Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.
Botello, F., Sarkar, S., Sánchez-Cordero, V., 2015.
Impact of habitat loss on distributions of terrestrial vertebrates in a high-biodiversity region in Mexico
Biological Conservation 184 59-65.
Mexico is considered a country of biological megadiversity because of its exceptional species richness and endemism. However, much of Mexico’s biodiversity is under threat due to a variety of factors, in particular, habitat loss. The Mexican legal standard (Norma Oficial Mexicana; NOM-ECOL-059-2010) uses four criteria to analyze specieś extinction risk at a national scale. However, when prioritizing areas for biodiversity conservation it is also important to incorporate knowledge of the conservation status of species at a more localized scale (regional, state, or municipal levels) for identifying possible risks associated with population declines. This paper focuses on Guerrero, which is the fourth most biologically diverse state in Mexico. The total extent of the conservation areas in Guerrero is low, amounting to 0.09% of its total area. We analyzed data for 582 terrestrial vertebrate species in Guerrero (53 amphibians, 115 reptiles, 334 birds and 80 mammals), modeling their potential distribution using a maximum entropy algorithm, and 114,555 occurrence records, and 23 predictive environmental (19 climatic and four topographical) variables. The portion of the potential distribution for each species including only remnant natural habitat was designated as its predicted distribution. The area of the predicted distribution was used to compute the fraction of natural habitat remaining for each species overlapping within decreed protected areas at the state and national levels, that is, for Guerrero and all of Mexico. Results show significant differences in the fraction of species’ predicted distribution and species’ potential distribution at different scales (state and national) and differences between the vertebrate groups analyzed. Because quantitative conservation targets are typically set for individual species, this exercise enables an analysis of the impact of the habitat lost on each species’ distribution by assessing the fraction of its predicted distribution that coincides with protected areas. We conclude that this must be part of systematic conservation planning to prioritize areas for potential conservation in Guerrero.
Keywords: Biodiversity, Deforestation, Distribution, Guerrero, Maximum entropy modeling, Protected areas
Esperón-Rodríguez, M., Barradas, V., 2015.
Comparing environmental vulnerability in the montane cloud forest of eastern Mexico: A vulnerability index
Ecological Indicators 52 300-310.
The montane cloud forest (MCF) is one of the most threatened ecosystems, in spite of its high strategic value for sustainable development, the role it plays in the hydrological cycle maintenance, and as reservoir of endemic biodiversity. For Mexico, this forest is considered the most threatened terrestrial ecosystem at national level because of land-use changes and the effects of global climate change. To compare and assess the environmental vulnerability in the MCF we measured two physiological traits (stomatal conductance and leaf water potential), four climate variables (air temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, vapor pressure deficit, water availability) and the potential geographic distribution of eleven tree species from this forest. We evaluated stomatal conductance responses using the envelope function method (EFM), and after analyzing these responses we developed a vulnerability index that allowed us to compare the environmental vulnerability among species. We proposed the EFM as a useful tool to assess regional environmental vulnerability by comparing species. Our results showed differential species responses to all the studied variables; however, the vulnerability index allowed us to conclude that the most vulnerable species was Liquidambar styraciflua, and the least vulnerable Persea longipes. We also found that temperatures above 34°C, and vapor pressure deficit above 2.9kPa with relative humidity below 30% jeopardized the stomatal conductance performance of all species. We also found leaf water potential as the most influential variable over the studied species followed by vapor pressure deficit, showing that even in the MCF water is a determinant factor for species’ development.
Keywords: Air temperature, Envelope function method, Environmental vulnerability, Leaf water potential, Montane cloud forest, PAR, Photosynthetically active radiation, Potential distribution, RH, Stomatal conductance, TA, VPD, Vapor pressure deficit, Vulnerability index, air temperature, gS, leaf water potential, photosynthetically active radiation, relative humidity, stomatal conductance, vapor pressure deficit, Ψ
Gelviz-Gelvez, S., Pavón, N., Illoldi-Rangel, P., Ballesteros-Barrera, C., 2015.
Ecological niche modeling under climate change to select shrubs for ecological restoration in Central Mexico
Ecological Engineering 74 302-309.
