Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.
Adhikari D, Tiwary R, Barik S (2015)
PloS one 10(7) e0134665.
Identification of invasion hotspots that support multiple invasive alien species (IAS) is a pre-requisite for control and management of invasion. However, till recently it remained a methodological challenge to precisely determine such invasive hotspots. We identified the hotspots of alien species invasion in India through Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) using species occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). The predicted area of invasion for selected species were classified into 4 categories based on number of model agreements for a region i.e. high, medium, low and very low. About 49% of the total geographical area of India was predicted to be prone to invasion at moderate to high levels of climatic suitability. The intersection of anthropogenic biomes and ecoregions with the regions of 'high' climatic suitability was classified as hotspot of alien plant invasion. Nineteen of 47 ecoregions of India, harboured such hotspots. Most ecologically sensitive regions of India, including the 'biodiversity hotspots' and coastal regions coincide with invasion hotspots, indicating their vulnerability to alien plant invasion. Besides demonstrating the usefulness of ENM and open source data for IAS management, the present study provides a knowledge base for guiding the formulation of an effective policy and management strategy for controlling the invasive alien species.
Braby M, Farias Quipildor G, Vane-Wright R, Lohman D (2015)
Morphological and molecular evidence supports recognition of Danaus petilia (Stoll, 1790) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) as a species distinct from D. chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Systematics and Biodiversity 1-17.
The danaine butterfly Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758) occurs widely in the Afrotropical, Oriental and Australian regions and comprises a taxonomic complex, with recent authors recognizing between one and three species. Danaus petilia (Stoll, 1790) has previously been considered to be a subspecies of D. chrysippus, but we present evidence from wing colour pattern, morphological characters and molecular data that support a recent proposal to treat D. petilia as a separate, parapatric species. The subspecies D. chrysippus cratippus (C. Felder 1860) has a limited range in Indonesia, and was until recently known in Australia from only two specimens. However, on Cobourg Peninsula in the Northern Territory of Australia, D. chrysippus cratippus and D. petilia were observed flying together in Melaleuca swampland. Comparative analysis of wing colour pattern and quantitative morphological characters of material of both taxa sampled from this geographical region of sympatry indicates at least six diagnostic featur...
Keywords: DNA barcode, Danainae, Indo-Australian Archipelago, Lydekker's Line, Wallacea
Chauhan JS, Singh CP S (2015)
A protected area network like Kanha Tiger Reserve, in general, protects and manages a vast spectrum of wildlife. However, the conservation of charismatic large mammals and wildlife of high conservation value tends to overshadow all other wild animals and birds. The perceived ordinariness of these wildlife species in protected areas have also become one of the main causes of their not receiving due attention for detailed systematic studies therein, and rapid decline outside in managed forests. The fauna of Kanha Tiger Reserve (KTR) supports the endangered tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and vulnerable hard ground barasingha (Cervus duvauceli branderi) and a wide range of larger mammal species and birds. The fauna also includes an amazing arboreal mammal species – Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica Erxleben). The species belongs to the family Sciuridae of order Rodentia. The significance of the conservation of Indian giant squirrel in the tiger reserve lies in the endemicity of this mammal species to India and its consequent implications for conservation in managed forests still supporting small populations of this species. An endemic species to India, it commands a wide distribution in Peninsular India, from evergreen forests to moist and dry deciduous forests of eastern and western ghats to central India (Baskaran et al. 2011). The Indian Giant squirrel has been categorised as of Least Concern with decreasing population trend in the Red List of IUCN (Rajamani et al. 2014). It has been placed under Schedule II in the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 (as amended). Ghosh and Bhattacharyya, 1995 described the occurrence of this species in KTR. They, however, recorded only one animal near the Banjar River in the Mukki forest range. Some forest guards and visitors reported its sighting at a few sites in the Supkhar forest range.
Keywords: DNA barcode, Danainae, Indo-Australian Archipelago, Lydekker's Line, Wallacea
van Kleunen M, Dawson W, Essl F, Pergl J, Winter M, Weber E et al. (2015)
Nature 525(7567) 100-103.
