For all researches, please visit our "Peer-reviewed publications" page.
Hällfors M, Aikio S, Fronzek S, Hellmann J, Ryttäri T, Heikkinen R (2016)
Biological Conservation 196 60-68.
Assisted migration (AM) has been suggested as a management strategy for aiding species in reaching newly suitable locations as climate changes. Species distribution models (SDMs) can provide important insights for decisions on whether to assist a species in its migration; however, their application includes uncertainties. In this study, we use consensus SDMs to model the future suitable areas for 13 vascular plant species with poor dispersal capacity. Based on the outputs of SDMs under different climate change scenarios and future times, we quantify the predicted changes in suitable area by calculating metrics that describe the need and potential for migration. We find that, by the end of the 21st century, one of the species would benefit from AM under mild climate change, seven under moderate change, and for 12 out of 13 species studied AM appears to be a relevant conservation method under strong climate change. We also test the effect of different modeling attributes on the metrics and find little variation between SDMs constructed using different combinations of modeling methods and variable sets. However, the choice of climate variables had a larger influence on the level of the metrics than did the modeling method. We therefore suggest that the choice of climate variables should receive ample attention when measuring climate change threat using SDMs and that experiments aiming to uncover critical environmental factors for individual species should be extensively conducted. This study illustrates that dispersal assistance may be needed for many species under a wide range of possible future climates.
Keywords: Assisted colonization, Conservation planning, Managed relocation, Model uncertainty, Translocation
Multimäki S, Hall A, Ahonen-Rainio P (2016)
While animation is a natural and, under certain circumstances, effective way to present spatio-temporal information, it has its limitations. Studying animations of large point datasets can be cognitively very demanding. Aiming to help users to comprehend such data, this study presents a new concept of temporal classification. A phenomenon is classified into periods of increasing, decreasing, and steady intensity, and each is assigned different colours in an animation. This concept was tested with a group of experts in the field of the phenomenon. The results suggest that this kind of classified animation, together with a traditional animation presenting the same dataset, supports users in their analysis process and adds to the impression they get of the phenomenon. It also seems that the viewing order of the animations matters: the full potential of the tested method is reached by viewing the traditional version first and temporally classified version after that.
Keywords: Classification, Colours, Map Animation, Temporal Behaviour, Visualisation
Hällfors M, Liao J, Dzurisin J, Grundel R, Hyvärinen M, Towle K et al. (2015)
Addressing potential local adaptation in species distribution models: implications for conservation under climate change
Ecological Applications 15-0926.1.
Species distribution models (SDMs) have been criticized for involving assumptions that ignore or categorize many ecologically relevant factors such as dispersal ability and biotic interactions. Another potential source of model error is the assumption that species are ecologically uniform in their climatic tolerances across their range. Typically, SDMs to treat a species as a single entity, although populations of many species differ due to local adaptation or other genetic differentiation. Not taking local adaptation into account, may lead to incorrect range prediction and therefore misplaced conservation efforts. A constraint is that we often do not know the degree to which populations are locally adapted, however. Lacking experimental evidence, we still can evaluate niche differentiation within a species' range to promote better conservation decisions. We explore possible conservation implications of making type I or type II errors in this context. For each of two species, we construct three separate M...
Keywords: Lycaeides melissa samuelis, Primula nutans var. finmarchica, biodiversity management, conservation effectiveness, environmental niche models, intraspecific variation, model uncertainty, translocation
Pellissier L, Eidesen P, Ehrich D, Descombes P, Schönswetter P, Tribsch A et al. (2015)
Journal of Biogeography.
