Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.
Barredo J, Strona G, de Rigo D, Caudullo G, Stancanelli G, San-Miguel-Ayanz J (2015)
Assessing the potential distribution of insect pests: case studies on large pine weevil ( Hylobius abietis L) and horse-chestnut leaf miner ( Cameraria ohridella ) under present and future climate conditions in European forests
EPPO Bulletin 45(2) 273-281.
Forest insect pests represent a serious threat to European forests and their negative effects could be exacerbated by climate change. This paper illustrates how species distribution modelling integrated with host tree species distribution data can be used to assess forest vulnerability to this threat. Two case studies are used: large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L) and horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimič) both at pan-European level. The proposed approach integrates information from different sources. Occurrence data of insect pests were collected from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), climatic variables for present climate and future scenarios were sourced, respectively, from WorldClim and from the Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), and distributional data of host tree species were obtained from the European Forest Data Centre (EFDAC), within the Forest Information System for Europe (FISE). The potential habitat of the target pests was calculated using the machine learning algorithm of Maxent model. On the one hand, the results highlight the potential of species distribution modelling as a valuable tool for decision makers. On the other hand, they stress how this approach can be limited by poor pest data availability, emphasizing the need to establish a harmonised open European database of geo-referenced insect pest distribution data. Évaluation de la répartition potentielle des insectes nuisibles: études de cas sur le grand charançon du pin (Hylobius abietis L.) et sur la mineuse du marronnier (Cameraria ohridella) dans les conditions climatiques actuelles et futures dans les forêts européennes Les insectes nuisibles des forêts représentent une menace sérieuse pour les forêts européennes et leurs effets négatifs pourraient être aggravés par le changement climatique. Cet article illustre l'utilisation de la modélisation de la répartition des espèces, intégrée aux données de répartition des arbres-hôtes, pour évaluer la vulnérabilité des forêts à cette menace. Deux études de cas sont utilisées, toutes deux au niveau paneuropéen, pour le grand charançon du pin (Hylobius abietis L.) et la mineuse du marronnier (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimič). L'approche proposée utilise des informations de différentes sources. Les données sur la présence des insectes nuisibles proviennent du service mondial d'information sur la biodiversité (‘Global Biodiversity Information Facility’, GBIF), les variables climatiques pour le climat actuel et des scénarios futurs ont été obtenues, respectivement, à partir de WorldClim et du Programme de recherche sur le changement climatique, l'agriculture et la sécurité alimentaire (CCAFS), et les données sur la répartition des arbres-hôtes ont été obtenues auprès du Centre européen de données sur les forêts (EFDAC), qui fait partie du système d'information forestière pour l'Europe (‘Forest Information System for Europe’, FISE). L'habitat potentiel des ravageurs étudiés a été calculé en utilisant l'algorithme d'apprentissage automatique du modèle Maxent. D'une part, les résultats indiquent que la modélisation de la répartition des espèces peut devenir un outil précieux pour les décideurs. D'autre part, ils indiquent que cette approche peut être limitée par le manque de données sur les organismes nuisibles, renforçant ainsi la nécessité de créer une base de données européenne harmonisée et ouverte pour les données géo-référencées sur la répartition des insectes nuisibles.
Bradley B, Early R, Sorte C (2015)
Global Ecology and Biogeography n/a-n/a.
Aim Our understanding of potential ranges for native and non-native species is often based on their current geographic distributions. Non-native species have had less time than co-occurring native species to expand their ranges following introduction, so non-native ranges may under-represent suitable conditions. Therefore it is often assumed that species distribution models will predict disproportionately smaller potential ranges for non-natives than natives. We compare the distributions of native, endemic, alien and invasive plants to determine how the different range attributes of these groups might influence ecological forecasting. Location Continental USA. Methods We compared the geographic ranges of 13,575 plant species (9402 native, 2397 endemic, 1201 alien and 755 invasive) using (1) US only and (2) global distribution data from herbarium records. We calculated US longitudinal and latitudinal range extents as potential indicators of range-limiting factors, modelled potential range based on climate using principal components analysis, and calculated occupancy of potential ranges (range infilling). Results Contrary to expectations, modelled potential ranges were significantly larger for non-natives than natives, even for species with few occurrences. Distributions of native species, not invasive species, appeared strongly limited longitudinally. However, invasive plants occupied substantially less area within their climatically suitable ranges than native plants (lower range infilling). Main conclusions Invasive plant distributions were consistently broader, both climatically and geographically, than comparable native species. This suggests that invasive plant distribution models at regional scales are not underpredicting potential ranges relative to models for native species. In contrast, the comparatively limited longitudinal ranges of native species suggest a high degree of non-climatic limitation, which is likely to cause distribution models to underpredict the potential ranges of native species. Invasive plants have not achieved the degree of range infilling expected relative to natives. Thus, plants introduced to the US still have plenty of space to invade.
