Uses of GBIF in scientific research

Peer-reviewed research citing GBIF as a data source, with at least one author from Norway.
Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.

List of publications

  • Bendiksby, M., Mazzoni, S., Jørgensen, M., Halvorsen, R., Holien, H., 2014.

    Combining genetic analyses of archived specimens with distribution modelling to explain the anomalous distribution of the rare lichen Staurolemma omphalarioides : long-distance dispersal or vicariance?

    Journal of Biogeography.

    Aim: The rare lichen species Staurolemma omphalarioides is known mainly from the lowlands and coastal areas of the Mediterranean region but has also been found in coastal parts of central Norway. Despite extensive search efforts by experts for more than half a century, the species has been found nowhere in the gap. Our aim is to identify the most plausible explanation for this anomalous distribution by combining genetic analysis of archived specimens with distribution modelling. Location: Europe, western Middle East and North Africa (but mainly the Mediterranean and Atlantic floristic regions). Methods: We used multi-locus DNA sequencing of archived specimens and phylogenetic and network analyses to reveal potential genetic lineages within S. omphalarioides. We used georeferenced specimens and bioclimatic variables to model the distributions of the species and two genetic lineages, and to find the main environmental correlates of the distributions. Results: Our phylogeographical results show that S. omphalarioides contains genetic variation that correlates with geographical distance, although with a few shared haplotypes across disjunct ranges. Distributions of the species as well as the two genetic lineages are non-random. Distribution models predict occurrences of the species as well as one of its genetic lineages outside the current range of the species. Main conclusions: Our results indicate that neither the species nor its component genetic lineages have reached their potential distributions. Shared haplotypes across disjunct distributions, and absence from regions with suitable refugial habitats along the Atlantic coast of Western Europe, support long- distance dispersal, rather than vicariance, as the primary cause for the current distribution of the species.

    Keywords: archived biological collection, comparative dna-sequence analysis, conserva-, distribution modelling, genetic lineages, long-distance dispersal, old, tion

  • Colombo, M., Damerau, M., Hanel, R., Salzburger, W., Matschiner, M., 2014.

    Diversity and disparity through time in the adaptive radiation of Antarctic notothenioid fishes.

    Journal of evolutionary biology.

    According to theory, adaptive radiation is triggered by ecological opportunity that can arise through the colonization of new habitats, the extinction of antagonists, or the origin of key innovations. In the course of an adaptive radiation, diversification and morphological evolution are expected to slow down after an initial phase of rapid adaptation to vacant ecological niches, followed by speciation. Such 'early bursts' of diversification are thought to occur because niche space becomes increasingly filled over time. The diversification of Antarctic notothenioid fishes into over 120 species has become one of the prime examples of adaptive radiation in the marine realm, and has likely been triggered by an evolutionary key innovation in the form of the emergence of antifreeze glycoproteins. Here, we test, using a novel time-calibrated phylogeny of 49 species and five traits that characterize notothenioid body size and shape as well as buoyancy adaptations and habitat preferences, whether the notothenioid adaptive radiation is compatible with an early burst scenario. Extensive Bayesian model comparison shows that phylogenetic age estimates are highly dependent on model choice, and that models with unlinked gene trees are generally better supported and result in younger age estimates. We find strong evidence for elevated diversification rates in Antarctic notothenioids compared to outgroups, yet no sign of rate heterogeneity in the course of the radiation, except that the notothenioid family Artedidraconidae appears to show secondarily elevated diversification rates. We further observe an early burst in trophic morphology, suggesting that the notothenioid radiation proceeds in stages similar to other prominent examples of adaptive radiation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    Keywords: adaptive radiation, early burst, geometric morphometrics, incomplete lineage, sorting, species tree

  • Ekrem, T., KEvan, P., Woodcock, T., Herbert, P., 2014.

    The Most Northerly Black Witch (Ascalapha odorata): A Tropical Moth in the Canadian Arctic

    The Canadian Field Naturalist 128 77-79.

