For all researches, please visit our "Peer-reviewed publications" page.
B B (2016)
International Journal of Current Medical and Pharmaceutical Research.
Flacourtia jangomas is traditionally used in India, China, Malaya Peninsula, Brazil for the treatment against asthma, anemia, diarrhoea , diabetes. Considering its medicinal and economic values the plant is not attractive to the farmers because of its low yield and lack of awareness towards its potential. Aim of this review is to provide an up to date knowledge or overview about the vernac ular names, distribution, botanical aspects, chemical constituent and phytochemical analysis. Further phytochemical and pharmacological potential of this species are suggested for future investigations
Keywords: CNO, Fullerence, Nanotechnology
Deblauwe V, Droissart V, Bose R, Sonké B, Blach-Overgaard A, Svenning J et al. (2016)
Remotely sensed temperature and precipitation data improve species distribution modelling in the tropics
Global Ecology and Biogeography.
Aim Species distribution modelling typically relies completely or partially on climatic variables as predictors, overlooking the fact that these are themselves predictions with associated uncertainties. This is particularly critical when such predictors are interpolated between sparse station data, such as in the tropics. The goal of this study is to provide a new set of satellite-based climatic predictor data and to evaluate its potential to improve modelled species–climate associations and transferability to novel geographical regions. Location Rain forests areas of Central Africa, the Western Ghats of India and South America. Methods We compared models calibrated on the widely used WorldClim station-interpolated climatic data with models where either temperature or precipitation data from WorldClim were replaced by data from CRU, MODIS, TRMM and CHIRPS. Each predictor set was used to model 451 plant species distributions. To test for chance associations, we devised a null model with which to compare the accuracy metric obtained for every species. Results Fewer than half of the studied rain forest species distributions matched the climatic pattern better than did random distributions. The inclusion of MODIS temperature and CHIRPS precipitation estimates derived from remote sensing each allowed for a better than random fit for respectively 40% and 22% more species than models calibrated on WorldClim. Furthermore, their inclusion was positively related to a better transferability of models to novel regions. Main conclusions We provide a newly assembled dataset of ecologically meaningful variables derived from MODIS and CHIRPS for download, and provide a basis for choosing among the plethora of available climate datasets. We emphasize the need to consider the method used in the production of climate data when working on a region with sparse meteorological station data. In this context, remote sensing data should be the preferred choice, particularly when model transferability to novel climates or inferences on causality are invoked.
Keywords: Association test, CHIRPS, GLM, MODIS, MaxEnt, TRMM, WorldClim, ecological niche model, habitat suitability, null model
Devi K, Singh P, Bhattacharyya D (2016)
Plant Science Today 3(3) 272.
Three grass species viz., Avena fatua L., Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty and Digitaria violascens Link (Poaceae, nom. alt. Gramineae) are reported here for the first time from Manipur (India) as new records to the state. A key to the identification of species along with detail description and illustrations is provided to facilitate their easy identification.
Keywords: Avena fatua, Chrysopogon zizanioides, Digitaria violascens, Gramineae, New Records
Foody G, Pal M, Rocchini D, Garzon-Lopez C, Bastin L (2016)
The Sensitivity of Mapping Methods to Reference Data Quality: Training Supervised Image Classifications with Imperfect Reference Data
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 5(11) 199.
The accuracy of a map is dependent on the reference dataset used in its construction. Classification analyses used in thematic mapping can, for example, be sensitive to a range of sampling and data quality concerns. With particular focus on the latter, the effects of reference data quality on land cover classifications from airborne thematic mapper data are explored. Variations in sampling intensity and effort are highlighted in a dataset that is widely used in mapping and modelling studies; these may need accounting for in analyses. The quality of the labelling in the reference dataset was also a key variable influencing mapping accuracy. Accuracy varied with the amount and nature of mislabelled training cases with the nature of the effects varying between classifiers. The largest impacts on accuracy occurred when mislabelling involved confusion between similar classes. Accuracy was also typically negatively related to the magnitude of mislabelled cases and the support vector machine (SVM), which has been claimed to be relatively insensitive to training data error, was the most sensitive of the set of classifiers investigated, with overall classification accuracy declining by 8% (significant at 95% level of confidence) with the use of a training set containing 20% mislabelled cases.
