Uses of GBIF in scientific research

Peer-reviewed research citing GBIF as a data source, with at least one author from Ecuador.
Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.

List of publications

  • Andújar, C., Arribas, P., Ruiz, C., Serrano, J., Gómez-Zurita, J., 2014.

    Integration of conflict into integrative taxonomy: fitting hybridization in species delimitation of Mesocarabus (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Molecular Ecology 23(17) 4344-61.

    In species differentiation, characters may not diverge synchronously, and there are also processes that shuffle character states in lineages descendant from a common ancestor. Species are thus expected to show some degree of incongruence among characters; therefore, taxonomic delimitation can benefit from integrative approaches and objective strategies that account for character conflict. We illustrate the potential of exploiting conflict for species delimitation in a study case of ground beetles of the subgenus Carabus (Mesocarabus), where traditional taxonomy does not accurately delimit species. The molecular phylogenies of four mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, cladistic analysis of the aedeagus, ecological niche divergence and morphometry of pronotal shape in more than 500 specimens of Mesocarabus show that these characters are not fully congruent. For these data, a three-step operational strategy is proposed for species delimitation by (i) delineating candidate species based on the integration of incongruence among conclusive lines of evidence, (ii) corroborating candidate species with inconclusive lines of evidence and (iii) refining a final species proposal based on an integrated characterization of candidate species based on the evolutionary analysis of incongruence. This procedure provided a general understanding of the reticulate process of hybridization and introgression acting on Mesocarabus and generated the hypothesis of seven Mesocarabus species, including two putative hybrid lineages. Our work emphasizes the importance of incorporating critical analyses of character and phylogenetic conflict to infer both the evolutionary history and species boundaries through an integrative taxonomic approach.

    Keywords: Animals, Bayes Theorem, Beetles, Beetles: classification, Beetles: genetics, Cell Nucleus, Cell Nucleus: genetics, DNA, Genetic, Genetic Speciation, Hybridization, Likelihood Functions, Mitochondrial, Mitochondrial: genetics, Models, Phylogeny, Sequence Analysis


  • Fajardo, J., Lessmann, J., Bonaccorso, E., Devenish, C., Muñoz, J., 2014.

    Combined use of systematic conservation planning, species distribution modelling, and connectivity analysis reveals severe conservation gaps in a megadiverse country (peru).

    PloS one 9(12) e114367.

    Conservation planning is crucial for megadiverse countries where biodiversity is coupled with incomplete reserve systems and limited resources to invest in conservation. Using Peru as an example of a megadiverse country, we asked whether the national system of protected areas satisfies biodiversity conservation needs. Further, to complement the existing reserve system, we identified and prioritized potential conservation areas using a combination of species distribution modeling, conservation planning and connectivity analysis. Based on a set of 2,869 species, including mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, butterflies, and plants, we used species distribution models to represent species' geographic ranges to reduce the effect of biased sampling and partial knowledge about species' distributions. A site-selection algorithm then searched for efficient and complementary proposals, based on the above distributions, for a more representative system of protection. Finally, we incorporated connectivity among areas in an innovative post-hoc analysis to prioritize those areas maximizing connectivity within the system. Our results highlight severe conservation gaps in the Coastal and Andean regions, and we propose several areas, which are not currently covered by the existing network of protected areas. Our approach helps to find areas that contribute to creating a more representative, connected and efficient network.

    Keywords: Peru, amphibians, biodiversity, birds, conservation scince, endangered species, mammals, reptiles


  • Ramirez-Villegas, J., Cuesta, F., Devenish, C., Peralvo, M., Jarvis, A., Arnillas, C., 2014.

    Using species distributions models for designing conservation strategies of Tropical Andean biodiversity under climate change

    Journal for Nature Conservation Forthcoming.

