Uses of GBIF in scientific research

Peer-reviewed research citing GBIF as a data source, with at least one author from Norway.
For all researches, please visit our "Peer-reviewed publications" page.

List of publications

  • Almada F, Francisco S, Lima C, FitzGerald R, Mirimin L, Villegas-Ríos D et al. (2017)

    Historical gene flow constraints in a northeastern Atlantic fish: phylogeography of the ballan wrasse Labrus bergylta across its distribution range

    Royal Society Open Science 4(2) 160773.

    The distribution and demographic patterns of marine organisms in the north Atlantic were largely shaped by climatic changes during the Pleistocene, when recurrent glacial maxima forced them to move south or to survive in northern peri-glacial refugia. These patterns were also influenced by biological and ecological factors intrinsic to each species, namely their dispersion ability. The ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta), the largest labrid fish along Europe's continental margins, is a target for fisheries and aquaculture industry. The phylogeographic pattern, population structure, potential glacial refugia and recolonization routes for this species were assessed across its full distribution range, using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. The existence of a marked population structure can reflect both recolonization from three distinct glacial refugia and current and past oceanographic circulation patterns. Although isolated in present times, shared haplotypes between continental and Azores populations and historical exchange of migrants in both directions point to a common origin of L. bergylta. This situation is likely to be maintained and/or accentuated by current circulation patterns in the north Atlantic, and may lead to incipient speciation in the already distinct Azorean population. Future monitoring of this species is crucial to evaluate how this species is coping with current environmental changes.

    Keywords: Azorean distinctiveness, Labridae, cleaner fish, glacial refugia, incipient speciation, population structure

  • Chala D, Zimmermann N, Brochmann C, Bakkestuen V (2017)

    Migration corridors for alpine plants among the ‘sky islands’ of eastern Africa: do they, or did they exist?

    Alpine Botany 1-12.

    The tropical alpine ecosystem in eastern Africa is highly fragmented among biological ‘sky islands’, where populations of frost-tolerant organisms are isolated from each other by a ‘sea’ of tropical lowlands. One-third of the species in the afroalpine flora are exclusively alpine, but the other species can to varying degrees extend into grasslands and open forests of lower vegetation belts. A long-debated question is whether colonization of the alpine zone of these mountains and subsequent intermountain gene flow entirely depend on long-distance dispersal across unsuitable habitats, or whether suitable habitats shifted far enough downslope under past colder climates to form bridges enabling gradual migration. Here we address this question using a classification tree model. We mapped the extent of the current alpine habitat and projected it to the last glacial maximum (LGM) climate to assess whether gradual migration was possible for exclusively alpine taxa during this glacial period, and thus potentially also during earlier Pleistocene glaciations. Next, we modelled landcover under current and LGM climates to assess whether grassland and open forests could have served as migration corridors for alpine taxa that today extend into lower vegetation belts. We estimated that the LGM treeline was about 1000 m lower and the alpine habitat was about eight times larger than that today. At the LGM, we found that most of the currently fragmented alpine habitat of the Ethiopian highlands was interconnected except across the Great Rift Valley, whereas the solitary mountains of East/Central Africa remained isolated for exclusively alpine species. However, for drought-tolerant alpine species that today extend below the treeline, gradual migration through habitat corridors may have been possible among mountains during the dry glacial periods, and possibly also under the current climate before agriculture transformed the low-lying landscapes.

    Keywords: Afroalpine, CART, Gene flow, Habitat connectivity, Last glacial maximum, Treeline

  • Pellegrini A, Anderegg W, Paine C, Hoffmann W, Kartzinel T, Rabin S et al. (2017)

    Convergence of bark investment according to fire and climate structures ecosystem vulnerability to future change

    Ecology Letters.

    Fire regimes in savannas and forests are changing over much of the world. Anticipating the impact of these changes requires understanding how plants are adapted to fire. In this study, we test whether fire imposes a broad selective force on a key fire-tolerance trait, bark thickness, across 572 tree species distributed worldwide. We show that investment in thick bark is a pervasive adaptation in frequently burned areas across savannas and forests in both temperate and tropical regions where surface fires occur. Geographic variability in bark thickness is largely explained by annual burned area and precipitation seasonality. Combining environmental and species distribution data allowed us to assess vulnerability to future climate and fire conditions: tropical rainforests are especially vulnerable, whereas seasonal forests and savannas are more robust. The strong link between fire and bark thickness provides an avenue for assessing the vulnerability of tree communities to fire and demands inclusion in global models.