Keywords: accuracy, classification, error, land cover, remote sensing, training
K K (2016)
Royal Society Open Science.
The opposing effects of environmental filtering and competitive interactions may influence community assembly and coexistence of related species. Competition, both in the domain of ecological resources, and in the sensory domain (for example, acoustic interference) may also result in sympatric species evolving divergent traits and niches. Delineating these scenarios within communities requires understanding trait distributions and phylogenetic structure within the community, as well as patterns of trait evolution. We report that sympatric assemblages of Asian barbets (frugivorous canopy birds) consist of a random phylogenetic sample of species, but are divergent in both morphological and acoustic traits. Additionally, we find that morphology is more divergent than expected under Brownian evolution, whereas vocal frequency evolution is close to the pattern expected under Brownian motion (i.e. a random walk). Together, these patterns are consistent with a role for competition or competitive exclusion in driving community assembly. Phylogenetic patterns of morphological divergence between related species suggest that these traits are key in species coexistence. Because vocal frequency and size are correlated in barbets, we therefore hypothesize that frequency differences between sympatric barbets are a by-product of their divergent morphologies.
Keywords: accuracy, classification, error, land cover, remote sensing, training
Kaur G, Sangha K (2016)
Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies JEZS 390(45) 390-396.
India is the largest producer and exporter of chilli (Capsicum annuum) in the world and attack of insect pests is a major constraint in its production. Arthropod population was recorded weekly during kharif 2013 at Bharti Field Fresh Farm, Ladhowal, Ludhiana and during rabi 2014 at Department of Forestry and Natural Resources Research Farm, PAU, Ludhiana. Primary goal of this study was to record the arthropod fauna associated with the chilli agroecosystem and to identify the insect and mite pests among them. Forty one arthropod species were found to be associated with the chilli crop among which fourteen species were each of pests and natural enemies, twelve species of casual visitors and one species of pollinator. Order Coleoptera occupied the maximum share (26.83%) in arthropod fauna recorded on chilli ecosystem. The results of diversity indices represented a highly diverse arthropod fauna which was evenly distributed and without dominance of any species during both the seasons.
Keywords: Aphid, diversity indices, fruit borer, mite, thrips, whitefly
Mahabal A, Thakur S, Patil R, Patil R (2016)
Distribution records and extended range of the Sri Lanka Frogmouth Batrachostomus moniliger (Aves: Caprimulgiformes: Podargidae) in the Western Ghats: a review from 1862 to 2015
Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(11) 9289.
The Sri Lanka Frogmouth (or Ceylon Frogmouth) Batrachostomus moniliger is an endemic resident bird confined to the evergreen and secondary forests of Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats of India. The earlier distribution range of the Frogmouth was from the Uttara Kannada District of Karnataka to the southern tip of India and most of Sri Lanka. Recently, the range has been extended further north to Goa and up to Mumbai in Maharashtra. A number of observations summarized into 202 distributional records (published reports and records uploaded to eBird basic data set, Oriental Bird Images, and GBIF.org from the years 1862 to 2015) of the Frogmouth have been tabulated with its maps, and reviewed for their state-wise distribution records. The need of undertaking surveys to fill up the gaps in their distribution range as well as any further northward extension till the culmination of the Western Ghats has been discussed. It is urged that taxonomical and molecular phylogenetic studies are required to be carried out in different populations of Frogmouths across the entire range.
Keywords: Batrachostomus moniliger, GBIF, Oriental Bird Images, Sri Lanka Frogmouth, Western Ghats, distribution range, eBird, endemic, evergreen forests
Ratnam J, Tomlinson K, Rasquinha D, Sankaran M, Ratnam J, Bond W et al. (2016)
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences 371(1703) 653-660.
