For all researches, please visit our "Peer-reviewed publications" page.
O’Neill A, Badola H, Dhyani P, Rana S (2017)
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 13(1) 21.
Biocultural knowledge provides valuable insight into ecological processes, and can guide conservation practitioners in local contexts. In many regions, however, such knowledge is underutilized due to its often-fragmented record in disparate sources. In this article, we review and apply ethnobiological knowledge to biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas. Using Sikkim, India as a case study, we: (i) traced the history and trends of ethnobiological documentation; (ii) identified priority species and habitat types; and, (iii) analyzed within and among community differences pertaining to species use and management. Our results revealed that Sikkim is a biocultural hotspot, where six ethnic communities and 1128 species engage in biocultural relationships. Since the mid-1800s, the number of ethnobiological publications from Sikkim has exponentially increased; however, our results also indicate that much of this knowledge is both unwritten and partitioned within an aging, gendered, and caste or ethnic group-specific stratum of society. Reviewed species were primarily wild or wild cultivated, native to subtropical and temperate forests, and pend IUCN Red List of Threatened Species assessment. Our results demonstrate the value of engaging local knowledge holders as active participants in conservation, and suggest the need for further ethnobiological research in the Eastern Himalayas. Our interdisciplinary approach, which included rank indices and geospatial modelling, can help integrate diverse datasets into evidence-based policy.
Singh A, Balodi K, Naithani S, Srivastava A, Singh A, Kwon-Ndung E (2017)
Vascular plant diversity with special reference to invasion of alien species on the Doon University Campus, Dehradun, India
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 9(3) 56-76.
The present study was conducted to assess vascular plant diversity in a modified habitat in Shivalik region. Extensive surveys were conducted to document the species in each season and identification was done with the help of regional floras. A total of 191 species comprising 181 species of angiosperms (176 genera and 76 families), 2 species of pteridophytes (2 genera and 1 family), and 8 species of gymnosperms (7 genera and 5 families) were observed. The dominant Angiosperms families include Asteraceae (18 genera and 18 species), followed by Fabaceae (16 genera and 18 species), Lamiaceae (8 genera and 9 species), Solanaceae (5 genera and 9 species), Amaranthaceae (7 genera and 8 species), Euphorbiaceae (4 genera and 8 species) and Apocynaceae (6 genera and 7 species). In Gymnosperms, 5 families were recorded which include family Pinaceae, Cycadaceae, Zamiaceae, Araucariaceae and Cupressaceae. In pteridophytes, only two species of the family Pteridaceae were recorded. The categorizations on the basis of species habit, 96 species were recorded as herbs, 23 shrubs, 48 trees, 14 climbers, 8 grasses and 2 species of ferns. On the basis of species economic importance, 111 species had medicinal value, 43 ornamental, 8 medicinal-edible, 8 fodder, 7 edible, 2 medicinal-ornamental, 2 edible-fodder, 1 medicinal-timber, 1 fuel-fodder, 1 fuel-timber-edible-ornamental, 1 medicinal-fiber, 1 medicinal-fuel-fodder-religious, 1 ornamental-fuel, 1 ornamental-religious, 1 condiment uses while rests of the 2 species have other uses. In terms of occurrence, 36.64% species were native, while 63.35% species were non-native. The study provides baseline information on a modified habitat in an important eco-region and would be helpful in monitoring the changes in future.
Keywords: Doon University, exotic, life form, nativity, vascular plants
Sucharitha PAM, Khanam SS, Sai Shilpa MC, Sai Ramya V, Veera Nagaiah Y D (2017)
World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research.