Shrub species were selected for potential use in restoration projects in the semiarid shrublands of Central Mexico. Ecological characteristics of the species were considered, including tolerance to climate change. Inventories of shrubs were carried out in 17 semiarid shrubland fragments of xeric shrubland. The 46 species recorded were ordered using a principal component analysis, considering ecological characteristics such as frequency, land cover, sociability and interaction with mycorrhizal fungi. From these, the 10 species that presented the highest values of the desired characteristics were selected. The response of these species to climate change was evaluated using current potential distribution models and by applying climate change scenario A2, using MaxEnt. The species that presented suitable ecological qualities for restoration and maintained or increased their distribution under the climate change scenario were Acacia schaffneri, Ageratina espinosarum, Bursera fagaroides, Dalea bicolor, Eysenhardtia polystachya and Karwinskia humboldtiana. These species are therefore recommended for use in medium and long-term ecological restoration projects in the semi-arid region in Central Mexico.
Keywords: Degradation, Ecological attributes for restoration, Niche-base distribution models, Semiarid environments
Monterrubio-Rico, T., Charre-Medellin, J., Sáenz-Romero, C., 2015.
Current and future habitat availability for Thick-billed and Maroon-fronted parrots in northern Mexican forests
Journal of Field Ornithology 86(1) 1-16.
Thick-billed Parrots (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha) and Maroon-fronted Parrots (Rhynchopsitta terrisi) are the only parrots in Mexico found in high-elevation coniferous forests. Both species are critically endangered due to logging, and climate change is expected to further reduce their available habitat. Our objectives were to assess the present and future availability of a suitable habitat for these parrots using ecological niche models. Future climatic scenarios were estimated by overlaying the present distributions of these parrots on maps of projected biome distributions generated using a North American vegetation model. Our climatic scenarios revealed that the distribution of key habitats for both parrots will likely be affected as the climate becomes more suitable for xeric biomes. The climate associated with coniferous forests in the current range of Maroon-fronted Parrots is predicted to disappear by 2090, and the climate associated with the key coniferous habitats of Thick-billed Parrots may contract. However, our results also indicate that suitable climatic conditions will prevail for the high-elevation coniferous biomes where Thick-billed Parrots nest. The degree to which both species of parrots will be able to adapt to the new scenarios is uncertain. Some of their life history traits may allow them to respond with a combination of adaptive and spatial responses to climatic change and, in addition, suitable climatic conditions will prevail in some portions of their ranges. Actions needed to ensure the conservation of these parrots include strict control of logging and integration of rapid response teams for fire management within the potential foraging ranges of nesting pairs. A landscape with a greater proportion of restored forests would also aid in the recovery of current populations of Thick-billed and Maroon-fronted parrots and facilitate their responses to climate change.
Keywords: Psittacidae, Rhynchopsitta, climate change, mountain forests contraction, restoration
TOBÓN-SAMPEDRO, A., ROJAS-SOTO, O., 2015.
The geographic and seasonal potential distribution of the little known Fuertes’s Oriole Icterus fuertesi
Bird Conservation International 1-14.
Endemic species and those with restricted distribution ranges are a priority and national responsibility for global conservation. Fuertes’s Oriole Icterus fuertesi is a Mexican endemic species and is perhaps one of the least known birds in the country. It has traditionally been regarded as conspecific with the Orchard Oriole I. spurius, but recently it has been suggested that it is a distinct species, causing concern about its risk status. There is a scarcity of information related to the geographic and seasonal distribution of Fuertes’s Oriole, as well as a lack of information regarding its abundance and habitat preferences. We gathered all the available records, and used ecological niche modelling to analyse the spatial and temporal patterns of the distribution of the species. We also carried out field surveys in the surroundings of known locations of the species in order to determine its abundance. We found that the species is narrowly and locally restricted to the surroundings of eight localities along the Gulf coast of Mexico that constitute small and discontinuous areas of presence. We also found no evidence of migration to the Pacific Coast in winter, as has been historically thought. Instead, our results suggest that the species exhibits a short-distance migration, with northern populations migrating to the southern range along the Gulf coast of Mexico. Analysis of abundance and field observations confirm that the species is restricted to highly modified wetland landscapes associated with urban and semi-urban habitats. Based on these results, we suggest the urgent reassignment of its risk category.
