Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.
Carrillo-Angeles I, Suzán-Azpiri H, Mandujano M, Golubov J, Martínez-Ávalos J (2016)
Niche breadth and the implications of climate change in the conservation of the genus Astrophytum (Cactaceae)
Journal of Arid Environments 124 310-317.
The niche breadth of a species reflects its ability to inhabit different conditions, and to use different resources, hence, species with wider niche are expected to be more resilient to anthropogenic derived climate change. We estimated the niche breadth of all species of the genus Astrophytum from macro-environmental variables and measures of local habitat uses, in order to evaluate whether species having wider niche breadths are less prone to experience unsuitable conditions projected by the A1B and A2 scenarios of the IPCC for 2020 and 2050, and analyzed the implications of projections for the conservation of the genus Astrophytum. Our analysis suggests that most of populations of the four species will experience increasingly unsuitable conditions due to the increase of temperature and reduction in precipitation. The species less affected were those with wider niche breadth and situated in the middle of the latitudinal range and in the middle or lower extreme of the precipitation range for the genus (A. capricorne and A. myriostigma). Although the main threats for Astrophytum species come from the destruction of their habitats and activities as illegal extraction, climate change may reduce the chances for the regeneration of populations and the success of reintroduction programs.
Keywords: Bioclimatic variables, IPCC scenarios, MaxEnt, Threatened species
Martínez-Méndez N, Aguirre-Planter E, Eguiarte L, Jaramillo-Correa J (2016)
Modelado de nicho ecológico de las especies del género Abies (Pinaceae) en México: Algunas implicaciones taxonómicas y para la conservación
Botanical Sciences 94(1) 5.
En Mesoamérica y el norte de México, los oyameles o abetos ( Abies , Pinaceae) presentan una distribución disyunta en áreas montañosas y templadas. En esta área se han reconocido entre seis y diez especies de Abies dependiendo de la propuesta taxonómica empleada; generalmente se considera que seis de éstas son endémicas a México y están incluidas en alguna categoría de riesgo. Dada esta incertidumbre taxonómica y la importancia económica del género ( Abies es el cuarto recurso maderable de México), se necesita tener información adicional que contribuya a su manejo sustentable. En este estudio se obtuvo los modelos de nicho ecológico para ocho de las especies y dos variedades de Abies reconocidas en México ( A. concolor , A. durangensis var. duragensis , A. durangensis var. coahuilensis , A. incki , A. guatemalensis , A. hickelii , A. jaliscana , A. religiosa y A. vejari ) a través del algoritmo de máxima entropía (Maxent) y utilizando variables bioclimáticas y topográficas provenientes de Worldclim, de Hydro k y datos depurados de presencia de diversas fuentes (CONABIO, GBIF, MEXU). Los resultados sugieren que A. concolor tiene el nicho ecológico más diferenciado con respecto a los demás abetos mexicanos. Asimismo, se observó que, con excepción de A. religiosa , el área de mayor idoneidad ambiental para todas las especies está fuera de la poligonal de algún área natural protegida ya sea federal o estatal, por lo que se proponen ampliar o crear nuevas áreas que protejan a estas especies.
Keywords: Abies, México, conservación, distribución geográfica, nicho ecológico.
Monroy-Vilchis O, Castillo-Huitrón N, Zarco-González M, Rodríguez-Soto C (2016)
Potential distribution of Ursus americanus in Mexico and its persistence: Implications for conservation
Journal for Nature Conservation 29 62-68.
