Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.
Carrillo-Angeles I, Suzán-Azpiri H, Mandujano M, Golubov J, Martínez-Ávalos J (2016)
Niche breadth and the implications of climate change in the conservation of the genus Astrophytum (Cactaceae)
Journal of Arid Environments 124 310-317.
The niche breadth of a species reflects its ability to inhabit different conditions, and to use different resources, hence, species with wider niche are expected to be more resilient to anthropogenic derived climate change. We estimated the niche breadth of all species of the genus Astrophytum from macro-environmental variables and measures of local habitat uses, in order to evaluate whether species having wider niche breadths are less prone to experience unsuitable conditions projected by the A1B and A2 scenarios of the IPCC for 2020 and 2050, and analyzed the implications of projections for the conservation of the genus Astrophytum. Our analysis suggests that most of populations of the four species will experience increasingly unsuitable conditions due to the increase of temperature and reduction in precipitation. The species less affected were those with wider niche breadth and situated in the middle of the latitudinal range and in the middle or lower extreme of the precipitation range for the genus (A. capricorne and A. myriostigma). Although the main threats for Astrophytum species come from the destruction of their habitats and activities as illegal extraction, climate change may reduce the chances for the regeneration of populations and the success of reintroduction programs.
Keywords: Bioclimatic variables, IPCC scenarios, MaxEnt, Threatened species
Botello F, Sarkar S, Sánchez-Cordero V (2015)
Impact of habitat loss on distributions of terrestrial vertebrates in a high-biodiversity region in Mexico
Biological Conservation 184 59-65.
Mexico is considered a country of biological megadiversity because of its exceptional species richness and endemism. However, much of Mexico’s biodiversity is under threat due to a variety of factors, in particular, habitat loss. The Mexican legal standard (Norma Oficial Mexicana; NOM-ECOL-059-2010) uses four criteria to analyze specieś extinction risk at a national scale. However, when prioritizing areas for biodiversity conservation it is also important to incorporate knowledge of the conservation status of species at a more localized scale (regional, state, or municipal levels) for identifying possible risks associated with population declines. This paper focuses on Guerrero, which is the fourth most biologically diverse state in Mexico. The total extent of the conservation areas in Guerrero is low, amounting to 0.09% of its total area. We analyzed data for 582 terrestrial vertebrate species in Guerrero (53 amphibians, 115 reptiles, 334 birds and 80 mammals), modeling their potential distribution using a maximum entropy algorithm, and 114,555 occurrence records, and 23 predictive environmental (19 climatic and four topographical) variables. The portion of the potential distribution for each species including only remnant natural habitat was designated as its predicted distribution. The area of the predicted distribution was used to compute the fraction of natural habitat remaining for each species overlapping within decreed protected areas at the state and national levels, that is, for Guerrero and all of Mexico. Results show significant differences in the fraction of species’ predicted distribution and species’ potential distribution at different scales (state and national) and differences between the vertebrate groups analyzed. Because quantitative conservation targets are typically set for individual species, this exercise enables an analysis of the impact of the habitat lost on each species’ distribution by assessing the fraction of its predicted distribution that coincides with protected areas. We conclude that this must be part of systematic conservation planning to prioritize areas for potential conservation in Guerrero.
Keywords: Biodiversity, Deforestation, Distribution, Guerrero, Maximum entropy modeling, Protected areas
Castellanos-Morales G, Gámez N, Castillo-Gámez R, Eguiarte L (2015)
Peripatric speciation of an endemic species driven by Pleistocene climate change: the case of the Mexican prairie dog (Cynomys mexicanus).
Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 94 171-181.