All around the globe, humans have greatly altered the abiotic and biotic environment with ever-increasing speed. One defining feature of the Anthropocene epoch1, 2 is the erosion of biogeographical barriers by human-mediated dispersal of species into new regions, where they can naturalize and cause ecological, economic and social damage3. So far, no comprehensive analysis of the global accumulation and exchange of alien plant species between continents has been performed, primarily because of a lack of data. Here we bridge this knowledge gap by using a unique global database on the occurrences of naturalized alien plant species in 481 mainland and 362 island regions. In total, 13,168 plant species, corresponding to 3.9% of the extant global vascular flora, or approximately the size of the native European flora, have become naturalized somewhere on the globe as a result of human activity. North America has accumulated the largest number of naturalized species, whereas the Pacific Islands show the fastest increase in species numbers with respect to their land area. Continents in the Northern Hemisphere have been the major donors of naturalized alien species to all other continents. Our results quantify for the first time the extent of plant naturalizations worldwide, and illustrate the urgent need for globally integrated efforts to control, manage and understand the spread of alien species.
Keywords: Biodiversity, Biogeography, Invasive species, Macroecology
Ahmed S, Tajamul M (2014)
Morphometric studies of the post embryonic developmental stages of Rice Grasshopper, Oxya japonica (Orthoptera: Acrididae)
New York Science Journal 7(4) 107-111.
Morphometric analysis of the external body parts of each post embryonic development stage of rice grasshopper, Oxya japonica was carried out under laboratory conditions. Data collected included total body length, head length, antennal length, pronotum length, femur length, length of abdomen, prothoracic leg, mesothoracic leg, metathoracic leg, antenna and abdominal width,. The result of the study showed that the size of the measured body parts increased progressively during the post embryonic development. There was a strong positive relationship between the body length, femur length, antennal length and pronotum length. The life cycle of the insect included 5 instar stages. The study revealed that the total body length, head length, antennal length, abdominal length, hind femur length and length of metathoracic leg could be taken as indicators for the recognition of various instar stages.
Keywords: morphometrics, oxya japonica, vernier digital caliper
Borah R (2014)
AN UPDATED ACCOUNT OF THE NAME CHANGES OF THE DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANT SPECIES INCLUDED IN THE VOL: III (1939) & VOL: IV (1940) OF “FLORA OF ASSAM”
Plant Archives 2 983-993.
All the major monumental floras of the world have most of the plants included in their old names, which are now regarded as synonyms. In north east India, “Flora of Assam” is an important flora as it includes result of pioneering floristic work on Angiosperms & Gymnosperms in the region. But, in this flora, the same problems of name changes appear before the new researchers. Therefore, an attempt is made here to prepare an updated account of the new names against their old counterparts of the plants included in the 3 rd & 4 th volumes of the flora, on the basis of recent standard taxonomic literatures. Earlier , the name changes of the plants included in the 1 st & 2 nd volumes are already published & this is the second part of the work. In this, the unresolved names are not touched & only the confirmed ones are taken into account. In the process new names of 531 dicotyledonous plant species included in the concerned flora are compiled out.
Keywords: Flora of Assam, Name changes, dicotyledonus plants
Ningthoujam S, Choudhury M, Potsangbam K, Chetia P, Nahar L, Sarker S et al. (2014)
Phytochemical Analysis 25(6) 495-507.
INTRODUCTION: Sharing traditional knowledge with the scientific community could refine scientific approaches to phytochemical investigation and conservation of ethnomedicinal plants. As such, integration of traditional knowledge with scientific data using a single platform for sharing is greatly needed. However, ethnomedicinal data are available in heterogeneous formats, which depend on cultural aspects, survey methodology and focus of the study. Phytochemical and bioassay data are also available from many open sources in various standards and customised formats. OBJECTIVE: To design a flexible data model that could integrate both primary and curated ethnomedicinal plant data from multiple sources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current model is based on MongoDB, one of the Not only Structured Query Language (NoSQL) databases. Although it does not contain schema, modifications were made so that the model could incorporate both standard and customised ethnomedicinal plant data format from different sources. RESULTS: The model presented can integrate both primary and secondary data related to ethnomedicinal plants. Accommodation of disparate data was accomplished by a feature of this database that supported a different set of fields for each document. It also allowed storage of similar data having different properties. CONCLUSION: The model presented is scalable to a highly complex level with continuing maturation of the database, and is applicable for storing, retrieving and sharing ethnomedicinal plant data. It can also serve as a flexible alternative to a relational and normalised database. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Keywords: ethnomedicinal plants, mongodb, nosql databases
Padalia H, Srivastava V, Kushwaha S (2014)
Modeling potential invasion range of alien invasive species, Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. in India: Comparison of MaxEnt and GARP
Ecological Informatics 22 36-43.