    Biodiversity in the Tropical Andes is under continuous threat from anthropogenic activities. Projected changes in climate will likely exacerbate this situation. Using species distribution models, we assess possible future changes in the diversity and climatic niche size of an unprecedented number of species for the region. We modeled a broad range of taxa (11,012 species of birds and vascular plants), including both endemic and widespread species and provide a comprehensive estimation of climate change impacts on the Andes. We find that if no dispersal is assumed, by 2050s, more than 50% of the species studied are projected to undergo reductions of at least 45% in their climatic niche, whilst 10% of species could be extinct. Even assuming unlimited dispersal, most of the Andean endemics (comprising ∼5% of our dataset) would become severely threatened (>50% climatic niche loss). While some areas appear to be climatically stable (e.g. Pichincha and Imbabura in Ecuador; and Nariño, Cauca, Valle del Cauca and Putumayo in Colombia) and hence depict little diversity loss and/or potential species gains, major negative impacts were also observed. Tropical high Andean grasslands (páramos and punas) and evergreen montane forests, two key ecosystems for the provision of environmental services in the region, are projected to experience negative changes in species richness and high rates of species turnover. Adapting to these impacts would require a landscape-network based approach to conservation, including protected areas, their buffer zones and corridors. A central aspect of such network is the implementation of an integrated landscape management approach based on sustainable management and restoration practices covering wider areas than currently contemplated.

    Keywords: Andes, Biodiversity, Climate change, Climatic niche, Conservation, Maxent, Threats


  • Salas, J., Burneo, S., Viteri H., F., Carvajal M., R., 2014.

    First record of the pale-faced bat Phylloderma stenops Peters 1865 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in the province of Guayas, Southwest Ecuador

    Check List 10(5) 1218-1222.

    We report the first record of Phylloderma stenops in the province of Guayas, Ecuador. The specimen was captured in a heavily disturbed area, surrounded by small remnants of semi-deciduous lowland forests. We also present a predictive distribution map, constructed with the new and existing information for P. stenops in Ecuador and other countries in South America, showing that this species may occur in other areas where it has not yet been observed.

    Keywords: Andes, Biodiversity, Climate change, Climatic niche, Conservation, Maxent, Threats


  • Sánchez-Guillén, R., Muñoz, J., Hafernik, J., Tierney, M., Rodriguez-Tapia, G., Córdoba-Aguilar, A., 2014.

    Hybridization rate and climate change: are endangered species at risk?

    Journal of Insect Conservation 18(3) 295-305.

    Many species are altering their geographic range due to climate change creating new sympatric populations of otherwise allopatric populations. We investigated whether climate change will affect the distribution and thus the pattern of hybridization between two pairs of closely related damselfly species [Ischnura damula and I. demorsa, and I. denticollis and I. gemina (this, an endan- gered species)]. Thus, we estimated the strength of pre and postmating reproductive barriers between both pairs of species, and we predicted future potential distribution under four different Global Circulation Models and a realistic emissions scenario of climate change by using maximum entropy modelling technique. Our results showed that reproductive isolation (RI) is complete in I. damula 9 I. demorsa individuals: F1 (first generation) hybrids are produced but do not reach sexual maturation. However, RI in I. denticollis 9 I. gemina hybrids is high but incomplete and unidirectional: only I. gemina females produced F1 hybrids which mate with males and females of I. denticollis and between them producing BC1 (back- crosses) and F2 (second generation) viable hybrids. Maximum entropy models revealed a northern and westward shift and a general reduction of the potential geographic ranges. Based on the pattern of hybridization, for I. damula and I. demorsa there is a current threat as well as a rapid displacement and/or extinction of I. gemina by I. denticollis. However, the current pattern of extinction may not continue due to the contraction in ranges of the four species.

    Keywords: Climate change, Displacement and extinction, Hybridization and introgression, MAXENT, Range shifts, Sympatric distributions


  • Mateo, R., Vanderpoorten, A., Muñoz, J., Laenen, B., Désamoré, A., 2013.

    Modeling species distributions from heterogeneous data for the biogeographic regionalization of the European bryophyte flora

    PLoS ONE 8(2) e55648.