Aim High intra-specific genetic diversity is necessary for species adaptation to novel environments under climate change, but species tracking suitable conditions are losing alleles through successive founder events during range shift. Here, we investigated the relationship between range shift since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and extant population genetic diversity across multiple plant species to understand variability in species responses. Location: The circumpolar Arctic and northern temperate alpine ranges. Methods: We estimated the climatic niches of 30 cold-adapted plant species using range maps coupled with species distribution models and hindcasted species suitable areas to reconstructions of the mid-Holocene and LGM climates. We computed the species-specific migration distances from the species glacial refugia to their current distribution and correlated distances to extant genetic diversity in 1295 populations. Differential responses among species were related to life-history traits. Results: We found a negative association between inferred migration distances from refugia and genetic diversities in 25 species, but only 11 had statistically significant negative slopes. The relationships between inferred distance and population genetic diversity were steeper for insect-pollinated species than wind-pollinated species, but the difference among pollination system was marginally independent from phylogenetic autocorrelation. Main conclusion: The relationships between inferred migration distances and genetic diversities in 11 species, independent from current isolation, indicate that past range shifts were associated with a genetic bottleneck effect with an average of 21% loss of genetic diversity per 1000 km−1. In contrast, the absence of relationship in many species also indicates that the response is species specific and may be modulated by plant pollination strategies or result from more complex historical contingencies than those modelled here.
Keywords: Arctic plants, Last Glacial Maximum, climate change, climatic niche, migration, species distribution models
Wasof S, Lenoir J, Aarrestad P, Alsos I, Armbruster W, Austrheim G et al. (2015)
Global Ecology and Biogeography.
Aim Previous research on how climatic niches vary across species ranges has focused on a limited number of species, mostly invasive, and has not, to date, been very conclusive. Here we assess the degree of niche conservatism between distant populations of native alpine plant species that have been separated for thousands of years. Location European Alps and Fennoscandia. Methods Of the studied pool of 888 terrestrial vascular plant species occurring in both the Alps and Fennoscandia, we used two complementary approaches to test and quantify climatic-niche shifts for 31 species having strictly disjunct populations and 358 species having either a contiguous or a patchy distribution with distant populations. First, we used species distribution modelling to test for a region effect on each species' climatic niche. Second, we quantified niche overlap and shifts in niche width (i.e. ecological amplitude) and position (i.e. ecological optimum) within a bi-dimensional climatic space. Results Only one species (3%) of the 31 species with strictly disjunct populations and 58 species (16%) of the 358 species with distant populations showed a region effect on their climatic niche. Niche overlap was higher for species with strictly disjunct populations than for species with distant populations and highest for arctic–alpine species. Climatic niches were, on average, wider and located towards warmer and wetter conditions in the Alps. Main conclusion Climatic niches seem to be generally conserved between populations that are separated between the Alps and Fennoscandia and have probably been so for 10,000–15,000 years. Therefore, the basic assumption of species distribution models that a species' climatic niche is constant in space and time – at least on time scales 104 years or less – seems to be largely valid for arctic–alpine plants.
Keywords: Alpine plants, arctic plants, climatic niche, disjunct distribution, distant populations, niche conservatism, niche optimum, niche overlap, niche width, species distribution modelling
Brito J, Godinho R, Martínez-Freiría F, Pleguezuelos J, Rebelo H, Santos X et al. (2014)
Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 89(1) 215-31.