The black bear Ursus americanus is an endangered species in Mexico. Its historical distribution has decreased by approximately 80% although its current distribution is not known with precision; it is only reported to be present in the mountains of Northern Mexico. This study proposes two ensemble models: Mexicós black bear (a) potential distribution compared with Natural Protected Areas (NPAs); and, (b) persistence areas for 2024. The current distribution variables are coniferous forest, elevation and dry forest. Suitable habitat for black bear (354,047km2, 18.07% of the country) was found mainly in the north of the Sonoran biogeographical zone, along the Sierra Madre Occidental, the center and south of the Sierra Madre Oriental and some northern regions of the Altiplano Norte. Comparing these areas with NPAs documented that only 12.41% of potential distribution coincided with current suitable habitat. There are unprotected areas in Sierra Madre Occidental center and central and southern of Sierra Madre Oriental. The model for 2024 indicates a reduction of suitable habitat of 64.5%, mainly in the northern Sonoran zone and the center Sierra Madre Occidental. On the other hand, areas that will persist (125,673km2) are located along the two main mountain ranges of Mexico. Identification of these sites will allow strengthening of long-term conservation strategies.
Keywords: Black bear, Conservation, Ensemble model, Future model, Habitat suitability, Mexico, Ursus americanus
Morales A, Villalobos F, Velazco P, Simmons N, Piñero D (2016)
Journal of Biogeography.
Aim To explore whether environmental factors are correlated with genetic and morphometric differences in the widely distributed bat species Tadarida brasiliensis. Location North America and Central America. Methods We used an extensive sampling comprising 131 localities that represent heterogeneous environments across the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. Museum specimens were examined and 25 craniodental characters were recorded. Individuals were genotyped at one mitochondrial locus (mtDNA) and nine nuclear loci (nDNA). Clustering and phylogenetic analyses were used to identify differentiated groups. Environmental variables and PCA-env approaches were used to determine the climatic niche and to measure the niche overlap, equivalence and similarity between groups. Mantel tests between genetic groupings and environmental variables, dispersal costs, Euclidean geographical distances and niche overlap were performed. Results We identified six genetic groups within Central and North American T. brasiliensis based on nDNA. The most strongly differentiated group, in both nDNA and mtDNA, was located in central Mexico. Morphometric data showed that individuals from populations in Florida are slightly larger than the others. Niche overlap was detected among Neotropical groups but not among Nearctic groups. The currently recognized subspecies were not recovered as distinct groups with either genetic or morphometric data. Main conclusions Our approaches suggest that environmental niche variation may help shape the distribution of genetic variation across heterogeneous landscapes, particularly in widely distributed species. Environmental niche analyses suggest that genetic differences between migratory and non-migratory groups of T. brasiliensis may be promoted by climatic variation throughout the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. In addition, genetic and morphometric analyses do not support the current subspecies classification of T. brasiliensis in North and Central America, which should be abandoned.
Keywords: Tadarida brasiliensis, ecological niche, genetic structure, morphometric, phylogeography, subspecies
Ornelas J, González C, Hernández-Baños B, García-Moreno J (2016)
Molecular and iridescent feather reflectance data reveal recent genetic diversification and phenotypic differentiation in a cloud forest hummingbird
Ecology and Evolution.
The present day distribution and spatial genetic diversity of Mesoamerican biota reflects a long history of responses to habitat change. The hummingbird Lampornis amethystinus is distributed in northern Mesoamerica, with geographically disjunct populations. Based on sampling across the species range using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and nuclear microsatellites jointly analysed with phenotypic and climatic data, we (1) test whether the fragmented distribution is correlated with main evolutionary lineages, (2) assess body size and plumage color differentiation of populations in geographic isolation, and (3) evaluate a set of divergence scenarios and demographic patterns of the hummingbird populations. Analysis of genetic variation revealed four main groups: blue-throated populations (Sierra Madre del Sur); two groups of amethyst-throated populations (Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and Sierra Madre Oriental); and populations east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (IT) with males showing an amethyst throat. The most basal split is estimated to have originated in the Pleistocene, 2.39–0.57 million years ago (MYA), and corresponded to groups of populations separated by the IT. However, the estimated recent divergence time between blue- and amethyst-throated populations does not correspond to the 2-MY needed to be in isolation for substantial plumage divergence, likely because structurally iridescent colors are more malleable than others. Results of species distribution modeling and Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis fit a model of lineage divergence west of the Isthmus after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and that the species’ suitable habitat was disjunct during past and current conditions. These results challenge the generality of the contraction/expansion glacial model to cloud forest-interior species and urges management of cloud forest, a highly vulnerable ecosystem to climate change and currently facing destruction, to prevent further loss of genetic diversity or extinction.