The hypothesis that endemic species could have originated by the isolation and divergence of peripheral populations of widespread species can be tested through the use of ecological niche models (ENMs) and statistical phylogeography. The joint use of these tools provides complementary perspectives on historical dynamics and allows testing hypotheses regarding the origin of endemic taxa. We used this approach to infer the historical processes that have influenced the origin of a species endemic to the Mexican Plateau (Cynomys mexicanus) and its divergence from a widespread ancestor (Cynomys ludovicianus), and to test whether this endemic species originated through peripatric speciation. We obtained genetic data for 295 individuals for two species of black-tailed prairie dogs (C. ludovicianus and C. mexicanus). Genetic data consisted of mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b and control region), and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci. We estimated dates of divergence between species and between lineages within each species and performed ecological niche modelling (Present, Last Glacial Maximum and Last Interglacial) to determine changes in the distribution range of both species during the Pleistocene. Finally, we used Bayesian inference methods (DIYABC) to test different hypotheses regarding the divergence and demographic history of these species. Data supported the hypothesis of the origin of C. mexicanus from a peripheral population isolated during the Pleistocene [∼230,000 years ago (0.1 - 0.43 Ma 95% HPD)], with a Pleistocene-Holocene (∼9,000 - 11,000 years ago) population expansion (∼10-fold increase in population size). We identified the presence of two possible refugia in the southern area of the distribution range of C. ludovicianus and another, consistent with the distribution range of C. mexicanus. Our analyses suggest that Pleistocene climate change had a strong impact in the distribution of these species, promoting peripatric speciation for the origin of C. mexicanus and lineage divergence within C. ludovicianus.
Keywords: Bayesian inference, Chihuahuan Desert, Cynomys, Ecological niche modelling, Speciation
Cavender-Bares J, Gonzalez-Rodriguez A, Eaton D, Hipp A, Beulke A, Manos P (2015)
Phylogeny and biogeography of the American live oaks (Quercus subsection Virentes): A genomic and population genetics approach.
Molecular ecology 24(14) 3668-87.
The nature and timing of evolution of niche differentiation among closely related species remains an important question in ecology and evolution. The American live oak clade, Virentes, which spans the unglaciated temperate and tropical regions of North America and Mesoamerica, provides an instructive system in which to examine speciation and niche evolution. We generated a fossil-calibrated phylogeny of Virentes using RADseq data to estimate divergence times and used nuclear microsatellites, chloroplast sequences and an intron region of nitrate reductase (NIA-i3) to examine genetic diversity within species, rates of gene flow among species, and ancestral population size of disjunct sister species. Transitions in functional and morphological traits associated with ecological and climatic niche axes were examined across the phylogeny. We found the Virentes to be monophyletic with three subclades, including a southwest clade, a southeastern US clade and a central American/Cuban clade. Despite high leaf morphological variation within species and transpecific chloroplast haplotypes, RADseq and nuclear SSR data show genetic coherence of species. We estimate a crown date for Virentes of 11 Ma and implicate the formation of the Sea of Cortés in a speciation event ~5 Ma. Tree height at maturity, associated with fire tolerance, differs among the sympatric species while freezing tolerance appears to have diverged repeatedly across the tropical-temperate divide. Sympatric species thus show evidence of ecological niche differentiation but share climatic niches, while allopatric and parapatric species conserve ecological niches, but diverge in climatic niches. The mode of speciation and/or degree of co-occurrence may thus influence which niche axis plants diverge along. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Keywords: RADseq, Sea of Cortés, Virentes, conservation, ecological and climatic niches, fossil calibration, genomic data, introgression, phylogeography
Esperón-Rodríguez M, Barradas V (2015)
Comparing environmental vulnerability in the montane cloud forest of eastern Mexico: A vulnerability index
Ecological Indicators 52 300-310.
The montane cloud forest (MCF) is one of the most threatened ecosystems, in spite of its high strategic value for sustainable development, the role it plays in the hydrological cycle maintenance, and as reservoir of endemic biodiversity. For Mexico, this forest is considered the most threatened terrestrial ecosystem at national level because of land-use changes and the effects of global climate change. To compare and assess the environmental vulnerability in the MCF we measured two physiological traits (stomatal conductance and leaf water potential), four climate variables (air temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, vapor pressure deficit, water availability) and the potential geographic distribution of eleven tree species from this forest. We evaluated stomatal conductance responses using the envelope function method (EFM), and after analyzing these responses we developed a vulnerability index that allowed us to compare the environmental vulnerability among species. We proposed the EFM as a useful tool to assess regional environmental vulnerability by comparing species. Our results showed differential species responses to all the studied variables; however, the vulnerability index allowed us to conclude that the most vulnerable species was Liquidambar styraciflua, and the least vulnerable Persea longipes. We also found that temperatures above 34°C, and vapor pressure deficit above 2.9kPa with relative humidity below 30% jeopardized the stomatal conductance performance of all species. We also found leaf water potential as the most influential variable over the studied species followed by vapor pressure deficit, showing that even in the MCF water is a determinant factor for species’ development.
