Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.
Aguiar L, Bernard E, Ribeiro V, Machado R, Jones G (2016)
Global Ecology and Conservation 5 22-33.
Most extant species are survivors of the last climate change event 20,000 years ago. While past events took place over thousands of years, current climate change is occurring much faster, over a few decades. We modelled the potential distribution area of bat species in the Brazilian Cerrado, a Neotropical savannah, and assessed the potential impacts of climate change up to 2050 in two scenarios. First we evaluated what the impact on the distributions of bat species would be if they were unable to move to areas where climate conditions might be similar to current ones. The novelty of our paper is that, based on least-cost-path analyses, we identified potential corridors that could be managed now to mitigate potential impacts of climate change. Our results indicate that on average, in the future bat species would find similar climate conditions 281 km southeast from current regions. If bat species were not able to move to new suitable areas and were unable to adapt, then 36 species (31.6%) could lose >80% of their current distribution area, and five species will lose more than 98% of their distribution area in the Brazilian Cerrado. In contrast, if bat species are able to reach such areas, then the number of highly impacted species will be reduced to nine, with none of them likely to disappear from the Cerrado. We present measures that could be implemented immediately to mitigate future climate change impacts.
Keywords: Brazil, Brazilian Cerrado, Chiroptera, Conservation, Ecological niche models
Alexander N, Massei G, Wint W (2016)
The European Distribution of Sus Scrofa. Model Outputs from the Project Described within the Poster – Where are All the Boars? An Attempt to Gain a Continental Perspective
Open Health Data 4(1).
Wild boar is a host of a number of arthropod-vectored diseases and its numbers are on the rise in mainland Europe. The species potentially impacts ecosystems, humans and farming practices and so its distribution is of interest to policy makers in a number of fields beyond that of the primarily epidemiological goal of this study. Three statistical model outputs describing the distribution and abundance of the species Sus scrofa (Wild boar) are included in this data package. The extent of this dataset covers continental Europe. These data were presented as a poster  at the conference Genes, Ecosystems and Risk of Infection (GERI 2015). The first of the three models provide a European map presenting the probability of presence of Sus scrofa, which can be used to describe the likely geographical distribution of the species. The second and third models provide indices to help describe the likely abundance across the continent. The two indices include “the proportion of suitable habitat where presence is estimated” and a simple classification of boar abundance across Europe using quantiles of existing abundance data and proxies.
Keywords: Abundance, Distribution, Europe, Random Forest, Statistical modelling, Sus scrofa
Bellard C, Leroy B, Thuiller W, Rysman J, Courchamp F (2016)
In this paper, we investigate how climate, land use, habitat characteristics, and socioeconomic activities contribute to predict the current potential distributions of the “100 among the world's worst invasive alien species”. We calculated the predictive power of each of the 41 variables for the 95 species including a large number of plants, vertebrates and invertebrates. We then calibrated the species distribution models with a set of appropriate variables for each invasive alien species to predict the potential distribution of these species and identify the major regions of origin of the invasive alien species. We found that climate variables were primarily predictors of the distribution of the global invaders studied. In addition, the habitat characteristics were also important predictors following by the socioeconomic variables such as the nearest distance to airports, seaports and human population density. We show that the potential areas at the highest risk of invasions from these species are located in Western Europe, Eastern United States, Central America, the eastern coast of Australia, and some Indonesian islands. We argue that these potential hotspots of invasions should be monitored in priority to prevent new invasions from these species. This study provides evidence of the importance of considering both habitat characteristics, socioeconomic and climate change factors for the current and future predictions of biological invasions.
Keywords: invasive species, socioeconomic, spatial risk
Giovannini P, Howes M, Edwards S (2016)
Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: a review.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 184 58-71.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Globally 387 million people currently have diabetes and it is projected that this condition will be the 7th leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. As of 2012, its total prevalence in Central America (8.5%) was greater than the prevalence in most Latin American countries and the population of this region widely use herbal medicine. The aim of this study is to review the medicinal plants used to treat diabetes and its sequelae in seven Central American countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a literature review and extracted from primary sources the plant use reports in traditional remedies that matched one of the following disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunctions, visual loss, and nerve damage. Use reports were entered in a database and data were analysed in terms of the highest number of use reports for diabetes management and for the different sequelae. We also examined the scientific evidence that might support the local uses of the most reported species. RESULTS: Out of 535 identified species used to manage diabetes and its sequelae, 104 species are used to manage diabetes and we found in vitro and in vivo preclinical experimental evidence of hypoglycaemic effect for 16 of the 20 species reported by at least two sources. However, only seven of these species are reported in more than 3 studies: Momordica charantia L., Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass., Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth, Persea americana Mill., Psidium guajava L., Anacardium occidentale L. and Hamelia patens Jacq. Several of the species that are used to manage diabetes in Central America are also used to treat conditions that may arise as its consequence such as kidney disease, urinary problems and skin conditions. CONCLUSION: This review provides an overview of the medicinal plants used to manage diabetes and its sequelae in Central America and of the current scientific knowledge that might explain their traditional use. In Central America a large number of medicinal plants are used to treat this condition and its sequelae, although relatively few species are widely used across the region. For the species used to manage diabetes, there is variation in the availability and quality of pharmacological, chemical and clinical studies to explain traditional use.