Keywords: Alien, bioclimatic envelope model, dispersal, ecological niche model, equilibrium, exotic, introduced, occupancy, plant invasion
Carta A, Peruzzi L (2015)
Testing the large genome constraint hypothesis: plant traits, habitat and climate seasonality in Liliaceae
The factors driving genome size evolution in Liliaceae were examined. In particular, we investigated whether species with larger genomes are confined to less stressful environments with a longer vegetative season. We tested our hypotheses by correlating the genome size with other plant traits and environmental variables. To determine the adaptive nature of the genome size, we also compared the performances of Brownian motion (BM) processes with those inferred by Ornstein–Uhlenbeck (OU) models of trait evolution. A positive correlation of genome size with plant size, mean temperature and habitat moisture and a negative correlation with altitude and precipitation seasonality were found. Models of trait evolution revealed a deviation from a drift process or BM. Instead, changes in genome size were significantly associated with precipitation regimes according to an OU process. Specifically, the evolutionary optima towards which the genome size evolves were higher for humid climates and lower for drier ones. Taken together, our results indicate that the genome size increase in Liliaceae is constrained by climate seasonality.
Keywords: Liliaceae, genome size evolution, models of trait evolution, phylogenetic comparative analysis, plant–climate interactions
Coro G, Magliozzi C, Ellenbroek A, Pagano P (2015)
Ecological Modelling 305 29-39.
The giant squid (Architeuthis) has been reported since even before the 16th century, and has recently been observed live in its habitat for the first time. Among the species belonging to this genus, Architeuthis dux has received special attention from biologists. The distribution of this species is poorly understood, as most of our information stems from stranded animals or stomach remains. Predicting the habitat and distribution of this species, and more in general of difficult to observe species, is important from a biological conservation perspective. In this paper, we present an approach to estimate the potential distribution of A. dux at global scale, with relative high resolution (1-degree). Our approach relies on a complex preparation phase, which improves the reliability of presence, absence and environmental data correlated to the species habitat. We compare our distribution with those produced by state-of-the-art approaches (MaxEnt and AquaMaps), and use an expert-drawn map as reference. We demonstrate that our model projection is in agreement with the expert's map and is also compliant with several biological assessments of the species habitat and with recent observations. Furthermore, we show that our approach can be generalized as a paradigm that is applicable to other rare species.
Keywords: AquaMaps, Ecological niche modelling, Maximum entropy, Neural networks, Rare species
Di Febbraro M, Roscioni F, Frate L, Carranza M, De Lisio L, De Rosa D et al. (2015)
Long-term effects of traditional and conservation-oriented forest management on the distribution of vertebrates in Mediterranean forests: a hierarchical hybrid modelling approach
Diversity and Distributions 21(10) 1141-1154.
Aim Recently, increasing attention has been devoted to the development of sustainable forestry practices aimed at finding a balance between the maintenance and enhancement of different forest resources. However, the long-term, large-scale effects of conservation-oriented forest management on vertebrates have been poorly studied. We tested the hypothesis that conservation-oriented forest management, being conceived to mimic the dynamics of a natural forest succession more closely than does traditional forestry, causes a less severe long-term impact on the distribution of forest vertebrates. Location Molise region, Central Italy. Methods We proposed a hybrid modelling framework based on the integration of a forest dynamic model (‘LANDIS-II’) with species distribution models (SDMs). The framework was applied on four forest specialist vertebrates (tiny salamander, slow worm, Eurasian nuthatch and Leisler's bat) and included three components: forest dynamic model (FDM), SDMs and spatial pattern analysis (SPA). FDM was used to simulate spatially explicit patterns of forest succession for the current time and for 2050, imposing three alternative forestry scenarios. The simulated forest succession patterns were analysed through SPA to calculate spatialized landscape metrics that were adopted as environmental predictors for SDMs. Landscape trajectories were calculated on current and future species distributions predicted with SDMs to evaluate the effect of alternative forestry practices on their extent and fragmentation. Results Forest management mainly affected the spatial configuration rather than the extent of the species potential distributions. Conservation-oriented forest management was more favourable than traditional forestry in increasing the extent and reducing the fragmentation of the studied species’ distributions. Main conclusions Conservation-oriented forest management, by mimicking the dynamics of a natural forest succession more closely than did traditional practices, favoured elements, such as forest unevenness, species richness, aggregation of patches and variability in their distances, which emerged as fundamental characteristics for preserving the long-term persistence of forest vertebrates.
