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Depa Å, MrÃ³z E, Bugaj-Nawrocka A, Orczewska A (2016)
Do ants drive speciation in aphids? A possible case of ant-driven speciation in the aphid genus Stomaphis Walker (Aphidoidea, Lachninae)
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.
Ecological divergence is an accepted mode of speciation in phytophagous insects such as aphids. Adaptations of ancestral populations to various feeding locations on a plant seem to be a promoted mode of such speciation. In this study we present a thesis that for obligatorily myrmecophilous aphids it is a mutualistic relationship with distinct ants that constitutes a significant selective factor. It leads to the separation of ecological niches of ancestral aphid populations and development of sibling species. The thesis is supported by the example of two sibling aphid species of the genus Stomaphis, S. quercus (L.) and S. wojciechowskii Depa, which show very peculiar adaptations to feeding on trees and are both undoubtedly obligatorily myrmecophilous species. Their separateness is proven by mitochondrial markers, as well as their life modes and ecological adaptations: they all follow the biology of their respective ant hosts: Lasius (Dendrolasius) fuliginosus and L. (L.) brunneus. Proven and modelled geographical distributions indicate a high level of sympatry and the fact that environmental requirements of both aphid species overlap. It is suggested that their divergence has resulted from having adapted to living with ants of distinct life modes, foraging strategies and positions in the hierarchy of ant assemblages. This, in turn, indirectly affected their adaptations to exploit different host plant genera.
Keywords: ecological divergence, modelling, mutualism, phytophagy, sympatry
Kanturski M, Bugaj-Nawrocka A, Wieczorek K (2016)
Pine pest aphids of the genus Eulachnus (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Lachninae): how far can their range extend?
Agricultural and Forest Entomology.
Species of the aphid genus Eulachnus (Hemiptera, Aphididae), associated with pine trees, are an example of insects reported as rare over their native geographical range in Europe and serious pine pests far from their natural distribution. To predict the risk of invasion of spotted pine aphid Eulachnus agilis (Kaltenbach, 1843), green pine aphid Eulachnus brevipilosus BÃ¶rner, 1940 and narrow brown pine aphid Eulachnus rileyi (Williams, 1911) on a global scale, ecological niche modelling was applied. We used the maximum entropy model, based on associations between unique occurrence localities and a set of environmental variables. We obtained models of potentially suitable habitats, based on climatic variables and distribution of host plants, suggesting that favourable conditions for each species may be present on every continent. However, E. agilis and E. rileyi appear to be potentially the most widespread species. In Europe, models showed that the potential distribution of the representatives of the genus Eulachnus overlapped with that of the host plants. In places where they have been introduced, these aphid species have readily adapted to indigenous or introduced pines, including trees grown commercially for timber. A jackknife test indicated that annual mean temperature and mean temperature of the coldest quarter were the most important environmental variables restricting the expansion of the species under investigation. Moreover, the most important factor in the decrease in population density of the feeding aphids is the rainy season and, on a smaller scale, the presence of their natural enemies.
Keywords: Biological invasion, Eulachnini, Pinus spp., ecological niche modelling, potential distribution
Reichel K, Richter F, Eichel L, KÄ cki Z, Wesche K, Welk E et al. (2016)
Genetic diversity in the locally declining Laserpitium prutenicum L. and the more common Selinum carvifolia (L.) L.: a âsilent goodbyeâ?
