Uses of GBIF in scientific research

Peer-reviewed research citing GBIF as a data source, with at least one author from Norway.
For all researches, please visit our "Peer-reviewed publications" page.

List of publications

  • Speed J, Austrheim G (2017)

    The importance of herbivore density and management as determinants of the distribution of rare plant species

    Biological Conservation 205 77-84.

    Herbivores are often drivers of ecosystem states and dynamics and in many situations are managed either as livestock or through controlled or exploitative hunting of wild populations. Changes in herbivore density can affect the composition of plant communities. Management of herbivore densities could therefore be regulated to benefit plant species of conservation concern. In this study we use a unique spatial dataset of large herbivores in Norway to test whether herbivore density affects the distribution of rare red-listed plant species in tundra ecosystems, and to identify regions where herbivore density is the most important factor in determining the habitat suitability for the plant species. For all selected species a climatic variable was the most important determinant of the distribution, but herbivore density was an important determinant of some species notably Primula scandinavica. Herbivore density was the most important factor determining habitat suitability for this species in 13% of mainland Norway. Regions of Norway where the management of herbivore densities is most strongly linked to the habitat suitability of red-listed plant species are mapped. However, there was very low concordance in the localities of these areas; at any individual locality, habitat suitability was limited by herbivore density for only a small subset of the species. This suggests that management of herbivores for the benefit of rare plant species needs to be tailored for individual locations or species.

    Keywords: Alpine, Biotic interactions, Conservation, Grazing, Red list, Species distribution modelling

  • Araújo R, Assis J, Aguillar R, Airoldi L, Bárbara I, Bartsch I et al. (2016)

    Status, trends and drivers of kelp forests in Europe: an expert assessment

    Biodiversity and Conservation 25(7) 1319-1348.

    A comprehensive expert consultation was conducted in order to assess the status, trends and the most important drivers of change in the abundance and geographical distribution of kelp forests in European waters. This consultation included an on-line questionnaire, results from a workshop and data provided by a selected group of experts working on kelp forest mapping and eco-evolutionary research. Differences in status and trends according to geographical areas, species identity and small-scale variations within the same habitat where shown by assembling and mapping kelp distribution and trend data. Significant data gaps for some geographical regions, like the Mediterranean and the southern Iberian Peninsula, were also identified. The data used for this study confirmed a general trend with decreasing abundance of some native kelp species at their southern distributional range limits and increasing abundance in other parts of their distribution (Saccharina latissima and Saccorhiza polyschides). The expansion of the introduced species Undaria pinnatifida was also registered. Drivers of observed changes in kelp forests distribution and abundance were assessed using experts’ opinions. Multiple possible drivers were identified, including global warming, sea urchin grazing, harvesting, pollution and fishing pressure, and their impact varied between geographical areas. Overall, the results highlight major threats for these ecosystems but also opportunities for conservation. Major requirements to ensure adequate protection of coastal kelp ecosystems along European coastlines are discussed, based on the local to regional gaps detected in the study.

    Keyword: Kelp forests Expert consultation Status and tempor

  • Jb N (2016)

    Some interesting lichenized fungi from old Fraxinus excelsior and Ulmus glabra in Norway, including four new country records

    Graphis Scripta 28(1-2) 17-21.

    The four lichenized fungi Ramonia luteola, Strigula jamesii, S. phaea and Vezdaea aestivalis are reported as new to Norway. Comments are also given on the rare species Enchylium coccophorum, Gomphillus calycioides, Piccolia ochrophora, Ramonia interjecta, Scytinium fragrans and Wadeana minuta, for which several new findings were made that shed new light on their distribution and ecology in Norway

    Keyword: Kelp forests Expert consultation Status and tempor

  • Newbold T, Hudson L, Hill S, Contu S, Gray C, Scharlemann J et al. (2016)

    Global patterns of terrestrial assemblage turnover within and among land uses


    Land use has large effects on the diversity of ecological assemblages. Differences among land uses in the diversity of local assemblages (alpha diversity) have been quantified at a global scale. Effects on the turnover of species composition between locations (beta diversity) are less clear, with previous studies focusing on particular regions or groups of species. Using a global database on the composition of ecological assemblages in different land uses, we test for differences in the between–site turnover of species composition, within and among land–use types. Overall, we show a strong impact of land use on assemblage composition. While we find that compositional turnover within land uses does not differ strongly among land uses, human land uses and secondary vegetation in an early stage of recovery are poor at retaining the species that characterise primary vegetation. The dissimilarity of assemblages in human–impacted habitats compared with primary vegetation was more pronounced in the tropical than temperate realm. An exploratory analysis suggests that this geographic difference might be caused primarily by differences in climate seasonality and in the numbers of species sampled. Taken together the results suggest that, while small–scale beta diversity within land uses is not strongly impacted by land–use type, compositional turnover between land uses is substantial. Therefore, land–use change will lead to profound changes in the structure of ecological assemblages.

    Keyword: Kelp forests Expert consultation Status and tempor

  • Nogué S, Long P, Eycott A, de Nascimento L, Fernández-Palacios J, Petrokofsky G et al. (2016)

    Pollination service delivery for European crops: Challenges and opportunities

    Ecological Economics 128 1-7.