    Keywords: Bark thickness, fire ecology, forest, functional traits, global change, savanna

  • Phillips J, Magos Brehm J, van Oort B, Asdal , Rasmussen M, Maxted N (2017)

    Climate change and national crop wild relative conservation planning

    Ambio 1-14.

    Climate change is likely to be one of the most important factors affecting our future food security. To mitigate negative impacts, we will require our crops to be more genetically diverse. Such diversity is available in crop wild relatives (CWRs), the wild taxa relatively closely related to crops and from which diverse traits can be transferred to the crop. Conservation of such genetic resources resides within the nation where they are found; therefore, national-level conservation recommendations are fundamental to global food security. We investigate the potential impact of climate change on CWR richness in Norway. The consequences of a 1.5 and 3.0 °C temperature rise were studied for the years 2030, 2050, 2070, 2080 and then compared to the present climate. The results indicate a pattern of shifting CWR richness from the south to the north, with increases in taxa turnover and in the numbers of threatened taxa. Recommendations for in situ and ex situ conservation actions over the short and long term for the priority CWRs in Norway are presented. The methods and recommendations developed here can be applied within other nations and at regional and global levels to improve the effectiveness of conservation actions and help ensure global food security.

    Keywords: Agriculture, Ex situ conservation, Food security, Genetic diversity, In situ conservation, Plant genetic resources

  • Speed J, Austrheim G (2017)

    The importance of herbivore density and management as determinants of the distribution of rare plant species

    Biological Conservation 205 77-84.

    Herbivores are often drivers of ecosystem states and dynamics and in many situations are managed either as livestock or through controlled or exploitative hunting of wild populations. Changes in herbivore density can affect the composition of plant communities. Management of herbivore densities could therefore be regulated to benefit plant species of conservation concern. In this study we use a unique spatial dataset of large herbivores in Norway to test whether herbivore density affects the distribution of rare red-listed plant species in tundra ecosystems, and to identify regions where herbivore density is the most important factor in determining the habitat suitability for the plant species. For all selected species a climatic variable was the most important determinant of the distribution, but herbivore density was an important determinant of some species notably Primula scandinavica. Herbivore density was the most important factor determining habitat suitability for this species in 13% of mainland Norway. Regions of Norway where the management of herbivore densities is most strongly linked to the habitat suitability of red-listed plant species are mapped. However, there was very low concordance in the localities of these areas; at any individual locality, habitat suitability was limited by herbivore density for only a small subset of the species. This suggests that management of herbivores for the benefit of rare plant species needs to be tailored for individual locations or species.

    Keywords: Alpine, Biotic interactions, Conservation, Grazing, Red list, Species distribution modelling

  • Zohner C, Benito B, Fridley J, Svenning J, Renner S (2017)

    Spring predictability explains different leaf-out strategies in the woody floras of North America, Europe and East Asia

    Ecology Letters.

    Intuitively, interannual spring temperature variability (STV) should influence the leaf-out strategies of temperate zone woody species, with high winter chilling requirements in species from regions where spring warming varies greatly among years. We tested this hypothesis using experiments in 215 species and leaf-out monitoring in 1585 species from East Asia (EA), Europe (EU) and North America (NA). The results reveal that species from regions with high STV indeed have higher winter chilling requirements, and, when grown under the same conditions, leaf out later than related species from regions with lower STV. Since 1900, STV has been consistently higher in NA than in EU and EA, and under experimentally short winter conditions NA species required 84% more spring warming for bud break, EU ones 49% and EA ones only 1%. These previously unknown continental-scale differences in phenological strategies underscore the need for considering regional climate histories in global change models.

    Keywords: Alpine, Biotic interactions, Conservation, Grazing, Red list, Species distribution modelling

  • Araújo R, Assis J, Aguillar R, Airoldi L, Bárbara I, Bartsch I et al. (2016)

    Status, trends and drivers of kelp forests in Europe: an expert assessment

    Biodiversity and Conservation 25(7) 1319-1348.