Keywords: Mediterranean forests, conservation-oriented forest management, forest dynamic models, habitat fragmentation, species distribution models, vertebrates
Feuda R, Bannikova A, Zemlemerova E, Di Febbraro M, Loy A, Hutterer R et al. (2015)
Tracing the evolutionary history of the mole, Talpa europaea , through mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and species distribution modelling
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 114(3) 495-512.
Our understanding of the effect of Pleistocene climatic changes on the biodiversity of European mammals mostly comes from phylogeographical studies of non-subterranean mammals, whereas the influence of glaciation cycles on subterranean mammals has received little attention. The lack of data raises the question of how and to what extent the current amount and distribution of genetic variation in subterranean mammals is the result of Pleistocene range contractions/expansions. The common mole (Talpa europaea) is a strictly subterranean mammal, widespread across Europe, and represents one of the best candidates for studying the influence of Quaternary climatic oscillation on subterranean mammals. Cytochrome b sequences, as obtained from a sampling covering the majority of the distribution area, were used to evaluate whether Pleistocene climate change influenced the evolution of T. europaea and left a trace in the genetic diversity comparable to that observed in non-subterranean small mammals. Subsequently, we investigated the occurrence of glacial refugia by comparing the results of phylogeographical analysis with species distribution modelling. We found three differentiated mitochondrial DNA lineages: two restricted to Spain and Italy and a third that was widespread across Europe. Phylogenetic inferences and the molecular clock suggest that the Spanish moles represent a highly divergent and ancient lineage, highlighting for the first time the paraphyly of T. europaea. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that the genetic break between the Italian and the European lineages predates the last glacial phase. Historical demography and spatial principal component analysis further suggest that the Last Glacial Maximum left a signature both in the Italian and in the European lineages. Genetic data combined with species distribution models support the presence of at least three putative glacial refugia in southern Europe (France, Balkan Peninsula and Black Sea) during thelast glacial maximum that likely contributed to post-glacial recolonization of Europe. By contrast, the Italian lineage remained trapped in the Italian peninsula and, according to the pattern observed in other subterranean mammals, did not contribute to the recolonization of northern latitudes
Keywords: Europe, Last Glacial Maximum, SDM, cytochrome b, glacial refugia, historical demography, paraphyly, phylogenetics, sPCA
Isaia M, Paschetta M, Chiarle A (2015)
Annotated checklist of the spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) of the Site of Community Importance and Special Area of Conservation “Alpi Marittime” (NW Italy)
Zoosystema 37(1) 57-114.
ABSTRACT We present an annotated checklist of the spiders (Arachnida Cuvier, 1812; Araneae Clerck, 1757) of the Site of Community Importance and Special Area of Conservation IT1160056 “Alpi Marittime” (NW Italy). The checklist is based on literature records and unpublished material collected from 2007 to 2013 within the first European All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory coordinated by the European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy (EDIT). The examination of the literature provided a list of 113 species recorded for the study area between 1890 and 2013, scattered in 35 publications. The new data provided here raise the total number of species known for the study area to 295, grouped in 147 genera and 31 families. We recorded a remarkable percentage (9%) of endemic species, including rare endemic elements poorly known in literature, such as Vesubia jugorum (Simon, 1881); Troglohyphantes konradi Brignoli, 1975; Nesticus morisii Brignoli, 1975 and Turinyphia clairi (Simon, 1884). For each species we report detail...
Keywords: All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI), Alpes du Sud-Ouest, Alpi sud-occidentali, Inventaire biologique généralisé (IBG), Inventario Generalizzato della Biodiversità (IBG), Piedmont, Piemonte, Piémont, SW-Alps, endemic species, espèces endémiques, faunistica, faunistiques, specie endemiche
Malhado A, Oliveira-Neto J, Stropp J, Strona G, Dias L, Pinto L et al. (2015)
Journal of Vegetation Science 26(5) 956-963.