    A specimen of the Black Witch (Ascalapha odorata) was collected in August 2006 near Churchill, Manitoba, at 58.7652°N. This represents the most northerly record for this species. DNA barcode comparison of 93 specimens of A. odorata in the Barcode of Life Data Systems revealed low genetic divergence even though these specimens were collected from a large geographical area. The haplotype of the Churchill specimen was shared by only one other individual (collected in the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico) in the Barcode of Life Data Systems. A definite assignment of the geographic origin of the Churchill specimen is not possible with current data, but more extensive analysis of Central American populations with additional genetic markers might resolve this uncertainty.

    Keywords: 2008, 2014, a, america, ascalapha odorata, be limited to central, black witch, distribution, dna barcoding, figure 1, genetic divergence, manitoba, mariposa de la muerte, migration, migratory, odorata is thought to, of, the natural breeding range

  • Elmendorf, S., Henry, G., Hollister, R., Fosaa, A., Gould, W., Hermanutz, L., Hofgaard, A., Jónsdóttir, I., Jorgenson, J., Lévesque, E., Magnusson, B., Molau, U., Myers-Smith, I., Oberbauer, S., Rixen, C., Tweedie, C., Walker, M., 2014.

    Experiment, monitoring, and gradient methods used to infer climate change effects on plant communities yield consistent patterns

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(2) 201410088.

    SignificanceMethodological constraints can limit our ability to quantify potential impacts of climate warming. We assessed the consistency of three approaches in estimating warming effects on plant community composition: manipulative warming experiments, repeat sampling under ambient temperature change (monitoring), and space-for-time substitution. The three approaches showed agreement in the direction of change (an increase in the relative abundance of species with a warmer thermal niche), but differed in the magnitude of change estimated. Experimental and monitoring approaches were similar in magnitude, whereas space-for-time comparisons indicated a much stronger response. These results suggest that all three approaches are valid, but experimental warming and long-term monitoring are best suited for forecasting impacts over the coming decades. Inference about future climate change impacts typically relies on one of three approaches: manipulative experiments, historical comparisons (broadly defined to include monitoring the response to ambient climate fluctuations using repeat sampling of plots, dendroecology, and paleoecology techniques), and space-for-time substitutions derived from sampling along environmental gradients. Potential limitations of all three approaches are recognized. Here we address the congruence among these three main approaches by comparing the degree to which tundra plant community composition changes (i) in response to in situ experimental warming, (ii) with interannual variability in summer temperature within sites, and (iii) over spatial gradients in summer temperature. We analyzed changes in plant community composition from repeat sampling (85 plant communities in 28 regions) and experimental warming studies (28 experiments in 14 regions) throughout arctic and alpine North America and Europe. Increases in the relative abundance of species with a warmer thermal niche were observed in response to warmer summer temperatures using all three methods; however, effect sizes were greater over broad-scale spatial gradients relative to either temporal variability in summer temperature within a site or summer temperature increases induced by experimental warming. The effect sizes for change over time within a site and with experimental warming were nearly identical. These results support the view that inferences based on space-for-time substitution overestimate the magnitude of responses to contemporary climate warming, because spatial gradients reflect long-term processes. In contrast, in situ experimental warming and monitoring approaches yield consistent estimates of the magnitude of response of plant communities to climate warming.

    Keywords: climate change, space-for-time substitution, thermophilization, tundra, warming experiment

  • García-Gómez, H., Garrido, J., Vivanco, M., Lassaletta, L., Rábago, I., Avila, A., Tsyro, S., Sánchez, G., González Ortiz, A., González-Fernández, I., Alonso, R., 2014.

    Nitrogen deposition in Spain: Modeled patterns and threatened habitats within the Natura 2000 network

    Science of the Total Environment 485-486C 450-460.

    The Mediterranean Basin presents an extraordinary biological richness but very little information is available on the threat that air pollution, and in particular reactive nitrogen (N), can pose to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. This study represents the first approach to assess the risk of N enrichment effects on Spanish ecosystems. The suitability of EMEP and CHIMERE air quality model systems as tools to identify those areas where effects of atmospheric N deposition could be occurring was tested. For this analysis, wet deposition of NO3(-) and NH4(+) estimated with EMEP and CHIMERE model systems were compared with measured data for the period 2005-2008 obtained from different monitoring networks in Spain. Wet N deposition was acceptably predicted by both models, showing better results for oxidized than for reduced nitrogen, particularly when using CHIMERE. Both models estimated higher wet deposition values in northern and northeastern Spain, and decreasing along a NE-SW axis. Total (wet+dry) nitrogen deposition in 2008 reached maxima values of 19.4 and 23.0kgNha(-1)year(-1) using EMEP and CHIMERE models respectively. Total N deposition was used to estimate the exceedance of N empirical critical loads in the Natura 2000 network. Grassland habitats proved to be the most threatened group, particularly in the northern alpine area, pointing out that biodiversity conservation in these protected areas could be endangered by N deposition. Other valuable mountain ecosystems can be also threatened, indicating the need to extend atmospheric deposition monitoring networks to higher altitudes in Spain.