Evaluating the consequences of the decline of threatened species on their population genetic structure is crucial for establishing effective conservation strategies in the strongly fragmented landscapes of Central Europe. Laserpitium prutenicum is a bi- to perennial forb occurring in intermittently wet meadows and light oak forests throughout central to eastern and south-eastern Europe. During the past 70 years, the western limit of its distributional range retracted dramatically, the number of populations decreased and the remaining populations faced a considerable increase of fragmentation. To study the effects of this decline on the genetic diversity of L. prutenicum, we conducted an AFLP study on 20 populations from Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic. For comparison, we collected the same data on Selinum carvifolia, a taxonomically related and both ecologically and morphologically similar species, which is still more common in the study area. Both species showed similarly weak spatial genetic structuring and intermediate genetic diversities. We attribute this result to the loss of habitat being faster than the loss of genetic diversity in smaller and fragmented populations. Depending on the ecological characteristics of a species, even a gradual disappearance is not necessarily accompanied by any detectable effect at the population genetic level (âsilent goodbyeâ). In the case of L. prutenicum, habitat preservation should be given priority over all other conservation measures.
Keywords: AFLP, Endangered species, Habitat fragmentation, Habitat loss, Wet meadows
Jermakowicz E, WrÃ³blewska A, Brzosko E, Mirski P, Hirse T (2015)
Phylogeographical structure of the boreal-montane orchid Malaxis monophyllos as a result of multi-directional gene flow
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 178(1) 138-154.
We investigated the phylogeographical structure of the boreal-montane orchid Malaxis monophyllos in its Eurasian geographical range. We analysed four sequences of plastid DNA (trnL, trnLâtrnF, rps16 and accD-psaI), resulting in 19 haplotypes and revealing a high level of intraspecific diversity (HD = 0.702 and Ï = 0.196 Ã 10â2), but showing a lack of phylogeographical structure. This pattern might be caused by multiple phenomena and processes, e.g. broad-fronted recolonization with accompanying multi-directional gene flow between populations and expansion from at least two refugial areas. Despite the lack of phylogeographical structure, three centres of haplotype diversity were indicated in the European part of the range of M. monophyllos. According to these data, alpine and lowland glacial refugia located between the ice sheets in the European Alps and the Scandinavian glaciers seem most likely to be in Europe. Moreover, models of climatically suitable areas during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) confirmed the Alps as a possible refuge, and indicated an opportunity for the persistence of M. monophyllos populations in Beringia and parts of Siberia. Using two models [Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC) and Community Climate System Model (CCSM)], we predicted a significant reduction in climatically suitable areas for M. monophyllos in the future (2080). Our study also demonstrated that the biological features of M. monophyllos, including breeding system and dispersal mode, seem to be crucial in understanding its phylogeographical pattern. Our results also highlighted the importance of anthropogenic habitats as reservoirs of genetic diversity and alternative habitats for this species in the context of declining natural populations
Keywords: Orchidaceae, anthropogenic habitats, cpDNA, plastid DNA diversity centres, species distribution models
Popiela A, Åysko A, MolnÃ¡r V. A, KÄ cki Z, LukÃ¡cs B (2015)
Distribution, morphology and habitats of Elatine triandra (Elatinaceae) in Europe, with particular reference to the central part of the continent
Acta Botanica Gallica 162 325-337.
AbstractElatine triandra Schkuhr is the most variable and widespread species within the genus Elatine L.; it has been recorded in all continents, except Antarctica, but it is mainly located in Europe. The study is based on an extensive data set of European literature, herbaria and web data that covers the period 1828â2012. The range of the species in Europe is disjunctive, covering the southern and western parts of the Central European Plain and the southern part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At a smaller scale, the species can also be found along some river valleys. In Central Europe many localities, particularly isolated ones in the northern part of the range, are now only historical. From the data set we determined that E. triandra may be best observed between May and October. We found that species records show a near-significant shift since 1828. Depending on the environmental conditions, individuals of the taxon develop as one of two morphs: terrestrial or aquatic. The aquatic morph is characterized b...
Keywords: IsoÃ«to-Nano-Juncetea, chorology, ephemerophyte, maps, morphology, phenology, phytogeography, vegetation
T W (2015)
Do climatic requirements explain the northern range of european reptiles? Common wall lizard Podarcis muralis (Laur.) (Squamata, Lacertidae) as an example
North-Western Journal of Zoology 11(2) 296+303.
