Uses of GBIF in scientific research

Peer-reviewed research citing GBIF as a data source, with at least one author from Norway.
Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.

List of publications

  • Alsos I, Ware C, Elven R (2015)

    Past Arctic aliens have passed away, current ones may stay

    Biological Invasions.

    Increased human activity and climate change are expected to increase the numbers and impact of alien species in the Arctic, but knowledge of alien species is poor in most Arctic regions. Through field investigations over the last 10 years, and review of alien vascular plant records for the high Arctic Archipelago Svalbard over the past 130 years, we explored long term trends in persistence and phenology. In total, 448 observations of 105 taxa have been recorded from 28 sites. Recent surveys at 18 of these sites revealed that alien species had disappeared at half of them. Investigations at a further 49 sites characterised by former human activity and/or current tourist landing sites did not reveal any alien species. Patterns of alien species distribution suggest that greater alien species richness is more likely to be aligned with ongoing human inhabitation than sites of transient use. The probability of an alien species being in a more advanced phenological stage increased with higher mean July temperatures. As higher mean July temperatures are positively correlated with more recent year, the latter finding suggests a clear warming effect on the increased reproductive potential of alien plants, and thus an increased potential for spread in Svalbard. Given that both human activity and temperatures are expected to increase in the future, there is need to respond in policy and action to reduce the potential for further alien species introduction and spread in the Arctic.

    Keywords: Alien Arctic, Climate change, Management, Non-native species, Phenology

  • Flø D, Krokene P, Økland B (2015)

    Invasion potential of Agrilus planipennis and other Agrilus beetles in Europe: import pathways of deciduous wood chips and MaxEnt analyses of potential distribution areas

    EPPO Bulletin 45(2) 259-268.

    Bark- and wood-boring beetles in the genus Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) can survive wood-chipping, and Agrilus planipennis has established in North America and European Russia with devastating impacts on forest ecosystems. The work presented in this paper combined import statistics of deciduous wood chips, Maximum entropy modelling (MaxEnt) of climatic similarities, and the distribution of potential tree hosts to predict the likelihood of four selected North American Agrilus species to become introduced and established in Europe. In agreement with the EU's energy-policy target of increased use of wood chips, there was a linear or exponential increase in European imports of deciduous wood chips during the past 10 years from countries harbouring potentially harmful Agrilus species. MaxEnt showed high environmental suitability in Europe for the four selected Agrilus species, particularly in Eastern Europe and European Russia for A. anxius, A. bilineatus and A. planipennis and in southern Europe for A. politus. Documented susceptible host trees are widely distributed in the predicted areas of Agrilus distribution in Europe, and these areas receive large quantities of deciduous wood chips from countries where these and other Agrilus species are present. Thus, it was concluded that the fundamental conditions for introduction and establishment of Agrilus species in Europe are in place. Potentiel d'invasion d'Agrilus planipennis et d'autres Agrilus en Europe: filières d'importation de copeaux de bois de feuillus et analyses MaxEnt des zones de répartition potentielles Les coléoptères de l'écorce et du bois du genre Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) peuvent survivre aux processus de fabrication des copeaux de bois, et Agrilus planipennis s'est établi en Amérique du Nord et dans la partie européenne de la Russie avec des impacts dévastateurs sur les écosystèmes forestiers. Le travail présenté dans cet article combine des statistiques sur l'importation des copeaux de bois de feuillus, la modélisation du maximum d'entropie (MaxEnt) des similitudes climatiques, et la répartition des arbres-hôtes potentiels pour prévoir la probabilité d'introduction et d'établissement en Europe de quatre espèces d'Agrilus d'Amérique du Nord. L'objectif de la politique énergétique de l'UE d'accroissement de l'utilisation des copeaux de bois s'est accompagné d'une augmentation linéaire ou exponentielle des importations européennes de copeaux de bois de feuillus au cours des 10 dernières années en provenance de pays dans lesquels des espèces d'Agrilus potentiellement nuisibles sont présentes. La modélisation MaxEnt a montré que les conditions environnementales en Europe sont très favorables aux quatre espèces d'Agrilus étudiées, notamment en Europe de l'Est et dans la partie européenne de la Russie pour A. anxius, A. bilineatus et A. planipennis, et dans le sud de l'Europe pour A. politus. Les arbres-hôtes sensibles connus sont largement répandus dans les zones de répartition potentielle de ces Agrilus en Europe, et ces zones reçoivent de grandes quantités de copeaux de bois de feuillus provenant de pays où ces espèces et d'autres espèces d'Agrilus sont présentes. Ainsi, il est conclu que les conditions fondamentales de l'introduction et de l'établissement d'espèces d'Agrilus en Europe sont réunies.