    Keywords: Air quality model, Alpine grasslands, Critical load exceedance, Monitoring network, Natura 2000 network, Nitrogen deposition

  • Halvorsen, R., Mazzoni, S., Bryn, A., Bakkestuen, V., 2014.

    Opportunities for improved distribution modelling practice via a strict maximum likelihood interpretation of MaxEnt


    Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modelling, as implemented in the Maxent software, has rapidly become one of the most popular methods for distribution modelling. Originally, MaxEnt was described as a machine-learning method. More recently, it has been explained from principles of Bayesian estimation. MaxEnt offers numerous options (variants of the method) and settings (tuning of parameters) to the users. A widespread practice of accepting the Maxent software’s default options and settings has been established, most likely because of ecologists’ lack of familiarity with machine-learning and Bayesian statistical concepts and the ease by which the default models are obtained in Maxent. However, these defaults have been shown, in many cases, to be suboptimal and exploration of alternatives has repeatedly been called for. In this paper, we derive MaxEnt from strict maximum likelihood principles, and point out parallels between MaxEnt and standard modelling tools like generalised linear models (GLM). Furthermore, we describe several new options opened by this new derivation of MaxEnt, which may improve MaxEnt practice. The most important of these is the option for selecting variables by subset selection methods instead of the ℓ1-regularisation method, which currently is the Maxent software default. Other new options include: incorporation of new transformations of explanatory variables and user control of the transformation process; improved variable contribution measures and options for variation partitioning; and improved output prediction formats. The new options are exemplified for a data set for the plant species Scorzonera humilis in SE Norway, which was analysed by the standard MaxEnt procedure in a previously published paper. We recommend that thorough comparisons between the proposed alternative options and default procedures and variants thereof be carried out. Distribution

    Keywords: Air quality model, Alpine grasslands, Critical load exceedance, Monitoring network, Natura 2000 network, Nitrogen deposition

  • Qvenild, M., Setten, G., Skår, M., 2014.

    Politicising plants: Dwelling and invasive alien species in domestic gardens in Norway

    Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift - Norwegian Journal of Geography 68(1) 22-33.

    The article investigates how domestic gardeners in Oppland County, Norway, engage with plants and with ‘invasive alien species’ as defined by the national environmental authorities. The spread of invasive alien plants from domestic gardens may represent a threat to native biodiversity, and environmental authorities currently face a challenge in communicating this risk to domestic gardeners operating within their relatively autonomous garden spaces. The authors demonstrate how biodiversity politics and human–plant relationships meet, or fail to meet, in domestic gardens. Empirically, they draw on talking-whilst-walking interviews held with selected domestic gardeners, and they were inspired by Ingold’s notion of dwelling in combination with more-than-human geography, which enabled them to analyse how, through embodied practices, domestic gardeners relate to plants as well as to the terms developed within natural science (i.e. alienness, nativeness, and invasiveness). The main finding is that gardeners in Oppland are not concerned about the geographical origin of garden plants, but rather focus on the plants’ attributes, such as invasiveness and adaptability to a harsh climate. Insights into how the terminology used by environmental authorities corresponds to domestic gardeners’ interaction with garden plants may provide input into the improvement of communication strategies directed towards domestic gardeners regarding invasive alien species issues. Keywords:

    Keywords: biodiversity politics, domestic gardens, invasiveness, more-than-human geography, native and alien species

  • Thormann, I., Parra-Quijano, M., Endressen, D. T. F., Rubio-teso, M. l., Iriondo, M. J., Maxted, N., 2014.

    Predictive characterization of crop wild relatives and landraces

    Biodiversity International.