    Crop pollination by bees has long been recognized as an ecosystem service of huge economic value; a large number of food crops depend upon pollination. Features across landscapes that are important for pollination delivery include: nesting habitats, floral resource availability at foraging distance, and climate. The conditions for presence/absence of pollinators are therefore complex and rely upon a combination of biotic and abiotic factors. To date there has been no easily available method for landowners to determine the potential of pollination delivery across the land effectively and rapidly. In this paper we develop a method that uses freely available datasets to remotely estimate the relative provision of pollination service delivery provided by bees across Europe at a 300m-pixel resolution. We then identify the potential pollination delivery and efficiency across Europe at country and regional level. This study illustrates an approach that obtains a first approximation for land managers to identify potential areas across landscapes to protect in order to enhance pollination service delivery.

    Keywords: Ecosystem services, Landscape management, Pollination, Pollinator-dependent crops, Species distribution modeling

  • Phillips J, Asdal , Magos Brehm J, Rasmussen M, Maxted N (2016)

    In situ and ex situ diversity analysis of priority crop wild relatives in Norway

    Diversity and Distributions.

    Aim To contribute directly to Norway's national and international commitments to systematic, long-term conservation of crop wild relatives (CWR) by ensuring both the in situ and ex situ protection and availability of a broad range of CWR genetic diversity within the country. Location Norway. Methods We created a priority list of CWR within Norway based upon four main criteria including economic value from national to global level of associated crops and inclusion in Annex 1 of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA). Species presence data were gathered from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and used for predictive species distribution modelling in MaxEnt. capfitogen software was utilized to create an ecogeographic land characterization (ELC) map and to identify complementary in situ genetic reserves and ex situ collecting priorities which target the full range of ecogeographic diversity of taxa. Results An inventory of 204 priority CWR within Norway was compiled. A grid cell complementary network of 19 in situ areas (~10 km2) conserved 201 priority CWR, and a separate analysis identified a protected area complementary network of 23 reserves that conserved 181 priority taxa. For ex situ conservation, 177 taxa did not have ex situ accessions and of the 24 with accessions, 15 had the minimum of five populations conserved throughout their ecogeographic range. Main conclusions We present the first comprehensive national recommendations for in situ and ex situ conservation of 204 priority CWR in Norway. Proposals target the conservation of the ecogeographic diversity of the priority CWR and hence their genetic diversity. Both the priority taxa and the methodology used are applicable at regional and global scales with the recommendations not only helping Norway to meet its international obligations for conservation of genetic diversity of CWR but also ensuring this genetic diversity is available for use in tackling global food security.

    Keywords: capfitogen, conservation, food security, genetic diversity, plant genetic resources, species distribution modelling

  • Wauchope H, Shaw J, Varpe , Lappo E, Boertmann D, Lanctot R et al. (2016)

    Rapid climate-driven loss of breeding habitat for Arctic migratory birds

    Global Change Biology.

    Millions of birds migrate to and from the Arctic each year, but rapid climate change in the High North could strongly affect where species are able to breed, disrupting migratory connections globally. We modelled the climatically suitable breeding conditions of 24 Arctic specialist shorebirds and projected them to 2070 and to the mid-Holocene climatic optimum, the world's last major warming event ~6000 years ago. We show that climatically suitable breeding conditions could shift, contract and decline over the next 70 years, with 66–83% of species losing the majority of currently suitable area. This exceeds, in rate and magnitude, the impact of the mid-Holocene climatic optimum. Suitable climatic conditions are predicted to decline acutely in the most species rich region, Beringia (western Alaska and eastern Russia), and become concentrated in the Eurasian and Canadian Arctic islands. These predicted spatial shifts of breeding grounds could affect the species composition of the world's major flyways. Encouragingly, protected area coverage of current and future climatically suitable breeding conditions generally meets target levels; however, there is a lack of protected areas within the Canadian Arctic where resource exploitation is a growing threat. Given that already there are rapid declines of many populations of Arctic migratory birds, our results emphasize the urgency of mitigating climate change and protecting Arctic biodiversity.

    Keywords: Beringia, flyway, maxent, mid-Holocene, protected areas, shorebirds, species distribution modelling, waders

  • Alsos I, Ware C, Elven R (2015)

    Past Arctic aliens have passed away, current ones may stay

    Biological Invasions.

    Increased human activity and climate change are expected to increase the numbers and impact of alien species in the Arctic, but knowledge of alien species is poor in most Arctic regions. Through field investigations over the last 10 years, and review of alien vascular plant records for the high Arctic Archipelago Svalbard over the past 130 years, we explored long term trends in persistence and phenology. In total, 448 observations of 105 taxa have been recorded from 28 sites. Recent surveys at 18 of these sites revealed that alien species had disappeared at half of them. Investigations at a further 49 sites characterised by former human activity and/or current tourist landing sites did not reveal any alien species. Patterns of alien species distribution suggest that greater alien species richness is more likely to be aligned with ongoing human inhabitation than sites of transient use. The probability of an alien species being in a more advanced phenological stage increased with higher mean July temperatures. As higher mean July temperatures are positively correlated with more recent year, the latter finding suggests a clear warming effect on the increased reproductive potential of alien plants, and thus an increased potential for spread in Svalbard. Given that both human activity and temperatures are expected to increase in the future, there is need to respond in policy and action to reduce the potential for further alien species introduction and spread in the Arctic.