Deserts and arid regions are generally perceived as bare and rather homogeneous areas of low diversity. The Sahara is the largest warm desert in the world and together with the arid Sahel displays high topographical and climatic heterogeneity, and has experienced recent and strong climatic oscillations that have greatly shifted biodiversity distribution and community composition. The large size, remoteness and long-term political instability of the Sahara-Sahel, have limited knowledge on its biodiversity. However, over the last decade, there have been an increasing number of published scientific studies based on modern geomatic and molecular tools, and broad sampling of taxa of these regions. This review tracks trends in knowledge about biodiversity patterns, processes and threats across the Sahara-Sahel, and anticipates needs for biodiversity research and conservation. Recent studies are changing completely the perception of regional biodiversity patterns. Instead of relatively low species diversity with distribution covering most of the region, studies now suggest a high rate of endemism and larger number of species, with much narrower and fragmented ranges, frequently limited to micro-hotspots of biodiversity. Molecular-based studies are also unravelling cryptic diversity associated with mountains, which together with recent distribution atlases, allows identifying integrative biogeographic patterns in biodiversity distribution. Mapping of multivariate environmental variation (at 1 km × 1 km resolution) of the region illustrates main biogeographical features of the Sahara-Sahel and supports recently hypothesised dispersal corridors and refugia. Micro-scale water-features present mostly in mountains have been associated with local biodiversity hotspots. However, the distribution of available data on vertebrates highlights current knowledge gaps that still apply to a large proportion of the Sahara-Sahel. Current research is providing insights into key evolutionary and ecological processes, including causes and timing of radiation and divergence for multiple taxa, and associating the onset of the Sahara with diversification processes for low-mobility vertebrates. Examples of phylogeographic patterns are showing the importance of allopatric speciation in the Sahara-Sahel, and this review presents a synthetic overview of the most commonly hypothesised diversification mechanisms. Studies are also stressing that biodiversity is threatened by increasing human activities in the region, including overhunting and natural resources prospection, and in the future by predicted global warming. A representation of areas of conflict, landmines, and natural resources extraction illustrates how human activities and regional insecurity are hampering biodiversity research and conservation. Although there are still numerous knowledge gaps for the optimised conservation of biodiversity in the region, a set of research priorities is provided to identify the framework data needed to support regional conservation planning.
Keywords: Africa, Sahara, Sahel, biodiversity, climate change, conservation, deserts, distribution, diversification, phylogeography
Mathew C, Güntsch A, Obst M, Vicario S, Haines R, Williams A et al. (2014)
Biodiversity Data Journal 2(2) e4221.
The compilation and cleaning of data needed for analyses and prediction of species distributions is a time consuming process requiring a solid understanding of data formats and service APIs provided by biodiversity informatics infrastructures. We designed and implemented a Taverna-based Data Refinement Workflow which integrates taxonomic data retrieval, data cleaning, and data selection into a consistent, standards-based, and effective system hiding the complexity of underlying service infrastructures. The workflow can be freely used both locally and through a web-portal which does not require additional software installations by users.
Keywords: biodiversity informatics, data cleaning, e-Science, service oriented architecture, web services, workflows
Meller L, Cabeza M, Pironon S, Barbet-Massin M, Maiorano L, Georges D et al. (2014)
Ensemble distribution models in conservation prioritization: from consensus predictions to consensus reserve networks.
Diversity & distributions 20(3) 309-321.
AIM: Conservation planning exercises increasingly rely on species distributions predicted either from one particular statistical model or, more recently, from an ensemble of models (i.e. ensemble forecasting). However, it has not yet been explored how different ways of summarizing ensemble predictions affect conservation planning outcomes. We evaluate these effects and compare commonplace consensus methods, applied before the conservation prioritization phase, to a novel method that applies consensus after reserve selection. LOCATION: Europe. METHODS: We used an ensemble of predicted distributions of 146 Western Palaearctic bird species in alternative ways: four different consensus methods, as well as distributions discounted with variability, were used to produce inputs for spatial conservation prioritization. In addition, we developed and tested a novel method, in which we built 100 datasets by sampling the ensemble of predicted distributions, ran a conservation prioritization analysis on each of them and averaged the resulting priority ranks. We evaluated the conservation outcome against three controls: (i) a null control, based on random ranking of cells; (2) the reference solution, based on an expert-refined dataset; and (3) the independent solution, based on an independent dataset. RESULTS: Networks based on predicted distributions were more representative of rare species than randomly selected networks. Alternative methods to summarize ensemble predictions differed in representativeness of resulting reserve networks. Our novel method resulted in better representation of rare species than pre-selection consensus methods. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Retaining information about the variation in the predicted distributions throughout the conservation prioritization seems to provide better results than summarizing the predictions before conservation prioritization. Our results highlight the need to understand and consider model-based uncertainty when using predicted distribution data in conservation prioritization.