Climate seems likely to play the key role in determining the northern range limits of reptiles in mid- latitude Europe, as these ectothermic animals are dependent on external conditions. We tested this hypothesis for the example of common wall lizard Podarcis muralis (Laur.), and showed that it tolerates a wide range of different climatic factors, therefore could be potentially distributed more to the north from the northern limit of its native range. However, the main factor limiting the occurrence of the lizard in its northern range is the presence of suitable habita ts, particularly rocky areas. Human econ omic activity in mid-latitude Europe resulted in the development of such suitable habitats in areas of advantag eous climatic conditions. In this way, humans created niches suitable fo r the species as well as provided rout es of access to th ese areas, what resulted in the increase the range of this lizard to the north.
Keywords: Europe, MaxEnt, invasive species, species distribu
Ware C, Berge J, Jelmert A, Olsen S, Pellissier L, Wisz M et al. (2015)
Journal of Applied Ecology.
1.Several decades of research on invasive marine species have yielded a broad understanding of the nature of species invasion mechanisms and associated threats globally. However, this is not true of the Arctic, a region where ongoing climatic changes may promote species invasion. Here we evaluated risks associated with non-indigenous propagule loads discharged with shipsâ ballast water to the high-Arctic archipelago, Svalbard, as a case study for the wider Arctic. 2.We sampled and identified transferred propagules using traditional and DNA barcoding techniques. We then assessed the suitability of the Svalbard coast for non-indigenous species under contemporary and future climate scenarios using ecophysiological models based on critical temperature and salinity reproductive thresholds. 3.Ships discharging ballast water in Svalbard carried high densities of zooplankton (mean 1522 Â± 335 SE individuals mâ3), predominately comprised of indigenous species. Ballast water exchange did not prevent non-indigenous species introduction. Non-indigenous coastal species were present in all except one of 16 ballast water samples (mean 144 Â± 67 SE individuals mâ3), despite five of the eight ships exchanging ballast water en route. 4.Of a total of 73 taxa, 36 species including 23 non-indigenous species were identified. Of those 23, sufficient data permitted evaluation of the current and future colonization potential for eight widely-known invaders. With the exception of one of these species, modelled suitability indicated that the coast of Svalbard is unsuitable presently; under the 2100 RCP 8.5 climate scenario, however, modelled suitability will favour colonization for six species. 5.Synthesis and applications. We show that current ballast water management practices do not prevent non-indigenous species from being transferred to the Arctic. Consequences of these shortcomings will be shipping-route dependent, but will likely magnify over time: our models indicate future conditions will favour the colonization of non-indigenous species Arctic-wide. Invasion threats will be greatest where shipping transfers organisms across biogeographic realms, and for these shipping routes ballast water treatment technologies may be required to prevent impacts. Our results also highlight critical gaps in our understanding of ballast water management efficacy and prioritization. Thereby, our study provides an agenda for research and policy development.
Keywords: Arctic, ballast water exchange, climate change, ecophysiological thresholds, habitat suitability, invasion, marine non-indigenous species, regeneration niche, shipping, zooplankton
Wasowicz P, Pauwels M, Pasierbinski A, Przedpelska-Wasowicz E, Babst-Kostecka A, Saumitou-Laprade P et al. (2015)
Phylogeography of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae) in mountain regions of Central Europe inferred from cpDNA variation and ecological niche modelling
PeerJ PrePrints 3.
