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Hrivnák R, Kochjarová J, Šumberová K, Schmotzer A (2016)
Alien wetland annual Lindernia dubia (Scrophulariaceae): the first recently mentioned localities in Slovakia and their central European context
Biologia 71(3) 281-286.
Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell, a Northern-American species, was recently found in two localities in central Slovakia (near Trenč and Štiavnické Bane villages) as a new species for the flora of Slovakia. Individuals of the species grew in wetland vegetation of the class Isoëto-Nano-Juncetea in both cases. The second mentioned locality probably belongs to the altitudinal maxima of L. dubia in Europe. Although the origin of L. dubia in the Slovak localities remains unknown, we suppose that zoochory or anthropochory are the most probable modes of its introduction into the territory of Slovakia.
Kleckova I, Cesanek M, Fric Z, Pellissier L (2015)
Diversification of the cold-adapted butterfly genus Oeneis related to Holarctic biogeography and climatic niche shifts.
Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 92 255-265.
Both geographical and ecological speciation interact during the evolution of a clade, but the relative contribution of these processes is rarely assessed for cold-dwelling biota. Here, we investigate the role of biogeography and the evolution of ecological traits on the diversification of the Holarctic arcto-alpine butterfly genus Oeneis (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae). We reconstructed the molecular phylogeny of the genus based on one mitochondrial (COI) and three nuclear (GAPDH, RpS5, wingless) genes. We inferred the biogeographical scenario and the ancestral state reconstructions of climatic and habitat requirements. Within the genus, we detected five main species groups corresponding to the taxonomic division and further paraphyletic position of Neominois (syn. n.). Next, we transferred O. aktashi from the hora to the polixenes species group on the bases of molecular relationships. We found that the genus originated in the dry grasslands of the mountains of Central Asia and dispersed over the Beringian Land Bridges to North America several times independently. Holarctic mountains, in particular the Asian Altai Mts. and Sayan Mts., host the oldest lineages and most of the species diversity. Arctic species are more recent, with Pliocene or Pleistocene origin. We detected a strong phylogenetic signal for the climatic niche, where one lineage diversified towards colder conditions. Altogether, our results indicate that both dispersal across geographical areas and occupation of distinct climatic niches promoted the diversification of the Oeneis genus.
Keywords: Lepidoptera, Molecular systematics, Niche evolution, Quaternary, Satyrinae, Temperate
Hustad V, Kučera V, Rybáriková N, Lizoň P, Gaisler J, Baroni T et al. (2014)
Geoglossum simile of North America and Europe: distribution of a widespread earth tongue species and designation of an epitype
Geoglossum simile is a distinctive species of the earth tongue class Geoglossomycetes, first described in 1873. The taxonomic standing of this species has long been disputed, resulting in nearly 70 years of potential misdiagnoses. Although G. simile was originally described from North America, it has subsequently been reported from several European countries as well as Asia, Australasia, and India. In this study, we report the first records of G. simile from Slovakia and the Czech Republic, examine the morphological and molecular diversity of Northern Hemisphere collections, discuss the taxonomic history and current status of the species, and designate a recent North American collection as the epitype of this widely distributed and conservationally significant species.
Keywords: ascomycota, conservation, fungal, geoglossomycetes, phylogenetics, systematics
Vilaça S, Biosa D, Zachos F, Iacolina L, Kirschning J, Alves P et al. (2014)
Mitochondrial phylogeography of the European wild boar: the effect of climate on genetic diversity and spatial lineage sorting across Europe
Journal of Biogeography 41(5) 987-998.
Aim: Climate changes in the past had a deep impact on the evolutionary history of many species and left genetic signatures that are often still detectable today. We investigated the geographical pattern of mitochondrial DNA divesity in the European wild boar (Sus scrofa). Our final aims were to clarify the influence of present and past climatic conditions, infer the geographical posi- tion of glacial refugia, and suggest post-glacial spatial dynamics. Location: Europe. Methods: D-loop sequences were obtained for 763 individuals from Portugal to western Russia. Phylogenetic, multivariate and interpolation methods were used to describe the genetic and geographical patterns. Climatic suitability during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was predicted using MaxEnt. The effect of present and past suitability on the observed patterns of diversity was evaluated by multiple linear regression. Results: We confirmed the existence of a ubiquitous mitochondrial clade in Europe (E1), an endemic clade in Italy (E2) and a few East Asian haplotypes (A), presumably introgressed from domestic pigs. No Near Eastern haplotypes were detected. Genetic divergence was not simply related to geographical distance. A clear south–north decreasing gradient of diversity was observed, with maximum levels in putative glacial refugia. Latitudinal variation in climatic conditions during the LGM was shown to be a good predictor of current genetic diversity. Moreover, an unexpected similarity between Iberia and east- ern Europe was observed, while central European populations showed a higher affinity to the Italian gene pool. Main conclusions: The current distribution of mitochondrial genetic diversity was highly influenced by past climatic events, especially those related to the LGM, and is consistent with a major contribution of the Italian peninsula and the Balkans to the post-glacial recolonization of northern areas. More recent processes, such as restocking and extensive hunting, probably acted at rather local scales, without great impact on the global pattern of mitochondrial diversity.
Keywords: Climate change, Last Glacial Maximum, Sus scrofa, genetic differentiation, glacial refugia, mtDNA, phylogeography
Ekrt L, Hrivnák R (2010)
Preslia 82 357-364.
Eleven plants of Asplenium platyneuron (ebony spleenwort) were found in disturbed serpentine woodland in south-central Slovakia (Central Europe). This find represents a newaddition to the fern flora of Europe. It is probably the result of long-distance spore dispersal. The nearest known sites for this species are those in eastern North America, about 6500km away. The important determina- tion characters of A. platyneuron are described, the Slovakian locality characterized and an over- view of the ecology and a map of the worldwide distribution of this species provided.
Keywords: Appalachian Asplenium complex, Central Europe, Slovakia, alien species, ferns, long distance dispersal, serpentines