    Keywords: Alien Arctic, Climate change, Management, Non-native species, Phenology

  • Gough L, Sverdrup-Thygeson A, Milberg P, Pilskog H, Jansson N, Jonsell M et al. (2015)

    Specialists in ancient trees are more affected by climate than generalists

    Ecology and Evolution.

    Ancient trees are considered one of the most important habitats for biodiversity in Europe and North America. They support exceptional numbers of specialized species, including a range of rare and endangered wood-living insects. In this study, we use a dataset of 105 sites spanning a climatic gradient along the oak range of Norway and Sweden to investigate the importance of temperature and precipitation on beetle species richness in ancient, hollow oak trees. We expected that increased summer temperature would positively influence all wood-living beetle species whereas precipitation would be less important with a negligible or negative impact. Surprisingly, only oak-specialist beetles with a northern distribution increased in species richness with temperature. Few specialist beetles and no generalist beetles responded to the rise of 4°C in summer as covered by our climatic gradient. The negative effect of precipitation affected more specialist species than did temperature, whereas the generalists remained unaffected. In summary, we suggest that increased summer temperature is likely to benefit a few specialist beetles within this dead wood community, but a larger number of specialists are likely to decline due to increased precipitation. In addition, generalist species will remain unaffected. To minimize adverse impacts of climate change on this important community, long-term management plans for ancient trees are important.

    Keywords: Beetles, climate gradient, coleoptera, precipitation, saproxylic, temperature

  • Pellissier L, Eidesen P, Ehrich D, Descombes P, Schönswetter P, Tribsch A et al. (2015)

    Past climate-driven range shifts and population genetic diversity in arctic plants

    Journal of Biogeography.

    Aim High intra-specific genetic diversity is necessary for species adaptation to novel environments under climate change, but species tracking suitable conditions are losing alleles through successive founder events during range shift. Here, we investigated the relationship between range shift since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and extant population genetic diversity across multiple plant species to understand variability in species responses. Location: The circumpolar Arctic and northern temperate alpine ranges. Methods: We estimated the climatic niches of 30 cold-adapted plant species using range maps coupled with species distribution models and hindcasted species suitable areas to reconstructions of the mid-Holocene and LGM climates. We computed the species-specific migration distances from the species glacial refugia to their current distribution and correlated distances to extant genetic diversity in 1295 populations. Differential responses among species were related to life-history traits. Results: We found a negative association between inferred migration distances from refugia and genetic diversities in 25 species, but only 11 had statistically significant negative slopes. The relationships between inferred distance and population genetic diversity were steeper for insect-pollinated species than wind-pollinated species, but the difference among pollination system was marginally independent from phylogenetic autocorrelation. Main conclusion: The relationships between inferred migration distances and genetic diversities in 11 species, independent from current isolation, indicate that past range shifts were associated with a genetic bottleneck effect with an average of 21% loss of genetic diversity per 1000 km−1. In contrast, the absence of relationship in many species also indicates that the response is species specific and may be modulated by plant pollination strategies or result from more complex historical contingencies than those modelled here.

    Keywords: Arctic plants, Last Glacial Maximum, climate change, climatic niche, migration, species distribution models

  • Rijal D, Alm T, Jahodová , Stenøien H, Alsos I (2015)

    Reconstructing the invasion history of Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) into Europe.

    Molecular ecology.

    Sparse, incomplete and inappropriate historical records of invasive species often hamper invasive species management interventions. Population genetic analyses of invaders might provide a suitable context for the identification of their source populations and possible introduction routes. Here, we describe the population genetics of Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fisch and trace its route of introduction into Europe. Microsatellite markers revealed a significantly higher genetic diversity of H. persicum in its native range, and the loss of diversity in the introduced range may be attributed to a recent genetic bottleneck. Bayesian cluster analysis on regional levels identified three and two genetic clusters in the native and the introduced ranges, respectively. A global structure analysis revealed two worldwide distinct genetic groups: one primarily in Iran and Denmark, the other primarily in Norway. There were also varying degrees of admixture in England, Sweden, Finland and Latvia. Approximate Bayesian computation indicated two independent introductions of H. persicum from Iran to Europe: the first one in Denmark and the second one in England. Finland was subsequently colonized by English populations. In contrast to the contemporary hypothesis of English origin of Norwegian populations, we found Finland to be a more likely source for Norwegian populations, a scenario supported by higher estimated historical migration from Finland to Norway. Genetic diversity per se is not a primary determinant of invasiveness in H. persicum. Our results indicate that, due to either pre-adaptations or rapid local adaptations, introduced populations may have acquired invasiveness after subsequent introductions, once a suitable environment was encountered. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    Keywords: Approximate Bayesian Computation, biodiversity, genetic variation, giant hogweeds, invasive alien species, population genetics

  • Schwallier R, Raes N, de Boer H, Vos R, van Vugt R, Gravendeel B (2015)

    Phylogenetic analysis of niche divergence reveals distinct evolutionary histories and climate change implications for tropical carnivorous pitcher plants

    Diversity and Distributions n/a-n/a.