Keywords: Feather iridescence, Lampornis amethystinus, Mesoamerican highlands, glacial cycles
Pech-May A, Peraza-Herrera G, Moo-Llanes D, Escobedo-Ortegón J, Berzunza-Cruz M, Becker-Fauser I et al. (2016)
Assessing the importance of four sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) as vectors of Leishmania mexicana in Campeche, Mexico.
Medical and veterinary entomology.
Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis represents a public health problem in many areas of Mexico, especially in the Yucatan Peninsula. An understanding of vector ecology and bionomics is of great importance in evaluations of the transmission dynamics of Leishmania parasites. A field study was conducted in the county of Calakmul, state of Campeche, during the period from November 2006 to March 2007. Phlebotomine sandfly vectors were sampled using Centers for Disease Control light traps, baited Disney traps and Shannon traps. A total of 3374 specimens were captured in the two villages of Once de Mayo (93.8%) and Arroyo Negro (6.1%). In Once de Mayo, the most abundant species were Psathyromyia shannoni, Lutzomyia cruciata, Bichromomyia olmeca olmeca and Psychodopygus panamensis (all: Diptera: Psychodidae). The Shannon trap was by far the most efficient method of collection. The infection rate, as determined by Leishmania mexicana-specific polymerase chain reaction, was 0.3% in Once de Mayo and infected sandflies included Psy. panamensis, B. o. olmeca and Psa. shannoni. There were significant differences in human biting rates across sandfly species and month of sampling. Ecological niche modelling analyses showed an overall overlap of 39.1% for the four species in the whole state of Campeche. In addition, the finding of nine vector-reservoir pairs indicates a potential interaction. The roles of the various sandfly vectors in Calakmul are discussed.
Keywords: Leishmania mexicana, Mexico, Phlebotomine sandflies, ecological niche
Peterson A, Navarro-Sigüenza A (2016)
Journal of Field Ornithology.
Mexico has a megadiverse avifauna that includes many endemic elements, as well as rich sets of species ranging farther north or farther south in the Americas. This avifauna, nonetheless, has suffered considerable losses as a consequence of long-term, intensive human activity across the landscape. We review what is known about the Mexican avifauna, specifically its diversity and endemism, and how that knowledge has and has not turned into effective conservation measures to assure the long-term integrity of the avifauna
Keywords: birds, conservation, diversity, endemism
Prieto-Torres D, Rojas-Soto O (2016)
Reconstructing the Mexican Tropical Dry Forests via an Autoecological Niche Approach: Reconsidering the Ecosystem Boundaries.
PloS one 11(3) e0150932.
We used Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) of individual species of two taxonomic groups (plants and birds) in order to reconstruct the climatic distribution of Tropical Dry Forests (TDFs) in Mexico and to analyze their boundaries with other terrestrial ecosystems. The reconstruction for TDFs' distribution was analyzed considering the prediction and omission errors based upon the combination of species, obtained from the overlap of individual models (only plants, only birds, and all species combined). Two verifications were used: a primary vegetation map and 100 independent TDFs localities. We performed a Principal Component (PCA) and Discriminant Analysis (DA) to evaluate the variation in the environmental variables and ecological overlap among ecosystems. The modeling strategies showed differences in the ecological patterns and prediction areas, where the "all species combined" model (with a threshold of ≥10 species) was the best strategy to use in the TDFs reconstruction. We observed a concordance of 78% with the primary vegetation map and a prediction of 98% of independent locality records. Although PCA and DA tests explained 75.78% and 97.9% of variance observed, respectively, we observed an important overlap among the TDFs with other adjacent ecosystems, confirming the existence of transition zones among them. We successfully modeled the distribution of Mexican TDFs using a number of bioclimatic variables and co-distributed species. This autoecological niche approach suggests the necessity of rethinking the delimitations of ecosystems based on the recognition of transition zones among them in order to understand the real nature of communities and association patterns of species.