The present study aimed to investigate phylogeographical patterns present within A. halleri in Central Europe, to propose hypotheses explaining the emergence of these patterns and to formulate hypotheses on the formation of the present day range of A. halleri in the region. 1281 accessions sampled from 52 populations within the investigated area were used in the study of genetic variation based on chloroplast DNA. Over 500 high quality species occurrence records were used in ecological niche modelling experiments. We evidenced the presence of a clear phylogeographic structure within A. halleri in Central Europe. Our results suggest that the species might have not survived the last glacial maximum in the Carpathians and Sudetes and that its range during the last glacial maximum might have consisted of at least two major parts: (1) a northern refugium consisting of vast refugial areas north and northeast of the Alps and (2) a southern refugium located in the Dinaric Alps and Balkan Mts. We postulate that the Sudetes and Western Carpathians were colonised mainly by plants originating from the northern refugium, whereas populations from the Eastern Carpathians originate from southern refugium. We also discuss our results in relation to the problematic taxonomy of the species
Keywords: Alps, Arabidopsis halleri, Carpathians, Harz, Quaternary, Sudetes, phylogeography, taxonomy
Wieczorek K, Kanturski M, Junkiert Å, Bugaj-Nawrocka A (2015)
A comparative morphometric study of the genus Drepanosiphoniella Davatchi, Hille Ris Lambers and RemaudiÃ¨re (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Drepanosiphinae)
Zoologischer Anzeiger - A Journal of Comparative Zoology 257 39-53.
The genus Drepanosiphoniella Davatchi, Hille Ris Lambers and RemaudiÃ¨re, 1957 of the subfamily Drepanosiphinae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is revised using comparative morphology of parthenogenetic and sexual generations. On the basis of thorough examination of morphological characters, a full species status of Drepanosiphoniella fugans RemaudiÃ¨re and Leclant, 1972 stat. rev. is given, and supported by using statistical analysis â principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple discriminant analysis (canonical variates analysis). A new species, Drepanosiphoniella remaudiÃ¨rei sp. n. Wieczorek, is described and figured in detail on the basis of specimens collected in Morocco. Fundatrix, oviparous female and apterous male of Drepanosiphoniella aceris aceris Davatchi, Hille Ris Lambers and RemaudiÃ¨re, 1957 are described and figured. Original keys to the identification of the known species and morphs of the genus Drepanosiphoniella as well as differences with related species are given. Notes about the distribution and host plants of the studied taxa are supplied. All species studied seem to be montane elements associated with Acer monspessulanum or its subspecies.
Keywords: Aphids, Insects, Maple, Montane elements, New species, Principal component analysis, Revision, Sexuales
Cornwell W, Westoby M, Falster D, FitzJohn R, O'Meara B, Pennell M et al. (2014)
Journal of Ecology 102(2) 345-356.
1. Plant traits vary widely across species and underpin differences in ecological strategy. Despite centuries of interest, the contributions of different evolutionary lineages to modern-day functional diversity remain poorly quantified. 2. Expanding data bases of plant traits plus rapidly improving phylogenies enable for the first time a data-driven global picture of plant functional diversity across the major clades of higher plants. We mapped five key traits relevant to metabolism, resource competition and reproductive strategy onto a phylogeny across 48324 vascular plant species world-wide, along with climate and biogeo- graphic data. Using a novel metric, we test whether major plant lineages are functionally distinctive. We then highlight the traitâlineage combinations that are most functionally distinctive within the present-day spread of ecological strategies. 3. For some traitâclade combinations, knowing the clade of a species conveys little information to neo- and palaeo-ecologists. In other traitâclade combinations, the clade identity can be highly reveal- ing, especially informative cladeâtrait combinations include Proteaceae, which is highly distinctive, representing the global slow extreme of the leaf economic spectrum. Magnoliidae and Rosidae con- tribute large leaf sizes and seed masses and have distinctively warm, wet climatic distributions. 4. Synthesis. This analysis provides a shortlist of the most distinctive traitâlineage combinations along with their geographic and climatic context: a global view of extant functional diversity across the tips of the vascular plant phylogeny.
Keywords: KolmogorovâSmirnov Importance index, determinants of plant community diversity and stru, functional traits, geographic and climatic distributions, leaf nitrogen, leaf size, maximum adult height, phylogenetic tree, seed mass, specific leaf area