    Aim To analyse the underpinnings of historical drivers of diversity and their contributions to current distributions and future roles in a changing climate, we studied the relationship between ecological niche divergence and phylogenetic signal in tropical carnivorous pitcher plants. Location Southeast Asia. Methods Estimates of realized ecological niches were reconstructed and plotted along a newly created multilocus molecular phylogeny. Phylogenetic signal was analysed by comparisons of calculated phylogenetic relatedness with ecological niche divergence. Current and projected future potentially suitable habitats were mapped for several species of plants with variable evolutionary histories and distributions. Results Highland and lowland species had distinct phylogenetic signals. Higher altitude species had significantly lower molecular divergence as compared with the lowland species, yet ecological niches with less overlap. When projected onto a future climate scenario, highland species lose a greater amount of potentially suitable habitat compared to lower altitude species, and the majority of studied higher altitude species will face an overall loss of future suitable habitat. Main conclusion We conclude that distinct phylogenetic signals not only unravel differing evolutionary histories but also show that the implications of species' tolerances to future changing climate vary. Over the past million years, historical climate change shaped the differing evolution and ecological niches of highland and lowland tropical pitcher plant species. Rapid, recent radiations of the higher altitude species are reflected in limited molecular divergence, which is in sharp contrast with the more gradually evolved and genetically distinct lower altitude species in our study. Our projections for future potentially suitable habitats show that on-going climate shifts will have detrimental effects on especially the higher altitude species due to a narrower niche tolerance and dramatic loss of potentially suitable habitat.

    Keywords: Nepenthes, climate change, ecological niche modelling, molecular divergence, niche divergence, phylogenetic signal

  • Ware C, Berge J, Jelmert A, Olsen S, Pellissier L, Wisz M et al. (2015)

    Biological introduction risks from shipping in a warming Arctic

    Journal of Applied Ecology.

    1.Several decades of research on invasive marine species have yielded a broad understanding of the nature of species invasion mechanisms and associated threats globally. However, this is not true of the Arctic, a region where ongoing climatic changes may promote species invasion. Here we evaluated risks associated with non-indigenous propagule loads discharged with ships’ ballast water to the high-Arctic archipelago, Svalbard, as a case study for the wider Arctic. 2.We sampled and identified transferred propagules using traditional and DNA barcoding techniques. We then assessed the suitability of the Svalbard coast for non-indigenous species under contemporary and future climate scenarios using ecophysiological models based on critical temperature and salinity reproductive thresholds. 3.Ships discharging ballast water in Svalbard carried high densities of zooplankton (mean 1522 ± 335 SE individuals m−3), predominately comprised of indigenous species. Ballast water exchange did not prevent non-indigenous species introduction. Non-indigenous coastal species were present in all except one of 16 ballast water samples (mean 144 ± 67 SE individuals m−3), despite five of the eight ships exchanging ballast water en route. 4.Of a total of 73 taxa, 36 species including 23 non-indigenous species were identified. Of those 23, sufficient data permitted evaluation of the current and future colonization potential for eight widely-known invaders. With the exception of one of these species, modelled suitability indicated that the coast of Svalbard is unsuitable presently; under the 2100 RCP 8.5 climate scenario, however, modelled suitability will favour colonization for six species. 5.Synthesis and applications. We show that current ballast water management practices do not prevent non-indigenous species from being transferred to the Arctic. Consequences of these shortcomings will be shipping-route dependent, but will likely magnify over time: our models indicate future conditions will favour the colonization of non-indigenous species Arctic-wide. Invasion threats will be greatest where shipping transfers organisms across biogeographic realms, and for these shipping routes ballast water treatment technologies may be required to prevent impacts. Our results also highlight critical gaps in our understanding of ballast water management efficacy and prioritization. Thereby, our study provides an agenda for research and policy development.

    Keywords: Arctic, ballast water exchange, climate change, ecophysiological thresholds, habitat suitability, invasion, marine non-indigenous species, regeneration niche, shipping, zooplankton

  • Wasof S, Lenoir J, Aarrestad P, Alsos I, Armbruster W, Austrheim G et al. (2015)

    Disjunct populations of European vascular plant species keep the same climatic niches

    Global Ecology and Biogeography.

