Uses of GBIF in scientific research

Peer-reviewed research citing GBIF as a data source, with at least one author from Peru.
Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.

List of publications

  • Householder, J., Wittmann, F., Tobler, M., Janovec, J., 2015.

    Montane bias in lowland Amazonian Peatlands: Plant assembly on heterogeneous landscapes and potential significance to palynological inference

    Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 423 138-148.

    Past temperature changes in tropical mountain regions are commonly inferred from vertical elevational shifts of montane indicator taxa in the palynological record. However temperature is one of several abiotic factors driving the low-elevational limits of species and many montane taxa can occur in warmer lowlands by tracking appropriate habitat types, especially highly flooded wetlands. In this paper we explore ways in which lowland habitat heterogeneity might introduce error into paleo-temperature reconstructions, based on field data of seven modern peatland vegetation communities in the southern Peruvian Amazon (~200masl). Peat-rich substrates are common edaphic transitions in pollen cores and provide detailed records of past vegetation change. The data show that indicators of modern peatlands include genera with montane as well as lowland distributions, while indicators of surrounding forests on mineral substrates have predominantly lowland distributions. Based on family-level analyses we find that modern peatland vegetation communities have taxonomic compositions appearing to be 389m to 1557m (mean=1050±391m) above their actual elevations due to a high abundance and number of families with high elevation optima. We interpret the relatively higher prevalence of montane elements in modern peatlands as habitat tracking of a conserved montane niche on heterogeneous lowland landscapes. We suggest that both high moisture availability and stressful edaphic conditions of peatland habitat may explain the montane bias observed. To the extent that fossilization provides a better record of past vegetation that occurred proximate to the site of deposition, we suggest that habitat tracking of montane elements may introduce a cool bias in lowland paleo-temperature reconstructions based on pollen proxies.

    Keywords: Amazon, Andes, Climate history, Gentry, Montane, Peatland, Wetland


  • Fajardo, J., Lessmann, J., Bonaccorso, E., Devenish, C., Muñoz, J., 2014.

    Combined use of systematic conservation planning, species distribution modelling, and connectivity analysis reveals severe conservation gaps in a megadiverse country (peru).

    PloS one 9(12) e114367.

    Conservation planning is crucial for megadiverse countries where biodiversity is coupled with incomplete reserve systems and limited resources to invest in conservation. Using Peru as an example of a megadiverse country, we asked whether the national system of protected areas satisfies biodiversity conservation needs. Further, to complement the existing reserve system, we identified and prioritized potential conservation areas using a combination of species distribution modeling, conservation planning and connectivity analysis. Based on a set of 2,869 species, including mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, butterflies, and plants, we used species distribution models to represent species' geographic ranges to reduce the effect of biased sampling and partial knowledge about species' distributions. A site-selection algorithm then searched for efficient and complementary proposals, based on the above distributions, for a more representative system of protection. Finally, we incorporated connectivity among areas in an innovative post-hoc analysis to prioritize those areas maximizing connectivity within the system. Our results highlight severe conservation gaps in the Coastal and Andean regions, and we propose several areas, which are not currently covered by the existing network of protected areas. Our approach helps to find areas that contribute to creating a more representative, connected and efficient network.

    Keywords: Peru, amphibians, biodiversity, birds, conservation scince, endangered species, mammals, reptiles


  • Ramirez-Villegas, J., Cuesta, F., Devenish, C., Peralvo, M., Jarvis, A., Arnillas, C., 2014.

    Using species distributions models for designing conservation strategies of Tropical Andean biodiversity under climate change

    Journal for Nature Conservation Forthcoming.

    Biodiversity in the Tropical Andes is under continuous threat from anthropogenic activities. Projected changes in climate will likely exacerbate this situation. Using species distribution models, we assess possible future changes in the diversity and climatic niche size of an unprecedented number of species for the region. We modeled a broad range of taxa (11,012 species of birds and vascular plants), including both endemic and widespread species and provide a comprehensive estimation of climate change impacts on the Andes. We find that if no dispersal is assumed, by 2050s, more than 50% of the species studied are projected to undergo reductions of at least 45% in their climatic niche, whilst 10% of species could be extinct. Even assuming unlimited dispersal, most of the Andean endemics (comprising ∼5% of our dataset) would become severely threatened (>50% climatic niche loss). While some areas appear to be climatically stable (e.g. Pichincha and Imbabura in Ecuador; and Nariño, Cauca, Valle del Cauca and Putumayo in Colombia) and hence depict little diversity loss and/or potential species gains, major negative impacts were also observed. Tropical high Andean grasslands (páramos and punas) and evergreen montane forests, two key ecosystems for the provision of environmental services in the region, are projected to experience negative changes in species richness and high rates of species turnover. Adapting to these impacts would require a landscape-network based approach to conservation, including protected areas, their buffer zones and corridors. A central aspect of such network is the implementation of an integrated landscape management approach based on sustainable management and restoration practices covering wider areas than currently contemplated.