Keywords: Psittacidae, Rhynchopsitta, climate change, mountain forests contraction, restoration
Aguirre-Gutiérrez, J., Serna-Chavez, H., Villalobos-Arambula, A., de la Rosa, J., Raes, N., 2014.
Diversity and Distributions Forthcoming.
Aim In the face of global environmental change, identifying the factors that shape the ecological niches of species and understanding the mechanisms behind them can help to draft effective conservation plans. The differences in the ecological factors that shape species distributions may then help to highlight differences between closely related taxa. We investigate the applicability of ecological niche modelling and the comparison of species distributions in ecological niche space to detect areas with priority for biodiversity conservation and to analyse differ- ences in the ecological niche spaces used by closely related taxa. Location United States of America, Mexico and Central America. Methods We apply ordination and ecological niche modelling techniques to assess the main environmental drivers of the distribution of Mexican white pines (Pinus: Pinaceae). Furthermore, we assess the similarities and differences of the ecological niches occupied by closely related taxa. We analyse whether Mexican white pines occupy similar or equivalent ecological niches. Results All the studied taxa presented different responses to the environmental factors, resulting in a unique combination of niche conditions. Our stacked habitat suitability maps highlighted regions in southern Mexico and northern Central America as highly suitable for most species and thus with high conser- vation value. By quantitatively assessing the niche overlap, similarity and equiv- alency of Mexican white pines, our results prove that the distribution of one species cannot be implied by the distribution of another, even if these taxa are considered closely related. Main conclusions The fact that each Mexican white pine is constrained by a unique set of environmental conditions, and thus, their non-equivalence of ecological niches has direct implications for conservation as this highlights the inadequacy of one-fits all type of conservation measure.
Keywords: conifers, conservation, forest, niche comparison, pinus, species distribution
Contreras-MacBeath, T., Rodríguez, M., Sorani, V., Goldspink, C., Reid, G., 2014.
Journal of Threatened Taxa 6(2) 5421-5433.
A study of richness and endemism of the freshwater fishes of Mexico, was carried out in order to identify hotspots and inform conservation efforts. This was done by mapping and overlaying individual species distributions by means of geographical information systems based on museum data. The study was able to confirm several previously proposed centres of freshwater fish richness (Southeastern Mexico, the Mesa Central, the Bravo-Conchos river system and the Panuco and Tuxpan-Nautla rivers). Seven areas with high Corrected Weighted Endemism’ Index values were identified, with the valley of Cuatrociénegas recognized as a true centre. An alarming result was the idetification of a ?Ghost? centre of endemism (Llanos El Salado) in southwestern Nuevo León, where six endemic cyprinodont species are all ?extinct’ or ?extinct in the wild’. Forty-nine single site endemics that are distributed all over Mexico were identified. The Chichancanab lagoon in the border between Yucatan and Quintana Roo, where a flock composed of six endemic cyprinodonts is present needs special mention. Three hotspots of richness plus endemism were found in Mexico, the most important of which is the Mesa Central where impacts by human activities have had a detrimental effect on fish populations.
Keywords: Conservation, Meso-America, hotspots, ichthyodiversity, species
Escalante, T., Rodríguez-Tapia, G., Linaje, M., Morrone, J., Noguera-Urbano, E., 2014.
Mammal species richness and biogeographic structure at the southern boundaries of the Nearctic region
Mammalia 78(2) 1-11.