Keywords: Air temperature, Envelope function method, Environmental vulnerability, Leaf water potential, Montane cloud forest, PAR, Photosynthetically active radiation, Potential distribution, RH, Stomatal conductance, TA, VPD, Vapor pressure deficit, Vulnerability index, air temperature, gS, leaf water potential, photosynthetically active radiation, relative humidity, stomatal conductance, vapor pressure deficit, Ψ
Flores-Maldonado J, Ruvalcaba-Ortega I, Moreno-Talamantes A, García-Aranda M, Favela-Lara S, González-Rojas J (2015)
Representatividad geográfica y ambiental del inventario de especies arbustivas en el Área de Protección de Recursos Naturales “Cuenca Alimentadora del Distrito Nacional de Riego 004 Don Martín”, Coahuila, México
Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad.
Se analizó la representatividad del inventario de plantas arbustivas de un área natural protegida de Coahuila, México, con los siguientes objetivos: describir los tipos de sesgos de muestreo; definir la heterogeneidad ambiental de la reserva captada en las recolectas botánicas, y determinar el nivel de resolución espacial que respalda la información recolectada. Los sesgos fueron significativos (por distancia a carreteras, χ2=199.01; p<0.01; por rango altitudinal, χ2=391.02; p<0.01, y por tipo de vegetación, χ2=518.13; p<0.01). La muestra del inventario exhibe diferencias significativas entre el grupo testigo y un diseño aleatorizado para 5 variables bioclimáticas (temperatura media anual [Bio1]: U=117,900; p<0.01; isotermalidad [Bio3]: U=189,650; p<0.01; precipitación del mes más húmedo [Bio13]: U=134,330; p<0.01; estacionalidad de la precipitación [Bio15]: U=175,720; p<0.01 y la precipitación del trimestre más frío [Bio19]: U=146,550; p<0.01). Respecto a las variables ambientales y distancias a carreteras, el cubrimiento de esta infraestructura dentro del área puede contribuir a una buena caracterización del área natural protegida. La información proveniente de las recolectas realizadas es adecuada para escalas pequeñas de análisis (1 y 0.5°). The representativeness of the inventory of shrub species of a natural protected area in Coahuila, Mexico was analyzed, with the following objectives: to describe the types of sampling bias; to define the environmental heterogeneity of the botanical records; to determine the level of spatial resolution that supports the information collected. Biases were significant (χ2=distance road 199.01; p<0.01, by altitudinal range χ2=391.02; p<0.01 and vegetation χ2=518.13; p<0.01). The inventory sample exhibits significant differences between the control group and a randomized design for 5 bioclimatic variables (mean annual temperature (Bio1): U=117,900; p<0.01; isothermality (Bio3): U=189.650, p<0.01; precipitation wettest month (Bio13): U=134.330, p<0.01; seasonality of precipitation (Bio15): U=175.720, p<0.01 and precipitation of the coldest quarter (Bio19): U=146.550, p<0.01). Environmental variables and road distances, on the coverage of this infrastructure in the area, can contribute to a good characterization of the ANP. The information from collected records is adequate for small scales of analysis (1 and 0.5°).
Keywords: Botanical records, Coahuila, Conservación, Conservation, Natural Protected Area, Registros botánicos, Río Sabinas, Área Natural Protegida
García-Aguilar M, Luévano-Esparza J, de la Cueva H (2015)
Journal for Nature Conservation 28 127-132.
The Middle America is located in the Nearctic–Neotropical boundary. The combination of temperate and tropical biota of these two biogeographic regions, plus an area of biotic overlap propitiates unusually high species diversity and endemism. We present the first general assessment based on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species that provides evidence of widespread decline in the conservation status of land mammals from southern U.S.A. to Panama. One in every three species considered in our study (n=273) is classified as threatened, and the rate of biodiversity loss increased 0.64% between 2008 and 2012. Endangered species of the Middle America represents 11.8% of the global endangered mammal species, and 7.9% of the threatened species. Habitat loss and the introduction of alien species are the major threats; however, the relative impact of these threats varies among habitats. For continental species, habitat loss is prevalent, while for insular species the introduction of alien species has devastating effects. Our results suggest that if no integral multi-species conservation actions are applied in the short-term, more than 20% of the extant mammal species in the region could become extinct in the near future (10–50 years).