    Predictive characterization methods use ecogeographical and climatic data derived from the specific location of a collecting or observation site, to predict characteristics of accessions and populations that can inform conservation and use options. The predictive characterization methods presented in these technical guidelines for crop wild relatives (CWR) and landraces (LR) aim to enhance the use of CWR and LR through identification of sets of accessions or occurrences that have a higher likelihood of harbouring genetic diversity for specific adaptive traits than a set selected at random. The methods presented are the ecogeographical filtering and the calibration method. These are two of the various methods that implement the Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy (FIGS). The guidelines were developed within the framework of the EU funded project PGR Secure ‘Novel characterization of crop wild relative and landrace resources as a basis for improved crop breeding’

    Keywords: biodiversity politics, domestic gardens, invasiveness, more-than-human geography, native and alien species

  • Velle, L., Nilsen, L., Norderhaug, A., Vandvik, V., 2014.

    Does prescribed burning result in biotic homogenization of coastal heathlands?

    Global Change Biology 20(5) 1429-40.

    Biotic homogenization due to replacement of native biodiversity by widespread generalist species has been demonstrated in a number of ecosystems and taxonomic groups worldwide, causing growing conservation concern. Human disturbance is a key driver of biotic homogenization, suggesting potential conservation challenges in seminatural ecosystems, where anthropogenic disturbances such as grazing and burning are necessary for maintaining ecological dynamics and functioning. We test whether prescribed burning results in biotic homogenization in the coastal heathlands of north-western Europe, a seminatural landscape where extensive grazing and burning has constituted the traditional land-use practice over the past 6000 years. We compare the beta-diversity before and after fire at three ecological scales: within local vegetation patches, between wet and dry heathland patches within landscapes, and along a 470 km bioclimatic gradient. Within local patches, we found no evidence of homogenization after fire; species richness increased, and the species that entered the burnt Calluna stands were not widespread specialists but native grasses and herbs characteristic of the heathland system. At the landscapes scale, we saw a weak homogenization as wet and dry heathland patches become more compositionally similar after fire. This was because of a decrease in habitat-specific species unique to either wet or dry habitats and postfire colonization by a set of heathland specialists that established in both habitat types. Along the bioclimatic gradient, species that increased after fire generally had more specific environmental requirements and narrower geographical distributions than the prefire flora, resulting in a biotic 'heterogenisation' after fire. Our study demonstrates that human disturbance does not necessarily cause biotic homogenization, but that continuation of traditional land-use practices can instead be crucial for the maintenance of the diversity and ecological function of a seminatural ecosystem. The species that established after prescribed burning were heathland specialists with relatively narrow geographical ranges.

    Keywords: Beta-diversity, Calluna-heaths, conservation, cultural landscape, disturbance, fire, grazing, management, species dissimilarity

  • Alsos, I., Müller, E., Eidesen, P., 2013.

    Germinating seeds or bulbils in 87 of 113 tested Arctic species indicate potential for ex situ seed bank storage

    Polar Biology 36(6) 819-830.

    Arctic plant species are expected to lose range due to climate change. One approach to preserve the genetic and species diversity for the future is to store propagules in seed vaults. However, germinability of seeds is assumed to be low for Arctic species. We evaluated ex situ storage potential of 113 of the 161 native angiosperms of Svalbard by studying seed ripening and germination. Seeds or bulbils were collected, and germinability was tested after one winter of storage in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault. Twenty-six of the species did not produce ripe propagules, 8 produced bulbils, and 79 produced seeds. Bulbils sprouted to high percentages. Seeds of 10 species did not germinate, 22 had low germination (<20 %), 34 had germination of 21–70 %, and 13 had high germination percentages (>70 %). More than 70 % of the species belonging to Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Juncaceae, Rosaceae, and Saxifragaceae germinated. Cold tolerant, common species had higher germination percentages than relatively thermophilous, rare species. Germination percentages were six times higher than observed in 1969 (n = 51) and 0.7 times that observed in 2008 (n = 22), indicating that recent climate warming improves germination in the Arctic. While in situ conservation is of vital importance, ex situ conservation in seed banks is a potential complementary conservation strategy for the majority of Arctic vascular plant species. For species that did not germinate, other methods for ex situ conservation should be sought, for example, growing in botanical gardens

    Keywords: arctic, bulbils, conservation, rare, red list, seed germinatin