    Keywords: Alien Arctic, Climate change, Management, Non-native species, Phenology

  • Flø D, Krokene P, Økland B (2015)

    Invasion potential of Agrilus planipennis and other Agrilus beetles in Europe: import pathways of deciduous wood chips and MaxEnt analyses of potential distribution areas

    EPPO Bulletin 45(2) 259-268.

    Bark- and wood-boring beetles in the genus Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) can survive wood-chipping, and Agrilus planipennis has established in North America and European Russia with devastating impacts on forest ecosystems. The work presented in this paper combined import statistics of deciduous wood chips, Maximum entropy modelling (MaxEnt) of climatic similarities, and the distribution of potential tree hosts to predict the likelihood of four selected North American Agrilus species to become introduced and established in Europe. In agreement with the EU's energy-policy target of increased use of wood chips, there was a linear or exponential increase in European imports of deciduous wood chips during the past 10 years from countries harbouring potentially harmful Agrilus species. MaxEnt showed high environmental suitability in Europe for the four selected Agrilus species, particularly in Eastern Europe and European Russia for A. anxius, A. bilineatus and A. planipennis and in southern Europe for A. politus. Documented susceptible host trees are widely distributed in the predicted areas of Agrilus distribution in Europe, and these areas receive large quantities of deciduous wood chips from countries where these and other Agrilus species are present. Thus, it was concluded that the fundamental conditions for introduction and establishment of Agrilus species in Europe are in place. Potentiel d'invasion d'Agrilus planipennis et d'autres Agrilus en Europe: filières d'importation de copeaux de bois de feuillus et analyses MaxEnt des zones de répartition potentielles Les coléoptères de l'écorce et du bois du genre Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) peuvent survivre aux processus de fabrication des copeaux de bois, et Agrilus planipennis s'est établi en Amérique du Nord et dans la partie européenne de la Russie avec des impacts dévastateurs sur les écosystèmes forestiers. Le travail présenté dans cet article combine des statistiques sur l'importation des copeaux de bois de feuillus, la modélisation du maximum d'entropie (MaxEnt) des similitudes climatiques, et la répartition des arbres-hôtes potentiels pour prévoir la probabilité d'introduction et d'établissement en Europe de quatre espèces d'Agrilus d'Amérique du Nord. L'objectif de la politique énergétique de l'UE d'accroissement de l'utilisation des copeaux de bois s'est accompagné d'une augmentation linéaire ou exponentielle des importations européennes de copeaux de bois de feuillus au cours des 10 dernières années en provenance de pays dans lesquels des espèces d'Agrilus potentiellement nuisibles sont présentes. La modélisation MaxEnt a montré que les conditions environnementales en Europe sont très favorables aux quatre espèces d'Agrilus étudiées, notamment en Europe de l'Est et dans la partie européenne de la Russie pour A. anxius, A. bilineatus et A. planipennis, et dans le sud de l'Europe pour A. politus. Les arbres-hôtes sensibles connus sont largement répandus dans les zones de répartition potentielle de ces Agrilus en Europe, et ces zones reçoivent de grandes quantités de copeaux de bois de feuillus provenant de pays où ces espèces et d'autres espèces d'Agrilus sont présentes. Ainsi, il est conclu que les conditions fondamentales de l'introduction et de l'établissement d'espèces d'Agrilus en Europe sont réunies.

    Keywords: Alien Arctic, Climate change, Management, Non-native species, Phenology

  • Gough L, Sverdrup-Thygeson A, Milberg P, Pilskog H, Jansson N, Jonsell M et al. (2015)

    Specialists in ancient trees are more affected by climate than generalists

    Ecology and Evolution.

    Ancient trees are considered one of the most important habitats for biodiversity in Europe and North America. They support exceptional numbers of specialized species, including a range of rare and endangered wood-living insects. In this study, we use a dataset of 105 sites spanning a climatic gradient along the oak range of Norway and Sweden to investigate the importance of temperature and precipitation on beetle species richness in ancient, hollow oak trees. We expected that increased summer temperature would positively influence all wood-living beetle species whereas precipitation would be less important with a negligible or negative impact. Surprisingly, only oak-specialist beetles with a northern distribution increased in species richness with temperature. Few specialist beetles and no generalist beetles responded to the rise of 4°C in summer as covered by our climatic gradient. The negative effect of precipitation affected more specialist species than did temperature, whereas the generalists remained unaffected. In summary, we suggest that increased summer temperature is likely to benefit a few specialist beetles within this dead wood community, but a larger number of specialists are likely to decline due to increased precipitation. In addition, generalist species will remain unaffected. To minimize adverse impacts of climate change on this important community, long-term management plans for ancient trees are important.

    Keywords: Beetles, climate gradient, coleoptera, precipitation, saproxylic, temperature