    Aim Previous research on how climatic niches vary across species ranges has focused on a limited number of species, mostly invasive, and has not, to date, been very conclusive. Here we assess the degree of niche conservatism between distant populations of native alpine plant species that have been separated for thousands of years. Location European Alps and Fennoscandia. Methods Of the studied pool of 888 terrestrial vascular plant species occurring in both the Alps and Fennoscandia, we used two complementary approaches to test and quantify climatic-niche shifts for 31 species having strictly disjunct populations and 358 species having either a contiguous or a patchy distribution with distant populations. First, we used species distribution modelling to test for a region effect on each species' climatic niche. Second, we quantified niche overlap and shifts in niche width (i.e. ecological amplitude) and position (i.e. ecological optimum) within a bi-dimensional climatic space. Results Only one species (3%) of the 31 species with strictly disjunct populations and 58 species (16%) of the 358 species with distant populations showed a region effect on their climatic niche. Niche overlap was higher for species with strictly disjunct populations than for species with distant populations and highest for arctic–alpine species. Climatic niches were, on average, wider and located towards warmer and wetter conditions in the Alps. Main conclusion Climatic niches seem to be generally conserved between populations that are separated between the Alps and Fennoscandia and have probably been so for 10,000–15,000 years. Therefore, the basic assumption of species distribution models that a species' climatic niche is constant in space and time – at least on time scales 104 years or less – seems to be largely valid for arctic–alpine plants.

    Keywords: Alpine plants, arctic plants, climatic niche, disjunct distribution, distant populations, niche conservatism, niche optimum, niche overlap, niche width, species distribution modelling

  • Willis K, Seddon A, Long P, Jeffers E, Caithness N, Thurston M et al. (2015)

    Remote assessment of locally important ecological features across landscapes: how representative of reality?

    Ecological Applications 25(5) 1290-1302.

    The local ecological footprinting tool (LEFT) uses globally available databases, modeling, and algorithms to remotely assess locally important ecological features across landscapes based on five criteria: biodiversity (beta-diversity), vulnerability (threatened species), fragmentation, connectivity, and resilience. This approach can be applied to terrestrial landscapes at a 300-m resolution within a given target area. Input is minimal (latitude and longitude) and output is a computer-generated report and series of maps that both individually and synthetically depict the relative value of each ecological criteria. A key question for any such tool, however, is how representative is the remotely obtained output compared to what is on the ground. Here, we present the results from comparing remotely- vs. field-generated outputs from the LEFT tool on two distinct study areas for beta-diversity and distribution of threatened species (vulnerability), the two fields computed by LEFT for which such an approach is f...

    Keywords: beta-diversity, biodiversity evaluation, ecological footprint, ecological risk, field forecast verification, local ecological footprinting tool, local field data, threatened species, vulnerability, web-based landscape planning tool

  • Bendiksby M, Mazzoni S, Jørgensen M, Halvorsen R, Holien H (2014)

    Combining genetic analyses of archived specimens with distribution modelling to explain the anomalous distribution of the rare lichen Staurolemma omphalarioides : long-distance dispersal or vicariance?

    Journal of Biogeography.

    Aim: The rare lichen species Staurolemma omphalarioides is known mainly from the lowlands and coastal areas of the Mediterranean region but has also been found in coastal parts of central Norway. Despite extensive search efforts by experts for more than half a century, the species has been found nowhere in the gap. Our aim is to identify the most plausible explanation for this anomalous distribution by combining genetic analysis of archived specimens with distribution modelling. Location: Europe, western Middle East and North Africa (but mainly the Mediterranean and Atlantic floristic regions). Methods: We used multi-locus DNA sequencing of archived specimens and phylogenetic and network analyses to reveal potential genetic lineages within S. omphalarioides. We used georeferenced specimens and bioclimatic variables to model the distributions of the species and two genetic lineages, and to find the main environmental correlates of the distributions. Results: Our phylogeographical results show that S. omphalarioides contains genetic variation that correlates with geographical distance, although with a few shared haplotypes across disjunct ranges. Distributions of the species as well as the two genetic lineages are non-random. Distribution models predict occurrences of the species as well as one of its genetic lineages outside the current range of the species. Main conclusions: Our results indicate that neither the species nor its component genetic lineages have reached their potential distributions. Shared haplotypes across disjunct distributions, and absence from regions with suitable refugial habitats along the Atlantic coast of Western Europe, support long- distance dispersal, rather than vicariance, as the primary cause for the current distribution of the species.

    Keywords: archived biological collection, comparative dna-sequence analysis, conserva-, distribution modelling, genetic lineages, long-distance dispersal, old, tion