    A comprehensive expert consultation was conducted in order to assess the status, trends and the most important drivers of change in the abundance and geographical distribution of kelp forests in European waters. This consultation included an on-line questionnaire, results from a workshop and data provided by a selected group of experts working on kelp forest mapping and eco-evolutionary research. Differences in status and trends according to geographical areas, species identity and small-scale variations within the same habitat where shown by assembling and mapping kelp distribution and trend data. Significant data gaps for some geographical regions, like the Mediterranean and the southern Iberian Peninsula, were also identified. The data used for this study confirmed a general trend with decreasing abundance of some native kelp species at their southern distributional range limits and increasing abundance in other parts of their distribution (Saccharina latissima and Saccorhiza polyschides). The expansion of the introduced species Undaria pinnatifida was also registered. Drivers of observed changes in kelp forests distribution and abundance were assessed using experts’ opinions. Multiple possible drivers were identified, including global warming, sea urchin grazing, harvesting, pollution and fishing pressure, and their impact varied between geographical areas. Overall, the results highlight major threats for these ecosystems but also opportunities for conservation. Major requirements to ensure adequate protection of coastal kelp ecosystems along European coastlines are discussed, based on the local to regional gaps detected in the study.

    Keyword: Kelp forests Expert consultation Status and tempor

  • Jb N (2016)

    Some interesting lichenized fungi from old Fraxinus excelsior and Ulmus glabra in Norway, including four new country records

    Graphis Scripta 28(1-2) 17-21.

    The four lichenized fungi Ramonia luteola, Strigula jamesii, S. phaea and Vezdaea aestivalis are reported as new to Norway. Comments are also given on the rare species Enchylium coccophorum, Gomphillus calycioides, Piccolia ochrophora, Ramonia interjecta, Scytinium fragrans and Wadeana minuta, for which several new findings were made that shed new light on their distribution and ecology in Norway

    Keyword: Kelp forests Expert consultation Status and tempor

  • Newbold T, Hudson L, Hill S, Contu S, Gray C, Scharlemann J et al. (2016)

    Global patterns of terrestrial assemblage turnover within and among land uses


    Land use has large effects on the diversity of ecological assemblages. Differences among land uses in the diversity of local assemblages (alpha diversity) have been quantified at a global scale. Effects on the turnover of species composition between locations (beta diversity) are less clear, with previous studies focusing on particular regions or groups of species. Using a global database on the composition of ecological assemblages in different land uses, we test for differences in the between–site turnover of species composition, within and among land–use types. Overall, we show a strong impact of land use on assemblage composition. While we find that compositional turnover within land uses does not differ strongly among land uses, human land uses and secondary vegetation in an early stage of recovery are poor at retaining the species that characterise primary vegetation. The dissimilarity of assemblages in human–impacted habitats compared with primary vegetation was more pronounced in the tropical than temperate realm. An exploratory analysis suggests that this geographic difference might be caused primarily by differences in climate seasonality and in the numbers of species sampled. Taken together the results suggest that, while small–scale beta diversity within land uses is not strongly impacted by land–use type, compositional turnover between land uses is substantial. Therefore, land–use change will lead to profound changes in the structure of ecological assemblages.

    Keyword: Kelp forests Expert consultation Status and tempor

  • Nogué S, Long P, Eycott A, de Nascimento L, Fernández-Palacios J, Petrokofsky G et al. (2016)

    Pollination service delivery for European crops: Challenges and opportunities

    Ecological Economics 128 1-7.

    Crop pollination by bees has long been recognized as an ecosystem service of huge economic value; a large number of food crops depend upon pollination. Features across landscapes that are important for pollination delivery include: nesting habitats, floral resource availability at foraging distance, and climate. The conditions for presence/absence of pollinators are therefore complex and rely upon a combination of biotic and abiotic factors. To date there has been no easily available method for landowners to determine the potential of pollination delivery across the land effectively and rapidly. In this paper we develop a method that uses freely available datasets to remotely estimate the relative provision of pollination service delivery provided by bees across Europe at a 300m-pixel resolution. We then identify the potential pollination delivery and efficiency across Europe at country and regional level. This study illustrates an approach that obtains a first approximation for land managers to identify potential areas across landscapes to protect in order to enhance pollination service delivery.

    Keywords: Ecosystem services, Landscape management, Pollination, Pollinator-dependent crops, Species distribution modeling