Keywords: AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK, Bixin (PubChem CID: 5281226), Central America, Chlorogenic acid (PubChem CID: 1794427), Diabetes, Ecosystem services, Guaijaverin (PubChem CID: 44259215), Hypoglycaemic, IRS-1, Kaempferol 3-O-gentiobioside (PubChem CID: 9960512, Medicinal plants, More information is available at: http://www.elsev, NADPH, PKB/Akt, PPARγ, PTP-1B, Peltatoside (PubChem CID: 5484066), Quassin (PubChem CID: 65571), Quercetin (PubChem CID: 5280343), RCT, Rhoifolin (PubChem CID: 5282150), Tecomine (PubChem CID: 442553), Traditional medicine, Vindoline (PubChem CID: 260535), insulin receptor substrate-1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, protein kinase B, protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B, randomised controlled trial
Griffiths H, Waller C (2016)
The first comprehensive description of the biodiversity and biogeography of Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic intertidal communities
Journal of Biogeography.
Aim To describe the distribution of biodiversity and biogeographical patterns of intertidal organisms in southern temperate and polar waters. We hypothesized that there would be differences in community structure between the Antarctic, which is most affected by ice, and the sub-Antarctic and other neighbouring regions. We also hypothesized that rafting and West Wind Drift will be the significant drivers of biogeographical patterns. Additionally, the size, age, isolation, volcanic or glacial history of a region and the presence of large, beach dwelling, mammals and birds would all play a role in determining the level of biodiversity observed. Location South Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans and the Southern Ocean. Methods We examined all available intertidal records from the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic with additional data from neighbouring regions for comparison and context. We compiled 3902 occurrences of 1416 species of high southern latitude intertidal organisms from 229 locations and used PRIMER 6 to perform multivariate statistical analyses. Results The Antarctic and sub-Antarctic are shown to be distinct biogeographical regions, with patterns driven by a small number of widely distributed species. These wide-ranging molluscs and macroalgae dominate the biogeographical structure of the Southern Ocean intertidal, most likely as a result of rafting in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. East Antarctic intertidal habitats are potentially isolated by the Ross and Weddell Sea ice shelves but represent a great unknown in this biogeographical scheme. Main Conclusions The view that the Antarctic intertidal is a lifeless desert does not hold true, with Antarctic Peninsula intertidal communities being richer and more diverse than those in southern South America and the sub-Antarctic islands. Changing conditions in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic intertidal mean that a representative baseline is needed (acquired through standardized and quantitative sampling) to assess future changes and to detect any invasive species.
Keywords: Southern Ocean, climate change, island biogeography, macroalgae, mollusc, rafting, richness
Ivory S, Early R, Sax D, Russell J (2016)
Global Ecology and Biogeography.
Aim Climate and land-use change will have a dramatic impact on future ecosystems through alterations to species ranges and community composition. When forming conservation strategies, correlative species distribution models are often created to assess risks for individual species. These models are based on the assumption of climatic equilibrium, such that the modern range is representative of the full range of conditions under which species could thrive. However, the palaeo-ecological record illustrates examples of disequilibrium in species today, and recent studies suggest that many species could occur in much broader climatic settings than previously thought. Montane ecosystems are thought to be at disproportionate risk due to temperature sensitivity and restricted geographical ranges. However, in the Afrotropics the palaeo-ecological record shows that montane forest taxa expanded into the lowlands numerous times, suggesting a possible tolerance to warm temperatures. Location Africa. Methods We integrate palaeo-ecological and palaeo-climatic data in order to compare climate conditions in which species are currently found with those in the past. We use species distribution models to construct potential modern ranges for Afromontane species based on modern distributions and distributions in the palaeo-ecological record in order to evaluate the equilibrium of species ranges. Results We show that many Afromontane trees have occupied warmer climates in the past, which suggests that the current low-elevation boundaries are not set by climate. Interestingly, the species with the largest disequilibrium between palaeo- and modern distributions are those whose modern distributions show the least temperature sensitivity. Mapping of species potential ranges based on modern and palaeo- distributions clearly shows that suitable climate conditions exist today in the lowlands for less temperature-sensitive species. Main conclusions These results imply that the current range of these forest trees does not necessarily inform risk from climatic change, and that human land use may be the major pressure for many species in the future.
