to deposit laminated sediments. Maize agriculture reached a peak of intensity between c. 3380 and 700 cal BP. Fossil diatom data provided a proxy for lake nutrient status and productivity, both of which peaked during the period of maize cultivation. A marked change in land use was evident after c. 700 cal BP when maize agriculture was apparently abandoned at this site. Iriartea, a hyperdominant of riparian settings in western Amazonia, increased in abundance within the last 1100 years, but declined markedly at c. 1070 cal BP and again between c. 80 and −10 cal BP.
Keywords: Agriculture, Forest enrichment, Fossil charcoal, Fossil diatoms, Fossil pollen, Human disturbance, Iriartea, Maize, Mauritia, Pre-Columbian
Cardinal-McTeague W, Sytsma K, Hall J (2016)
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.
Brassicales is a diverse order perhaps most famous because it houses Brassicaceae and, its premier member, Arabidopsis thaliana. This widely distributed and species-rich lineage has been overlooked as a promising system to investigate patterns of disjunct distributions and diversification rates. We analyzed plastid and mitochondrial sequence data from five gene regions (>8000bp) across 150 taxa to: (1) produce a chronogram for major lineages in Brassicales, including Brassicaceae and Arabidopsis, based on greater taxon sampling across the order and previously overlooked fossil evidence, (2) examine biogeographical ancestral range estimations and disjunct distributions in BioGeoBEARS, and (3) determine where shifts in species diversification occur using BAMM. The evolution and radiation of the Brassicales began 103Mya and was linked to a series of inter-continental vicariant, long-distance dispersal, and land bridge migration events. North America appears to be a significant area for early stem lineages in the order. Shifts to Australia then African are evident at nodes near the core Brassicales, which diverged 68.5Mya (HPD=75.6–62.0). This estimated age combined with fossil evidence, indicates that some New World clades embedded amongst Old World relatives (e.g., New World capparoids) are the result of different long distance dispersal events, whereas others may be best explained by land bridge migration (e.g., Forchhammeria). Based on these analyses, the Brassicaceae crown group diverged in Europe/Northern Africa in the Eocene, circa 43.4Mya (HPD=46.6–40.3) and Arabidopsis separated from close congeners circa 10.4Mya. These ages fall between divergent dates that were previously published, suggesting we are slowly converging on a robust age estimate for the family. Three significant shifts in species diversification are observed in the order: (1) 58Mya at the crown of Capparaceae, Cleomaceae and Brassicaceae, (2) 38Mya at the crown of Resedaceae+Stixis clade, and (3) 21Mya at the crown of the tribes Brassiceae and Sisymbrieae within Brassicaceae.
Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana, BAMM, BEAST, BioGeoBEARS, Brassicaceae, Cleomaceae, K–Pg extinction event, Pierid butterflies, Species diversification, Whole genome duplication
Crowl A, Miles N, Visger C, Hansen K, Ayers T, Haberle R et al. (2016)
American journal of botany ajb.1500450-.
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The Campanulaceae are a diverse clade of flowering plants encompassing more than 2300 species in myriad habitats from tropical rainforests to arctic tundra. A robust, multigene phylogeny, including all major lineages, is presented to provide a broad, evolutionary perspective of this cosmopolitan clade. METHODS: We used a phylogenetic framework, in combination with divergence dating, ancestral range estimation, chromosome modeling, and morphological character reconstruction analyses to infer phylogenetic placement and timing of major biogeographic, genomic, and morphological changes in the history of the group and provide insights into the diversification of this clade across six continents. KEY RESULTS: Ancestral range estimation supports an out-of-Africa diversification following the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event. Chromosomal modeling, with corroboration from the distribution of synonymous substitutions among gene duplicates, provides evidence for as many as 20 genome-wide duplication events before large radiations. Morphological reconstructions support the hypothesis that switches in floral symmetry and anther dehiscence were important in the evolution of secondary pollen presentation mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a broad, phylogenetic perspective on the evolution of the Campanulaceae clade. The remarkable habitat diversity and cosmopolitan distribution of this lineage appears to be the result of a complex history of genome duplications and numerous long-distance dispersal events. We failed to find evidence for an ancestral polyploidy event for this clade, and our analyses indicate an ancestral base number of nine for the group. This study will serve as a framework for future studies in diverse areas of research in Campanulaceae.
Keywords: Campanulaceae, ancestral state estimation, biogeography, phylogenetics, polyploidy, secondary pollen presentation
Deblauwe V, Droissart V, Bose R, Sonké B, Blach-Overgaard A, Svenning J et al. (2016)
Remotely sensed temperature and precipitation data improve species distribution modelling in the tropics
Global Ecology and Biogeography.