    Keywords: Andes, Biodiversity, Climate change, Climatic niche, Conservation, Maxent, Threats


  • Borda, V., Ramírez, R., 2013.

    Re-characterization of the Red-lip Megalobulimus (Gastropoda: Strophocheilidae) from Peru with description of a new species

    Zoologia (Curitiba) 30(6).

    Megalobulimus K. Miller, 1878 is a genus of land snails that includes the largest living snails in the Neotropics. The main goal of this paper was to review all species of Megalobulimus that have a red lip, and which are distributed in Peru. We carried out a detailed description of their shells and soft parts, and conducted a multivariate analysis on their shells and geographic distribution. There are two species reported from Peru, Megalobulimus capillaceus (Pfeiffer, 1855) and Megalobulimus separabilis (Fulton, 1903). Megalobulimus capillaceus is known to occur in three regions – San Martín, Huánuco and Cusco – but the Cusco population is undoubtedly different from all remaining populations, and is recog- nized herein as a new species, Megalobulimus florezi sp. nov. This species has a more elongated shell, penis club- shaped, epiphallus longer, and free oviduct longer than M. capillaceus. By contrast, the male genitalia of M. separabilis is filiform and does not present an external diverticulum in the free oviduct.

    Keywords: Anatomy, genitalia, land snails, pallial complex, shell


  • Roullier, C., Duputié, A., Wennekes, P., Benoit, L., Fernández Bringas, V., Rossel, G., Tay, D., McKey, D., Lebot, V., 2013.

    Disentangling the Origins of Cultivated Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

    PLoS ONE 8(5) e62707.

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes.

    Keywords: Anatomy, genitalia, land snails, pallial complex, shell


  • Feeley, K., Silman, M., Bush, M., Farfan, W., Cabrera, K., Malhi, Y., Meir, P., Revilla, N., Quisiyupanqui, M., Saatchi, S., 2011.

    Upslope migration of Andean trees

    Journal of Biogeography 38(4) 783-791.

    Abstract Aim Climate change causes shifts in species distributions, or ‘migrations’. Despite the centrality of species distributions to biodiversity conservation, the demonstrated large migration of tropical plant species in response to climate change in the past, and the expected sensitivity of species distributions to modern climate change, no study has tested for modern species migrations in tropical plants. Here we conduct a first test of the hypothesis that increasing temperatures are causing tropical trees to migrate to cooler areas. Location Tropical Andes biodiversity hotspot, south-eastern Peru, South America. Methods We use data from repeated (2003/04–2007/08) censuses of 14 1-ha forest inventory plots spanning an elevational gradient from 950 to 3400 m in Manu National Park in south-eastern Peru, to characterize changes in the elevational distributions of 38 Andean tree genera. We also analyse changes in the genus-level composition of the inventory plots through time. Results We show that most tropical Andean tree genera shifted their mean distributions upslope over the study period and that the mean rate of migration is approximately 2.5–3.5 vertical metres upslope per year. Consistent with upward migrations we also find increasing abundances of tree genera previously distributed at lower elevations in the majority of study plots. Main conclusions These findings are in accord with the a priori hypothesis of upward shifts in species ranges due to elevated temperatures, and are potentially the first documented evidence of present-day climate-driven migrations in a tropical plant community. The observed mean rate of change is less than predicted from the temperature increases for the region, possibly due to the influence of changes in moisture or non-climatic factors such as substrate, species interactions, lags in tree community response and/or dispersal limitations. Whatever the cause(s), continued slower-than-expected migration of tropical Andean trees would indicate a limited ability to respond to increased temperatures, which may lead to increased extinction risks with further climate change.

    Keywords: andes, climate change, climatic envelope, cloud forest, correspondence, extinction, feeley, forest plots, global warming, kenneth j, monitoring, peru, species migration


  • Kristiansen, T., Svenning, J., Pedersen, D., Eiserhardt, W., Grández, C., Balslev, H., 2011.

    Local and regional palm (Arecaceae) species richness patterns and their cross-scale determinants in the western Amazon

    Journal of Ecology 99(4) 1001-1015.