Keywords: Biodiversity loss, Biogeographic approach, Conservation, Mammalian population, Nearctic–Neotropical boundary, Threatened species
García-Rivera G, Contreras-Ramos A (2015)
First Record of Dyscinetus laevipunctatus Bates (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae) in an Aquatic Environment in Mexico
Entomological News 125(1) 63-69.
ABSTRACT: The scarab beetle Dyscinetus laevipunctatus Bates, 1888 (Dynastinae, Cyclocephalini) is recorded for the first time in an aquatic habitat. Specimens of D. laevipunctatus were found submerged in association with water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.), at several localities in the state of Tabasco, Mexico. These findings indicate that Dyscinetus spp. may be a broader facultatively aquatic group of species than previously realized by aquatic entomologists.
Keywords: Mexico, Pantanos de Centla, Rice Beetle, Tabasco, Water hyacinth, facultatively aquatic
Gelviz-Gelvez S, Pavón N, Illoldi-Rangel P, Ballesteros-Barrera C (2015)
Ecological niche modeling under climate change to select shrubs for ecological restoration in Central Mexico
Ecological Engineering 74 302-309.
Shrub species were selected for potential use in restoration projects in the semiarid shrublands of Central Mexico. Ecological characteristics of the species were considered, including tolerance to climate change. Inventories of shrubs were carried out in 17 semiarid shrubland fragments of xeric shrubland. The 46 species recorded were ordered using a principal component analysis, considering ecological characteristics such as frequency, land cover, sociability and interaction with mycorrhizal fungi. From these, the 10 species that presented the highest values of the desired characteristics were selected. The response of these species to climate change was evaluated using current potential distribution models and by applying climate change scenario A2, using MaxEnt. The species that presented suitable ecological qualities for restoration and maintained or increased their distribution under the climate change scenario were Acacia schaffneri, Ageratina espinosarum, Bursera fagaroides, Dalea bicolor, Eysenhardtia polystachya and Karwinskia humboldtiana. These species are therefore recommended for use in medium and long-term ecological restoration projects in the semi-arid region in Central Mexico.
Keywords: Degradation, Ecological attributes for restoration, Niche-base distribution models, Semiarid environments
Hernández-Ordóñez O, Arroyo-Rodríguez V, González-Hernández A, Russildi G, Luna-Reyes R, Martínez-Ramos M et al. (2015)
Range extensions of amphibians and reptiles in the southeastern part of the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico
Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 86(2) 457-468.
The Lacandona rainforest represents one of the most diverse Mexican tropical wet forests. Although some studies have described the amphibians and reptiles of the region, most herpetological lists come from the northern part of the Lacandona, and there are no confirmed records for many of the expected species. We reviewed databases of scientific collections, taxonomy, and published herpetological lists to produce the most recent updated list of amphibian and reptile species in the region (35 amphibians and 90 reptiles). Furthermore, based on recent inventories (2007–2013) we establish 40 range extensions of 8 amphibians and 32 reptiles for the southeastern part of the Lacandona rainforest. Four out of these 40 records confirmed the occurrence of Dermophis mexicanus, Eleutherodactylus leprus, Pantherophis flavirufus, and Bothriechis schlegelii in the region. La selva Lacandona representa uno de los bosques húmedos tropicales más diversos de México. Aunque algunos estudios han descrito a los anfibios y reptiles de la región, la mayoría de los listados herpetológicos proceden de la parte norte de la lacandona y no existen registros confirmados para muchas de las especies esperadas. Se han revisado bases de datos de colecciones científicas, la taxonomía y listados herpetológicos publicados para generar la lista más actualizada de especies de anfibios y reptiles de la región (35 anfibios y 90 reptiles). Además, con base en inventarios recientes (2007–2013) se estableció la extensión del área de distribución de 8 anfibios y 32 reptiles para la parte sureste de la selva Lacandona. Cuatro de estos 40 registros confirmaron la presencia de Dermophis mexicanus, Eleutherodactylus leprus, Pantherophis flavirufus y Bothriechis schlegelii en la región.
Keywords: Checklist, Herpetofauna, Listado de especies, Marqués de Comillas region, Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve, Región de Marqués de Comillas, Reserva de la Biosfera de Montes Azules