Bushmint (Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.) is one among the world's most noxious weeds. Bushmint is rapidly invading tropical ecosystems across the world, including India, and is major threat to native biodiversity, ecosystems and livelihoods. Knowledge about the likely areas under bushmint invasion has immense importance for taking rapid response and mitigation measures. In the present study, we model the potential invasion range of bushmint in India and investigate prediction capabilities of two popular species distribution models (SDM) viz., MaxEnt (Maximum Entropy) and GARP (Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Production). We compiled spatial layers on 22 climatic and non-climatic (soil type and land use land cover) environmental variables at India level and selected least correlated 14 predictor variables. 530 locations of bushmint along with 14 predictor variables were used to predict bushmint distribution using MaxEnt and GARP. We demonstrate the relative contribution of predictor variables and species-environmental linkages in modeling bushmint distribution. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess each model's performance and robustness. GARP had a relatively lower area under curve (AUC) score (AUC: 0.75), suggesting its lower ability in discriminating the suitable/unsuitable sites. Relative to GARP, MaxEnt performed better with an AUC value of 0.86. Overall the outputs of MaxEnt and GARP matched in terms of geographic regions predicted as suitable/unsuitable for bushmint in India, however, predictions were closer in the spatial extent in Central India and Western Himalayan foothills compared to North-East India, Chottanagpur and Vidhayans and Deccan Plateau in India.
Keywords: Alien invasive, Bushmint, GARP, MaxEnt, Niche modeling
Pandit M, White S, Pocock M (2014)
The contrasting effects of genome size, chromosome number and ploidy level on plant invasiveness: a global analysis
The New Phytologist 203(2) 697-703.
Understanding how species' traits relate to their status (e.g. invasiveness or rarity) is important because it can help to efficiently focus conservation and management effort and infer mechanisms affecting plant status. This is particularly important for invasiveness, in which proactive action is needed to restrict the establishment of potentially invasive plants. We tested the ability of genome size (DNA 1C-values) to explain invasiveness and compared it with cytogenetic traits (chromosome number and ploidy level). We considered 890 species from 62 genera, from across the angiosperm phylogeny and distributed from tropical to boreal latitudes. We show that invasiveness was negatively related to genome size and positively related to chromosome number (and ploidy level), yet there was a positive relationship between genome size and chromosome number; that is, our result was not caused by collinearity between the traits. Including both traits in explanatory models greatly increased the explanatory power of each. This demonstrates the potential unifying role that genome size, chromosome number and ploidy have as species' traits, despite the diverse impacts they have on plant physiology. It provides support for the continued cataloguing of cytogenetic traits and genome size of the world's flora.
Keywords: DNA 1C-value, angiosperm, genomic traits, holoploid genome size, invasive, phylogenetic signal
Phartyal S, Kondo T, Fuji A, Hidayati S, Walck J (2014)
A comprehensive view of epicotyl dormancy in Viburnum furcatum: combining field studies with laboratory studies using temperature sequences
Seed Science Research 24(04) 281-292.
Seeds with epicotyl dormancy reside in soil up to 15 months (or longer), being exposed to a sequence of temperatures, before seedlings completely emerge (i.e. with both roots and shoots). Heretofore, few studies have examined precise temperatures, especially in sequences, for promotion of radicle and cotyledon emergence and how they relate to environ- mental cues in nature. Viburnum is the best known genus to exhibit epicotyl dormancy and, as such, we investigated the Japanese V. furcatum, hypothesizing a similar kind and level of dormancy. The under- developed embryos in mature seeds in October were spatulate shaped, unlike those in other Viburnum species, and they elongated from late June to August of the following year. Radicles emerged after embryo growth until mid-October, followed by cotyledons from mid-April to mid-May. Temperatures required for embryo growth, radicle and cotyledon emergence in the laboratory approximated closely those in the field. Embryo elongation and radicle emergence occurred at warmtemperature regimes, and gibberellic acid (GA3) did not substitute for this warm temperature require- ments. Following a 120-d cold stratification of seeds with an emerged radicle, shoots emerged from seeds at 10, 15, 15/5, 20/10 and 25/158C. We identified that seeds of V. furcatum have deep simple epicotyl morphophysiological dormancy like the majority of other Viburnum species. For propagation of the species from seeds, the nearly 2-year period for seedling emergence could be shortened to 8 months: start fresh seeds at 25/158C(60 d) and then move them through a sequence of 15/58C (30 d) ! 08C (120 d) ! 20/108C (30 d).
Keywords: Viburnum, cotyledon emergence, epicotyl dormancy, morphophysiological dormancy, radicle emergence, temperature sequences