Keywords: Africa, Afromontane, climatic niche, global environmental change, montane ecosystems, palaeo-climate, palaeo-ecology, tropical biogeography, tropical ecology
Lancaster L (2016)
Nature Climate Change advance on.
Current anthropogenic impacts, including habitat modification and climate change, may contribute to a sixth mass extinction1. To mitigate these impacts and slow further losses of biodiversity, we need to understand which species are most at risk and identify the factors contributing to current and future declines. Such information is often obtained through large-scale, comparative and biogeographic analysis of lineages or traits that are potentially sensitive to ongoing anthropogenic change—for instance to predict which regions are most susceptible to climate change-induced biodiversity loss2, 3, 4. However, for this approach to be generally successful, the underlying causes of identified geographical trends need to be carefully considered5. Here, I augment and reanalyse a global data set of insect thermal tolerances, evaluating the contribution of recent and contemporary range expansions to latitudinal variation in thermal niche breadth. Previous indications that high-latitude ectotherms exhibit broad thermal niches and high warming tolerances held only for species undergoing range expansions or invasions. In contrast, species with stable or declining geographic ranges exhibit latitudinally decreasing absolute thermal tolerances and no latitudinal variation in tolerance breadths. Thus, non-range-expanding species, particularly insular or endemic species, which are often of highest conservation priority, are unlikely to tolerate future climatic warming at high latitudes.
Keywords: Biogeography, Climate-change ecology, Macroecology
Newbold T, Hudson L, Hill S, Contu S, Gray C, Scharlemann J et al. (2016)
Land use has large effects on the diversity of ecological assemblages. Differences among land uses in the diversity of local assemblages (alpha diversity) have been quantified at a global scale. Effects on the turnover of species composition between locations (beta diversity) are less clear, with previous studies focusing on particular regions or groups of species. Using a global database on the composition of ecological assemblages in different land uses, we test for differences in the between–site turnover of species composition, within and among land–use types. Overall, we show a strong impact of land use on assemblage composition. While we find that compositional turnover within land uses does not differ strongly among land uses, human land uses and secondary vegetation in an early stage of recovery are poor at retaining the species that characterise primary vegetation. The dissimilarity of assemblages in human–impacted habitats compared with primary vegetation was more pronounced in the tropical than temperate realm. An exploratory analysis suggests that this geographic difference might be caused primarily by differences in climate seasonality and in the numbers of species sampled. Taken together the results suggest that, while small–scale beta diversity within land uses is not strongly impacted by land–use type, compositional turnover between land uses is substantial. Therefore, land–use change will lead to profound changes in the structure of ecological assemblages.
Keywords: Biogeography, Climate-change ecology, Macroecology
Trowbridge C, Little C, Ferrenburg L, Resk H, Kachmarik K, Plowman C et al. (2016)
Alcyonacean octocorals are anthozoans which are found in many coastal benthic habitats, where they can be sensitive to environmental and/or anthropogenic stress. As part of a two-decade monitoring study of Lough Hyne (Europe’s first marine reserve and Ireland’s only one), we documented benthic communities at rocky-shore sites. As a fully marine, semi-enclosed, tidal ‘lake’ connected to the Atlantic Ocean via tidal rapids, Lough Hyne has long been noted for its high species and habitat diversity. One of the noteworthy guilds we report here was the alcyonacean octocorals: (1) the soft coral Alcyonium hibernicum under shallow subtidal rocks at monitoring sites in the lough from 2002 to 2015 and (2) the first known records (2013 to present) of the red soft coral A. glomeratum inside the lough (above the rapids). Furthermore, in August/September 2014 and 2015, we rediscovered the stoloniferous octocoral Sarcodictyon catenatum, last reported in the lough in the 1930s. We documented the distribution and abundance of these species in shallow subtidal areas of the lough as a baseline in the face of rapidly degrading conditions due to extreme oxygen fluctuations from eutrophication.
Keywords: Alcyonium, Ireland, Lough Hyne, Marine protected area, Marine reserve, Octocorallia, Sarcodictyon
A S (2015)
Sibbaldia: The Journal of Botanic Garden Horticulture 13.
The impact of climate change and its effects on gardens has so far received limited academic attention. This paper offers a partial correction of this imbalance by investigating the potential impact of climate change on a selection of common Scottish garden plants. A climate envelope modelling approach was taken, whereby wild species distribution data were used to build climate ‘envelopes’ or descriptions of the native climates of selected species. The envelope models were projected onto future climate scenarios for Scotland, allowing observations to be made regarding the climatic suitability of Scotland, both currently and into the future, for each of the plants studied. The models and predictions for four species are described here along with strengths and limitations of the methodology. It is suggested that this approach, or variations of it, could become a useful tool in forward planning for gardens in assisting efforts to mitigate the effect of climate change
Keywords: Alcyonium, Ireland, Lough Hyne, Marine protected area, Marine reserve, Octocorallia, Sarcodictyon