The savannahs of Asia remain locally unrecognized as distinctive ecosystems, and continue to be viewed as degraded forests or seasonally dry tropical forests. These colonial-era legacies are problematic, because they fail to recognize the unique diversity of Asian savannahs and the critical roles of fire and herbivory in maintaining ecosystem health and diversity. In this review, we show that: the palaeo-historical evidence suggests that the savannahs of Asia have existed for at least 1 million years, long before widespread landscape modification by humans; savannah regions across Asia have levels of C4 grass endemism and diversity that are consistent with area-based expectations for non-Asian savannahs; there are at least three distinct Asian savannah communities, namely deciduous broadleaf savannahs, deciduous fine-leafed and spiny savannahs and evergreen pine savannahs, with distinct functional ecologies consistent with fire- and herbivory-driven community assembly. Via an analysis of savannah climate domains on other continents, we map the potential extent of savannahs across Asia. We find that the climates of African savannahs provide the closest analogues for those of Asian deciduous savannahs, but that Asian pine savannahs occur in climates different to any of the savannahs in the southern continents. Finally, we review major threats to the persistence of savannahs in Asia, including the mismanagement of fire and herbivory, alien woody encroachment, afforestation policies and future climate uncertainty associated with the changing Asian monsoon. Research agendas that target these issues are urgently needed to manage and conserve these ecosystems.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'.
Keywords: Asian savannahs, diversity, fire, functional traits, herbivory, tropical dry forest
Ray D, Behera M, Jacob J (2016)
Improving spatial transferability of ecological niche model of Hevea brasiliensis using pooled occurrences of introduced ranges in two biogeographic regions of India
Ecological Informatics 34 153-163.
Improved spatial transferability of ecological niche models is crucial for accurately predicting species preferred habitat; this is especially true for a planted tree species (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). Amazonian valley of South America (AZ) is known as native range of this species. To test the transferability of Maxent ecological niche model among two distinct bio-geographical regions of India, Western Ghats (WG) and North-East (NE) regions and AZ, the present study was designed. The present spatial distribution of H. brasiliensis was evaluated using the Maxent algorithm using bioclimatic variables and species occurrence data from respective regions. An alternate approach of calibrating the model with pooled occurrence points of various introduced ranges of the species was adapted for predicting the species' presence in unsampled region. Spatial distribution of Hevea species in two biogeographic regions of India modelled by Maxent was found to be quite accurate when the model was calibrated with the sampled occurrence points of the same region as evidenced from our previous studies. However, the present study addresses the issue related to transferability of niche based model to predict the probable distribution of Hevea species in an unsampled region based on either its native or introduced range of the species. The result indicates that transferability depends on the extent of similarity between the climatic spaces occupied by the species in sampled region and unsampled regions of the species' distribution. The spatial transferability of the model was improved by using pooled occurrence data of the species from both introduced regions.
Keywords: Maxent, Realized niche, Rubber tree, Species distribution modelling, Unfilled niche
Rekadwad B, Khobragade C (2016)
Digital data for quick response (QR) codes of alkalophilic Bacillus pumilus to identify and to compare bacilli isolated from Lonar Crator Lake, India
Data in Brief 7 1306-1313.
Microbiologists are routinely engaged isolation, identification and comparison of isolated bacteria for their novelty. 16S rRNA sequences of Bacillus pumilus were retrieved from NCBI repository and generated QR codes for sequences (FASTA format and full Gene Bank information). 16SrRNA were used to generate quick response (QR) codes of Bacillus pumilus isolated from Lonar Crator Lake (19° 58′ N; 76° 31′ E), India. Bacillus pumilus 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to generate CGR, FCGR and PCA. These can be used for visual comparison and evaluation respectively. The hyperlinked QR codes, CGR, FCGR and PCA of all the isolates are made available to the users on a portal https://sites.google.com/site/bhagwanrekadwad/. This generated digital data helps to evaluate and compare any Bacillus pumilus strain, minimizes laboratory efforts and avoid misinterpretation of the species.
Keywords: Alkaline environment, Alkalophiles, Bacillus signatures, Lonar Crator Lake, Soda Lake