Keywords: birds, conservation, diversity, endemism
Pérez-Moreno H, Martínez-Meyer E, Soberón Mainero J, Rojas-Soto O (2016)
Ecology and Evolution.
Long-distance migration in birds is relatively well studied in nature; however, one aspect of this phenomenon that remains poorly understood is the pattern of distribution presented by species during arrival to and establishment of wintering areas. Some studies suggest that the selection of areas in winter is somehow determined by climate, given its influence on both the distribution of bird species and their resources. We analyzed whether different migrant passerine species of North America present climatic preferences during arrival to and departure from their wintering areas. We used ecological niche modeling to generate monthly potential climatic distributions for 13 migratory bird species during the winter season by combining the locations recorded per month with four environmental layers. We calculated monthly coefficients of climate variation and then compared two GLM (generalized linear models), evaluated with the AIC (Akaike information criterion), to describe how these coefficients varied over the course of the season, as a measure of the patterns of establishment in the wintering areas. For 11 species, the sites show nonlinear patterns of variation in climatic preferences, with low coefficients of variation at the beginning and end of the season and higher values found in the intermediate months. The remaining two species analyzed showed a different climatic pattern of selective establishment of wintering areas, probably due to taxonomic discrepancy, which would affect their modeled winter distribution. Patterns of establishment of wintering areas in the species showed a climatic preference at the macroscale, suggesting that individuals of several species actively select wintering areas that meet specific climatic conditions. This probably gives them an advantage over the winter and during the return to breeding areas. As these areas become full of migrants, alternative suboptimal sites are occupied. Nonrandom winter area selection may also have consequences for the conservation of migratory bird species, particularly under a scenario of climate change.
Keywords: Climate, ecological niche models, migration, optimal areas, winter selection
Ramirez-Cabral N, Kumar L, Taylor S (2016)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 218-219 102-113.
Crops experience different climate stresses during development. The magnitude of damage will depend on the phenological stage of the crop and the stress duration. Climate change could intensify some or all of these stresses, thus negatively impacting agriculture. An assessment of staple crop productivity, quality and climatically suitable areas under climate change conditions is necessary to undertake any global initiatives to tackle food security issues. The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a staple crop and the main source of proteins and nutrients in Africa and Latin America. The purpose of this study is to develop a process-oriented niche model to assess the impacts of climate change on the current and future potential distribution of common bean and to use this model to investigate the changes in heat, cold, dry and wet stresses under climate change. We used A2 and A1B emission scenarios and two different global climate models, CSIRO-Mk3.0 and MIROC-H, for the years 2050 and 2100. Our results indicate future climate conditions are more favorable for common bean cultivation in the Northern Hemisphere, but are less favorable in the Southern Hemisphere. Heat and dry stresses are the main factors limiting and reducing common bean distribution under current and future projected conditions. Africa and Latin America are projected to decrease with respect to suitability for common bean cultivation. The model projections indicate that a shift in the common bean productive areas is highly likely with a loss of suitability of the current common bean cultivation areas and an increase in cold regions such as Canada, the Nordic countries and Russia. The results indicate the likelihood of changes in climatic suitability and the distribution of common bean at a global scale under a future climate, which will affect regions where this legume is a staple crop and an important source of household income. Regions in the Northern Hemisphere could take advantage of the increase in suitability by increasing the production and exportation of this grain.
Keywords: Abiotic stresses, Agriculture suitability, CLIMEX, Climate change, Phaseolus vulgaris L.