Herbal medicine is the oldest form of health care system known to our mankind. Herbs are the potential source of chemical constituents which have high therapeutic value. Herbal medicines are now in great demand in the developing world for primary health care not because they are inexpensive but also for their better cultural acceptability, better compatibility with the human body and minimal side effects. It is estimated, that approximately one quarter of prescribed drugs contain plant extracts or active ingredients obtained from plant substances. This review summarizes the research carried out on Cleome aspera. Cleome aspera belongs to the family, Cleomaceae. Cleome aspera is known to possess anti diabetic activity. The anti diabetic effect of methanolic extract of whole plant of Cleome aspera showed a dose dependent hypoglycemic effect and prevented rise in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. Leaf paste of Cleome aspera is used to cure eczema and other skin disorders.
Keywords: Cleomaceae, Cleome aspera, anti diabetic, eczema, pharmacological activity
Waghmare S, Gaikwad S (2017)
First record of the predatory stinkbug Eocanthecona concinna (Walker, 1867) (Pentatomidae: Asopinae) from India
Journal of Threatened Taxa 9(2) 9870.
The genus Eocanthecona is distributed in oriental, Ethiopian and Australasian regions. This genus is represented by 24 species from the world of which only five species are reported from India. The bug Eocanthecona concinna was first reported from Hong Kong, China in 1867. Later again reported from different regions of China and Taiwan in 1910, 1934, 1961 and 2013. The review of literature indicates no record of E. concinna in India. Hence, the report of this stinkbug from Kolhapur becomes first report for India and the geographic range of the species in China and Taiwan is extended towards India.
Keywords: Eocanthecona concinna, Kolhapur, first record, stinkbug
B B (2016)
International Journal of Current Medical and Pharmaceutical Research.
Flacourtia jangomas is traditionally used in India, China, Malaya Peninsula, Brazil for the treatment against asthma, anemia, diarrhoea , diabetes. Considering its medicinal and economic values the plant is not attractive to the farmers because of its low yield and lack of awareness towards its potential. Aim of this review is to provide an up to date knowledge or overview about the vernac ular names, distribution, botanical aspects, chemical constituent and phytochemical analysis. Further phytochemical and pharmacological potential of this species are suggested for future investigations
Keywords: CNO, Fullerence, Nanotechnology
Deblauwe V, Droissart V, Bose R, Sonké B, Blach-Overgaard A, Svenning J et al. (2016)
Remotely sensed temperature and precipitation data improve species distribution modelling in the tropics
Global Ecology and Biogeography.
Aim Species distribution modelling typically relies completely or partially on climatic variables as predictors, overlooking the fact that these are themselves predictions with associated uncertainties. This is particularly critical when such predictors are interpolated between sparse station data, such as in the tropics. The goal of this study is to provide a new set of satellite-based climatic predictor data and to evaluate its potential to improve modelled species–climate associations and transferability to novel geographical regions. Location Rain forests areas of Central Africa, the Western Ghats of India and South America. Methods We compared models calibrated on the widely used WorldClim station-interpolated climatic data with models where either temperature or precipitation data from WorldClim were replaced by data from CRU, MODIS, TRMM and CHIRPS. Each predictor set was used to model 451 plant species distributions. To test for chance associations, we devised a null model with which to compare the accuracy metric obtained for every species. Results Fewer than half of the studied rain forest species distributions matched the climatic pattern better than did random distributions. The inclusion of MODIS temperature and CHIRPS precipitation estimates derived from remote sensing each allowed for a better than random fit for respectively 40% and 22% more species than models calibrated on WorldClim. Furthermore, their inclusion was positively related to a better transferability of models to novel regions. Main conclusions We provide a newly assembled dataset of ecologically meaningful variables derived from MODIS and CHIRPS for download, and provide a basis for choosing among the plethora of available climate datasets. We emphasize the need to consider the method used in the production of climate data when working on a region with sparse meteorological station data. In this context, remote sensing data should be the preferred choice, particularly when model transferability to novel climates or inferences on causality are invoked.
Keywords: Association test, CHIRPS, GLM, MODIS, MaxEnt, TRMM, WorldClim, ecological niche model, habitat suitability, null model
Devi K, Singh P, Bhattacharyya D (2016)
Plant Science Today 3(3) 272.