Aim Species distribution modelling typically relies completely or partially on climatic variables as predictors, overlooking the fact that these are themselves predictions with associated uncertainties. This is particularly critical when such predictors are interpolated between sparse station data, such as in the tropics. The goal of this study is to provide a new set of satellite-based climatic predictor data and to evaluate its potential to improve modelled species–climate associations and transferability to novel geographical regions. Location Rain forests areas of Central Africa, the Western Ghats of India and South America. Methods We compared models calibrated on the widely used WorldClim station-interpolated climatic data with models where either temperature or precipitation data from WorldClim were replaced by data from CRU, MODIS, TRMM and CHIRPS. Each predictor set was used to model 451 plant species distributions. To test for chance associations, we devised a null model with which to compare the accuracy metric obtained for every species. Results Fewer than half of the studied rain forest species distributions matched the climatic pattern better than did random distributions. The inclusion of MODIS temperature and CHIRPS precipitation estimates derived from remote sensing each allowed for a better than random fit for respectively 40% and 22% more species than models calibrated on WorldClim. Furthermore, their inclusion was positively related to a better transferability of models to novel regions. Main conclusions We provide a newly assembled dataset of ecologically meaningful variables derived from MODIS and CHIRPS for download, and provide a basis for choosing among the plethora of available climate datasets. We emphasize the need to consider the method used in the production of climate data when working on a region with sparse meteorological station data. In this context, remote sensing data should be the preferred choice, particularly when model transferability to novel climates or inferences on causality are invoked.
Keywords: Association test, CHIRPS, GLM, MODIS, MaxEnt, TRMM, WorldClim, ecological niche model, habitat suitability, null model
Delgado-Baquerizo M, Reich P, García-Palacios P, Milla R (2016)
We lack both a theoretical framework and solid empirical data to understand domestication impacts on plant chemistry. We hypothesised that domestication increased leaf N and P to support high plant production rates, but biogeographic and climate patterns further influenced the magnitude and direction of changes in specific aspects of chemistry and stoichiometry. To test these hypotheses, we used a data set of leaf C, N and P from 21 herbaceous crops and their wild progenitors. Domestication increased leaf N and/or P for 57% of the crops. Moreover, the latitude of the domestication sites (negatively related to temperature) modulated the domestication effects on P (+), C (-), N : P (-) and C : P (-) ratios. Further results from a litter decomposition assay showed that domestication effects on litter chemistry affected the availability of soil N and P. Our findings draw attention to evolutionary effects of domestication legacies on plant and soil stoichiometry and related ecosystem services (e.g. plant yield and soil fertility).
Keywords: T-physiology hypothesis, decomposition, growth rate hypothesis, nutrient cycling, rops, soil age hypothesis
Dunne J, Maschner H, Betts M, Huntly N, Russell R, Williams R et al. (2016)
Scientific reports 6 21179.
There is a nearly 10,000-year history of human presence in the western Gulf of Alaska, but little understanding of how human foragers integrated into and impacted ecosystems through their roles as hunter-gatherers. We present two highly resolved intertidal and nearshore food webs for the Sanak Archipelago in the eastern Aleutian Islands and use them to compare trophic roles of prehistoric humans to other species. We find that the native Aleut people played distinctive roles as super-generalist and highly-omnivorous consumers closely connected to other species. Although the human population was positioned to have strong effects, arrival and presence of Aleut people in the Sanak Archipelago does not appear associated with long-term extinctions. We simulated food web dynamics to explore to what degree introducing a species with trophic roles like those of an Aleut forager, and allowing for variable strong feeding to reflect use of hunting technology, is likely to trigger extinctions. Potential extinctions decreased when an invading omnivorous super-generalist consumer focused strong feeding on decreasing fractions of its possible resources. This study presents the first assessment of the structural roles of humans as consumers within complex ecological networks, and potential impacts of those roles and feeding behavior on associated extinctions.
Keywords: T-physiology hypothesis, decomposition, growth rate hypothesis, nutrient cycling, rops, soil age hypothesis
Escobar L, Qiao H, Peterson A (2016)
Parasites & vectors 9(1) 112.
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is endemic to Africa and Asia, but the Asian genotype invaded the Americas in 2013. The fast increase of human infections in the American epidemic emphasized the urgency of developing detailed predictions of case numbers and the potential geographic spread of this disease. METHODS: We developed a simple model incorporating cases generated locally and cases imported from other countries, and forecasted transmission hotspots at the level of countries and at finer scales, in terms of ecological features. RESULTS: By late January 2015, >1.2 M CHIKV cases were reported from the Americas, with country-level prevalences between nil and more than 20 %. In the early stages of the epidemic, exponential growth in case numbers was common; later, however, poor and uneven reporting became more common, in a phenomenon we term "surveillance fatigue." Economic activity of countries was not associated with prevalence, but diverse social factors may be linked to surveillance effort and reporting. CONCLUSIONS: Our model predictions were initially quite inaccurate, but improved markedly as more data accumulated within the Americas. The data-driven methodology explored in this study provides an opportunity to generate descriptive and predictive information on spread of emerging diseases in the short-term under simple models based on open-access tools and data that can inform early-warning systems and public health intelligence.
Keywords: Entomology, Infectious Diseases, Parasitology, Tropical Medicine