We analyzed whether the spatial variation in mammal species richness reflects the southern bounda- ries of the Nearctic region as previously established by endemism patterns. Records from 710 mammal species were drawn on a map of North America (from Canada and Alaska to Panama) gridded at 4 ° latitude-longitude. We evaluated the probable existence of unknown spe- cies through three richness estimators (Chao2, ICE, and Jack1), modeled the potential distribution of species, and mapped the predicted pattern of species richness through the number of coexisting potential distribu- tions. The poorest grid cells are in the northern areas, whereas the richest ones are in the southern areas, coinciding with the pattern of collecting points. The average richness of 4 ° grid cells comprising the Nearc- tic region was 18 species, and the richest 4 ° grid cells had 150 species, coinciding with the 26 ° latitude. From the 406 mammal species of the Nearctic region, 104 are restricted to it, and 305 species situated south of it are not distributed in the region. The map of predicted rich- ness shows the classical latitudinal diversity gradient, with the number of species increasing to the tropics. We conclude that the Nearctic region has a low mam- mal richness, with a richness pattern corresponding with previously described patterns of endemism, with a boundary situated at 26 ° – 30 ° latitude. Keywords:
Keywords: North America, diversity, endemicity, richness estimators, species distribution models
Esperón-Rodríguez, M., Barradas, V., 2014.
Ecophysiological vulnerability to climate change: water stress responses in four tree species from the central mountain region of Veracruz, Mexico
Regional Environmental Change Forthcoming.
Ecophysiological vulnerability can be understood as the degree of susceptibility or inability of an organism to adapt their physiological functions to ecological and environmental changes. Changes in water availability and water stress are critical for species, which may respond differentially to different precipitation events. We analyzed the response of leaf water potential (W) and stomatal conductance (gS) to water stress to assess the ecophysiological vulnerability and evaluated the drought tolerance of four tree species from the central mountain region of Veracruz, Mexico: Alnus acuminata, Quercus xalapensis, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Pinus ayacahuite. Drought stress was imposed for 15 days (except for Q. xalapensis) and then watered for 25 days in order to evaluate the species recovery under three watering treatments: 16.67, 33.33, and 50 % field capacity. Individuals were screened throughout the experiment. W and gS were measured daily showing significant decrement and differential recovery for each species. L. styraciflua and P. ayacahuite needed more water and more days to recover, whereas Q. xalapensis needed less water and resisted more days without water. We found A. acuminata as a drought-tolerant/avoider species. After analyzing the precipitation and temperature trends for the region, we found negative precipitation trends with an increase in consecutive dry days, and we found positive temperature trends. We also developed potential distribution maps for all the species in the region, and after analyzing the precipitation and temperature changes, the potential distribution maps, the resistance to water stress, the number of days before leaf drop, the W and stomatal responses, and the water amount and number of days required to recover, we found L. styraciflua as the most vulnerable species and Q. xalapensis as the least vulnerable.
Keywords: Drought tolerance, Ecophysiological vulnerability, Leaf water potential, Precipitation and temperature trends, Stomatal conductance, Water stress
González-Maya, J., Castañeda, F., González, R., Pacheco, J., Ceballos, G., 2014.
Distribution, Range Extension, And Conservation Of The Endemic Black-Headed Bushmaster (Lachesis Melanocephala) In Costa Rica And Panama
Herpetological Conservation and Biology 9(2) 369-377.
The Black-headed Bushmaster, Lachesis melanocephala (Viperidae: Crotalinae), is an endemic pit viper from south-eastern Costa Rica. Despite its importance with regard to medicine and conservation, the ecology and distribution of this species are still poorly known, mainly because it was only recently recognized as a full species and records are scarce across its range. Known only from the Pacific slopes of the Talamanca mountain range, L. melanocephala is considered uncommon, restricted to undisturbed habitats, and likely threatened with extinction. Here we summarize its distribution, in terms of the Extent of Occurrence (EOO) and Species Distribution Model (SDM), and present a new locality record for the Las Tablas Protected Zone, at an elevation of 1,873 m, in a mixed premontane and montane oak forest habitat with steep slopes. The new record is located 14 km from the Panama border, so it is very likely that the species is also found in that country. Our results indicate that L. melanocephala has a very small geographic range, between 3,432 and 10,507 km2, depending on the method of assessment. It is found mostly in undisturbed habitats, including tropical, premontane and montane humid, very humid, and pluvial forests. Due to its restricted geographic range and habitat specificity, the severe and continued loss of lowland and mid-elevation forests throughout its range pose serious threats to the persistence of the Black-headed Bushmaster. Key
Keywords: Crotalinae, Las Tablas, Talamanca, endemism, niche, snake