Three grass species viz., Avena fatua L., Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty and Digitaria violascens Link (Poaceae, nom. alt. Gramineae) are reported here for the first time from Manipur (India) as new records to the state. A key to the identification of species along with detail description and illustrations is provided to facilitate their easy identification.
Keywords: Avena fatua, Chrysopogon zizanioides, Digitaria violascens, Gramineae, New Records
Foody G, Pal M, Rocchini D, Garzon-Lopez C, Bastin L (2016)
The Sensitivity of Mapping Methods to Reference Data Quality: Training Supervised Image Classifications with Imperfect Reference Data
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 5(11) 199.
The accuracy of a map is dependent on the reference dataset used in its construction. Classification analyses used in thematic mapping can, for example, be sensitive to a range of sampling and data quality concerns. With particular focus on the latter, the effects of reference data quality on land cover classifications from airborne thematic mapper data are explored. Variations in sampling intensity and effort are highlighted in a dataset that is widely used in mapping and modelling studies; these may need accounting for in analyses. The quality of the labelling in the reference dataset was also a key variable influencing mapping accuracy. Accuracy varied with the amount and nature of mislabelled training cases with the nature of the effects varying between classifiers. The largest impacts on accuracy occurred when mislabelling involved confusion between similar classes. Accuracy was also typically negatively related to the magnitude of mislabelled cases and the support vector machine (SVM), which has been claimed to be relatively insensitive to training data error, was the most sensitive of the set of classifiers investigated, with overall classification accuracy declining by 8% (significant at 95% level of confidence) with the use of a training set containing 20% mislabelled cases.
Keywords: accuracy, classification, error, land cover, remote sensing, training
K K (2016)
Royal Society Open Science.
The opposing effects of environmental filtering and competitive interactions may influence community assembly and coexistence of related species. Competition, both in the domain of ecological resources, and in the sensory domain (for example, acoustic interference) may also result in sympatric species evolving divergent traits and niches. Delineating these scenarios within communities requires understanding trait distributions and phylogenetic structure within the community, as well as patterns of trait evolution. We report that sympatric assemblages of Asian barbets (frugivorous canopy birds) consist of a random phylogenetic sample of species, but are divergent in both morphological and acoustic traits. Additionally, we find that morphology is more divergent than expected under Brownian evolution, whereas vocal frequency evolution is close to the pattern expected under Brownian motion (i.e. a random walk). Together, these patterns are consistent with a role for competition or competitive exclusion in driving community assembly. Phylogenetic patterns of morphological divergence between related species suggest that these traits are key in species coexistence. Because vocal frequency and size are correlated in barbets, we therefore hypothesize that frequency differences between sympatric barbets are a by-product of their divergent morphologies.
Keywords: accuracy, classification, error, land cover, remote sensing, training
Kaur G, Sangha K (2016)
Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies JEZS 390(45) 390-396.
India is the largest producer and exporter of chilli (Capsicum annuum) in the world and attack of insect pests is a major constraint in its production. Arthropod population was recorded weekly during kharif 2013 at Bharti Field Fresh Farm, Ladhowal, Ludhiana and during rabi 2014 at Department of Forestry and Natural Resources Research Farm, PAU, Ludhiana. Primary goal of this study was to record the arthropod fauna associated with the chilli agroecosystem and to identify the insect and mite pests among them. Forty one arthropod species were found to be associated with the chilli crop among which fourteen species were each of pests and natural enemies, twelve species of casual visitors and one species of pollinator. Order Coleoptera occupied the maximum share (26.83%) in arthropod fauna recorded on chilli ecosystem. The results of diversity indices represented a highly diverse arthropod fauna which was evenly distributed and without dominance of any species during both the seasons.
Keywords: Aphid, diversity indices, fruit borer, mite, thrips, whitefly