Keywords: consensus predictions, conservation planning, efficiency, optimization, rare species, systematic, uncertainty
Nuutinen V, Butt K, Jauhiainen L, Shipitalo M, Sirén T (2014)
Dew-worms in white nights: High-latitude light constrains earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) behaviour at the soil surface
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 72 66-74.
Soil is an effective barrier to light penetration that limits the direct influence of light on belowground organisms. Variation in aboveground light conditions, however, is important to soil-dwelling animals that are periodically active on the soil surface. A prime example is the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. (the dew-worm), an ecosystem engineer that emerges nocturnally on the soil surface. In the summer, the northernmost populations of L. terrestris are exposed to a time interval with no daily dark period. During a two-week period preceding the summer solstice, we studied the constraints that boreal night illumination imposes on L. terrestris surface activity by comparing their behaviour under ambient light with artificially-induced darkness. Looking for evidence of geographical divergence in light response, we compared the behaviour of native L. terrestris (Jokioinen, S–W Finland; 60°48′N) with two markedly more southern populations, from Preston (Lancashire, UK; 53°47′N) and Coshocton (Ohio, USA; 40°22′N) where the nights have a period of darkness throughout the year (total latitudinal range ca. 2300 km). Under ambient light conditions, L. terrestris emergence on the soil surface was diminished by half compared with the darkened treatment and it peaked at the darkest period of the night. Also mating rate decreased considerably under ambient light. The native dew-worms were generally the most active under ambient light. They emerged earlier in the evening and ceased their activity later in the morning than dew-worms from the two more southerly populations. The differences in behaviour were, however, significant mainly between native and UK dew-worms. In the darkened treatment, the behaviour of the three earthworm origins did not differ. Under the experimental conditions light condition was the dominant environmental factor controlling surface activity, but elevated night-time air temperature and humidity also encouraged dew-worm emergence without discernible differences among geographical origins. Our results show, that in boreal summer, the high level of night illumination strongly limits soil-surface activity of dew-worms. Considering the important regulatory role of L. terrestris in many ecosystem processes, this can have significant corollaries in dew-worm impacts on the environment. Although evidence for geographical differentiation in behaviour was obtained, the results point to phenotypic flexibility in L. terrestris light response.
Keywords: consensus predictions, conservation planning, efficiency, optimization, rare species, systematic, uncertainty
Virtanen R (2014)
Global Ecology and Biogeography 23(6) 610-619.
Aim: Ecological theory provides divergent views about how patterns of bryophyte occurrence are related from local to global scales. Here, I test the hypotheses that, based on the high dispersal capacity of bryophytes, patterns of occurrence are similar fromlocal to global scales and independent of variation in diaspore and size traits, or alternatively that the patterns are dissimilar and depend on traits that are important for dispersal and competition. Location: Global. Methods: The occurrence patterns of 28 bryophyte species and their relationship to diaspore and shoot size were analysed for three study systems: (1) a local metacommunity on erratic calcareous boulders; (2) a regional study system in the biogeographical provinces of the Nordic countries; and (3) based on data available from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Results: Contrary to expectations, bryophyte occurrence was not similar among local or global study systems, but regional occurrences matched both local and global occurrences. Contrary to neutral theoretical assumptions, the occurrences depended on traits. In the local metacommunity, there was a tendency towards a negative relationship between occurrence and diaspore size: small and large species tended to be rare, whereas species of intermediate size tended to be widespread. In the regional study system, species with large diaspores tended to be widespread, with frequency of occurrence positively correlated with shoot length. Main conclusions: In contrast to patterns detected for micro-organisms, local and global frequencies of occurrence for bryophytes are not necessarily similar. However, occurrences at the regional scale may be useful for predicting both local and global occurrences. Links between species traits important for dispersal and competition on the one hand, and occurrences on the other, supports the utility of these traits for the analysis of distributions and questions the adequacy of assump- tions of functional equivalence.
Keywords: Dispersal, GBIF, occupancy, rarity, size, spore