    1. Local and regional patterns of plant species richness in tropical rain forests, as well as their possi- ble drivers, remain largely unexplored. The main hypotheses for local species richness (alpha diver- sity) are (i) local environmental determinism with species-saturated communities, and (ii) regional control, in which the immigration of species fromthe regional species pool (gamma diversity) deter- mines how many species coexist locally. The species pool hypothesis suggests a combined influence of local and regional drivers on alpha diversity. Differences in gamma diversity may arise from divergent environmental conditions or biogeographic histories. 2. Weinvestigated the cross-scale determinants of palm alpha and gamma diversity across the wes- tern Amazon using a large field-based data set: a census of all palm individuals in 312 transects, totalling 98 species. We used regression-based variation partitioning to understand how habitat, topography and region influence alpha diversity, and correlations to assess the importance of the present environment (climate, soil, regional topography) and history (long-term habitat stability) for average regional alpha diversity and gamma diversity, including the link between these two diversitymeasures (species pool effect). 3. Variation in alpha diversity was primarily explained by region (36%) and habitat (18%), whereas the effect of topography was negligible (1%). Within habitats, region was even more important (up to 69%explained variation). Within regions, habitat and topography covaried and had a variable but an important influence. The pure effect of topography remained of minor impor- tance (up to 13%). 4. Average regional alpha diversity was related to gamma diversity, precipitation seasonality and possibly long-term habitat stability. Gamma diversity was related to long-term habitat stability, and possibly current climate. 5. Synthesis. Gamma diversity strongly influenced alpha diversity, although a clear influence of local environment was also evident, notably habitat type, with a minor, more geographically vari- able effect of small-scale topography.Apart fromgamma diversity, the factormost strongly related to regional alpha diversity was precipitation seasonality, while gamma diversity itself was strongly linked to long-term habitat stability. These results imply that plant species richness is contingent on both contemporary and historical factors with a strong link between local species richness and the regional species pool.

    Keywords: Neotropical rain forests, climatic stability, diversity, environmental filtering, plant community ecology, spatial scale, species pool effects, topography


  • Sarkinen, T., Iganci, J., Linares-Palomino, R., Simon, M., Prado, D., 2011.

    Forgotten forests - issues and prospects in biome mapping using Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests as a case study

    BMC Ecology 11(1) 27.

    Background South America is one of the most species diverse continents in the world. Within South America diversity is not distributed evenly at both local and continental scales and this has led to the recognition of various areas with unique species assemblages. Several schemes currently exist which divide the continental-level diversity into large species assemblages referred to as biomes. Here we review five currently available biome maps for South America, including the WWF Ecoregions, the Americas basemap, the Land Cover Map of South America, Morrone’s Biogeographic regions of Latin America, and the Ecological Systems Map. The comparison is performed through a case study on the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest (SDTF) biome using herbarium data of habitat specialist species. Results Current biome maps of South America perform poorly in depicting SDTF distribution. The poor performance of the maps can be attributed to two main factors: (1) poor spatial resolution, and (2) poor biome delimitation. Poor spatial resolution strongly limits the use of some of the maps in GIS applications, especially for areas with heterogeneous landscape such as the Andes. Whilst the Land Cover Map did not suffer from poor spatial resolution, it showed poor delimitation of biomes. The results highlight that delimiting structurally heterogeneous vegetation is difficult based on remote sensed data alone. A new refined working map of South American SDTF biome is proposed, derived using the Biome Distribution Modelling (BDM) approach where georeferenced herbarium data is used in conjunction with bioclimatic data. Conclusions Georeferenced specimen data play potentially an important role in biome mapping. Our study shows that herbarium data could be used as a way of ground-truthing biome maps in silico. The results also illustrate that herbarium data can be used to model vegetation maps through predictive modelling. The BDM approach is a promising new method in biome mapping, and could be particularly useful for mapping poorly known, fragmented, or degraded vegetation. We wish to highlight that biome delimitation is not an exact science, and that transparency is needed on how biomes are used as study units in macroevolutionary and ecological research.

    Keywords: Neotropical rain forests, climatic stability, diversity, environmental filtering, plant community ecology, spatial scale, species pool effects, topography


  • Velazco, S., Pacheco, V., Meschede, A., 2011.

    First occurrence of the rare emballonurid bat Cyttarops alecto (Thomas, 1913) in Peru—Only hard to find or truly rare?

    Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde 76(3) 373-376.

    Keywords: Cyttarops alecto, Distribution, Feeding habits, Panguana Biological Station, Reproduction