Question Do precipitation, temperature and seasonality drive variation in the seed size of Amazonian tree genera? Location Amazonia. Methods We use a combination of global biodiversity information facility (GBIF) records, climatic data from BIOCLIM and seed size categories derived from the literature. Results Tree genera with very small seeds were associated with lower temperatures and higher seasonality, but not with precipitation; the opposite patterns being observed for trees with large seeds. These correlations remained even when the numerically dominant (and ecologically specialized) Fabaceae were removed from the analysis. Conclusions Our findings indicate that Amazonian tree genera with smaller seeds occur more frequently in transitional or seasonal forests, and genera with large seeds are more associated with climatically stable rain forests (warmer and less seasonality). These results are broadly consistent with the ‘recruitment hypothesis’, which predicts that large seeds have a competitive advantage in closed canopy forest vegetation.
Keywords: Amazonia, Fabaceae, Functional traits, Global biodiversity information facility, Recruitment hypothesis
Mori E, Mazza G, Menchetti M, Panzeri M, Gager Y, Bertolino S et al. (2015)
Hystrix, the Italian Journal of Mammalogy 26(1) 47-51.
The Northern raccoon Procyon lotor is a species native to North and Central America, but alien populations have established in Europe, several Caribbean islands, and Japan, being introduced for fur farming, hunting, or as pets/attraction in animal parks. In the introduced range, raccoons may impact on breeding birds and amphibians, exert crop damages and transmit pathologies to wild species and humans. The species has been introduced also in Italy, where the only known reproductive population is observed since 2004 in Lombardy, along the Adda river. We reconstructed the current distribution range of the Northern raccoon in Italy, collecting information from scientific papers, articles in newspapers and books, as well from experts and local reporters. A total of 53 occurrence points were collected from 38 observation sites. Since 2008, records from Lombardy increased, and sporadic observations were reported from seven other regions. A complete lack of records from the Northernmost provinces of Lombardy (Varese, Como and Sondrio) suggests that the only Italian population does not derive from a range expansion from Switzerland, but it should be considered as an independent, new introduction. Accidental observations of single individuals possibly escaped from captivity are often ignored, and only some of them were removed from the wild. An analysis of the potential distribution of the species was performed in a species distribution modeling framework (Maxent). A global model was built up considering the occurrences of reproductive populations from the native range and introduced areas in Europe and Japan and then projected to Italy. The model suggested a very low suitability of the Alpine region, thus providing support to the hypothesis that the Italian population did not derive from dispersal from Switzerland. If escapes or releases of raccoons will continue, there is a risk that the species could adapt to other areas, making its containment more difficult. Download the complete issue.
Keywords: Procyion lotor, alien species, potential distribution, range expansion
Pichler U, Hauser M, Wolf M, Bernardi M, Gadermaier G, Weiss R et al. (2015)
PloS one 10(5) e0120038.
BACKGROUND: Pollen released by allergenic members of the botanically unrelated families of Asteraceae and Cupressaceae represent potent elicitors of respiratory allergies in regions where these plants are present. As main allergen sources the Asteraceae species ragweed and mugwort, as well as the Cupressaceae species, cypress, mountain cedar, and Japanese cedar have been identified. The major allergens of all species belong to the pectate lyase enzyme family. Thus, we thought to investigate cross-reactivity pattern as well as sensitization capacities of pectate lyase pollen allergens in cohorts from distinct geographic regions. METHODS: The clinically relevant pectate lyase pollen allergens Amb a 1, Art v 6, Cup a 1, Jun a 1, and Cry j 1 were purified from aqueous pollen extracts, and patients' sensitization pattern of cohorts from Austria, Canada, Italy, and Japan were determined by IgE ELISA and cross-inhibition experiments. Moreover, we performed microarray experiments and established a mouse model of sensitization. RESULTS: In ELISA and ELISA inhibition experiments specific sensitization pattern were discovered for each geographic region, which reflected the natural allergen exposure of the patients. We found significant cross-reactivity within Asteraceae and Cupressaceae pectate lyase pollen allergens, which was however limited between the orders. Animal experiments showed that immunization with Asteraceae allergens mainly induced antibodies reactive within the order, the same was observed for the Cupressaceae allergens. Cross-reactivity between orders was minimal. Moreover, Amb a 1, Art v 6, and Cry j 1 showed in general higher immunogenicity. CONCLUSION: We could cluster pectate lyase allergens in four categories, Amb a 1, Art v 6, Cup a 1/Jun a 1, and Cry j 1, respectively, at which each category has the potential to sensitize predisposed individuals. The sensitization pattern of different cohorts correlated with pollen exposure, which should be considered for future allergy diagnosis and therapy.
Keywords: Procyion lotor, alien species, potential distribution, range expansion