Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.
Moraga P, Cano J, Baggaley R, Gyapong J, Njenga S, Nikolay B et al. (2015)
Modelling the distribution and transmission intensity of lymphatic filariasis in sub-Saharan Africa prior to scaling up interventions: integrated use of geostatistical and mathematical modelling
Parasites & Vectors 8(1) 560.
BACKGROUND:Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the neglected tropical diseases targeted for global elimination. The ability to interrupt transmission is, partly, influenced by the underlying intensity of transmission and its geographical variation. This information can also help guide the design of targeted surveillance activities. The present study uses a combination of geostatistical and mathematical modelling to predict the prevalence and transmission intensity of LF prior to the implementation of large-scale control in sub-Saharan Africa.METHODS:A systematic search of the literature was undertaken to identify surveys on the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia (mf), based on blood smears, and on the prevalence of antigenaemia, based on the use of an immuno-chromatographic card test (ICT). Using a suite of environmental and demographic data, spatiotemporal multivariate models were fitted separately for mf prevalence and ICT-based prevalence within a Bayesian framework and used to make predictions for non-sampled areas. Maps of the dominant vector species of LF were also developed. The maps of predicted prevalence and vector distribution were linked to mathematical models of the transmission dynamics of LF to infer the intensity of transmission, quantified by the basic reproductive number (R 0 ).RESULTS:The literature search identified 1267 surveys that provide suitable data on the prevalence of mf and 2817 surveys that report the prevalence of antigenaemia. Distinct spatial predictions arose from the models for mf prevalence and ICT-based prevalence, with a wider geographical distribution when using ICT-based data. The vector distribution maps demonstrated the spatial variation of LF vector species. Mathematical modelling showed that the reproduction number (R 0 ) estimates vary from 2.7 to 30, with large variations between and within regions.CONCLUSIONS:LF transmission is highly heterogeneous, and the developed maps can help guide intervention, monitoring and surveillance strategies as countries progress towards LF elimination.
Keywords: Basic reproductive number, Bayesian geostatistical modelling, Lymphatic filariasis, Mathematical modelling, Sub-Saharan Africa, Wuchereria bancrofti
Borokini T (2014)
Okoubaka Aubrevillei (Pelleg & Norman): A Synthesis of Existing Knowledge for Research and Conservation in West and Central Africa
Journal of Biology and Life Science 6(1) 67.
Okoubaka aubrevillei is the largest parasitic plant known to man. It is a tropical tree species distributed within West and Central Africa. Concerns were drawn to the tree because of its rarity, disjunct distribution in all its native range, paucity of published scientific information and its hemi-parasitic potentials. This article gathered and synthesized all existing scientific information on the tree to provide a solid foundation for further research on the tree. This article provided detailed information on its name etymology, taxonomic history, and geographical distribution including new locations for the tree, ecological significance and behaviour within its range, supported with an updated map illustrating its distribution within West and Central Africa. The possible causes of its rarity in its range were identified and its hemi-parasitic behaviour was hypothesized. In addition, ethnobotanical uses of the tree, symbolism and dendrolatry, and its significance in modern medicine were extensively discussed. The paper concluded with highlights on prospects for immediate conservation, management and research focus areas for the tree species.
Keywords: Conservation, Hemi-parasitism, Okoubaka aubrevillei, Rarity., West and Central Africa
Hamid A, Aiyelaagbe O (2012)
Pharmacological investigation of Asystasia calyciana for its antibacterial and antifungal properties
International Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Sciences 1 99-104.
The phytochemical investigation of Asystasia calyciana (whole plant) extracts revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, steroids, glycosides, flavonoids and anthraquinones. The hexane, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Asystasia calyciana were evaluated invitro to determine inhibition of human pathogenic microorganisms made up of six bacteria and six fungi. The plant metabolites inhibited the growth of twelve test organisms at different concentrations between 12.5 and 200mg/ml using agar diffusion plate method. The hexane extract exhibited higher antibacterial properties than both ethylacetate and methanol extracts of the plant. The hexane and ethylacetate extracts revealed higher antifungal properties than the methanol extract of A. calyciana, with activity of hexane and ethylacetate extracts comparable to that of the reference drug (tioconazole) against Candida albicans, Rhizopus stolon, Pneumonae notatum, Tricophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum and Candida albicans and Epidermophyton floccosum, respectively.
Keywords: A. calyciana, agar diffusion method, antibacterial and antifungal, ethnomedicine, phytochemical screening