    The definition of biogeographic regions provides a fundamental framework for a range of basic and applied questions in biogeography, evolutionary biology, systematics and conservation. Previous research suggested that environmental forcing results in highly congruent regionalization patterns across taxa, but that the size and number of regions depends on the dispersal ability of the taxa considered. We produced a biogeographic regionalization of European bryophytes and hypothesized that (1) regions defined for bryophytes would differ from those defined for other taxa due to the highly specific eco-physiology of the group and (2) their high dispersal ability would result in the resolution of few, large regions. Species distributions were recorded using 10,000 km(2) MGRS pixels. Because of the lack of data across large portions of the area, species distribution models employing macroclimatic variables as predictors were used to determine the potential composition of empty pixels. K-means clustering analyses of the pixels based on their potential species composition were employed to define biogeographic regions. The optimal number of regions was determined by v-fold cross-validation and Moran's I statistic. The spatial congruence of the regions identified from their potential bryophyte assemblages with large-scale vegetation patterns is at odds with our primary hypothesis. This reinforces the notion that post-glacial migration patterns might have been much more similar in bryophytes and vascular plants than previously thought. The substantially lower optimal number of clusters and the absence of nested patterns within the main biogeographic regions, as compared to identical analyses in vascular plants, support our second hypothesis. The modelling approach implemented here is, however, based on many assumptions that are discussed but can only be tested when additional data on species distributions become available, highlighting the substantial importance of developing integrated mapping projects for all taxa in key biogeographically areas of Europe, and the Mediterranean peninsulas in particular.

    Keywords: Climate change, Displacement and extinction, Hybridization and introgression, MAXENT, Range shifts, Sympatric distributions


  • Salas, J., H., F., M., M., H., V., M., R., 2013.

    Distribution extension of Proboscis bat Rhynchonycteris naso record for southwestern Ecuador

    Check List 9(5) 1054-1056.

    We report the first confirmed record of Rhynchonycteris naso in southwestern Ecuador. We observed a colony of about 10 individuals roosting under a bridge of a water reservoir that was surrounded by sugar cane crops and located in Naranjito in the Province of Guayas. This is a heavily disturbed area with small remnants of humid evergreen forest in the lowlands of the Ecuadorian coast. This record constitutes a new locality of Rhychonycteris naso for the Guayas province in a different type of vegetation and habitat from previous records for this species in Ecuador and it represents the southwesternmost record for Ecuador and South America. Rhynchonycteris

    Keywords: Climate change, Displacement and extinction, Hybridization and introgression, MAXENT, Range shifts, Sympatric distributions


  • Sánchez-Guillén, R., Muñoz, J., Rodríguez-Tapia, G., Feria Arroyo, T., Córdoba-Aguilar, A., 2013.

    Climate-Induced Range Shifts and Possible Hybridisation Consequences in Insects

    PLoS ONE 8(11) e80531.

    Many ectotherms have altered their geographic ranges in response to rising global temperatures. Current range shifts will likely increase the sympatry and hybridisation between recently diverged species. Here we predict future sympatric distributions and risk of hybridisation in seven Mediterranean ischnurid damselfly species (I. elegans, I. fountaineae, I. genei, I. graellsii, I. pumilio, I. saharensis and I. senegalensis). We used a maximum entropy modelling technique to predict future potential distribution under four different Global Circulation Models and a realistic emissions scenario of climate change. We carried out a comprehensive data compilation of reproductive isolation (habitat, temporal, sexual, mechanical and gametic) between the seven studied species. Combining the potential distribution and data of reproductive isolation at different instances (habitat, temporal, sexual, mechanical and gametic), we infer the risk of hybridisation in these insects. Our findings showed that all but I. graellsii will decrease in distributional extent and all species except I. senegalensis are predicted to have northern range shifts. Models of potential distribution predicted an increase of the likely overlapping ranges for 12 species combinations, out of a total of 42 combinations, 10 of which currently overlap. Moreover, the lack of complete reproductive isolation and the patterns of hybridisation detected between closely related ischnurids, could lead to local extinctions of native species if the hybrids or the introgressed colonising species become more successful.

    Keywords: Climate change, Displacement and extinction, Hybridization and introgression, MAXENT, Range shifts, Sympatric distributions


  • Iñiguez, C., Morejón, F., 2012.

    Potential Distribution of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates Catesbeianus) in Ecuador

    South American Journal of Herpetology 7(2) 85-90.

    The American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) is a native species from eastern North America that was introduced to Ecuador in 1985. We built two models in Maxent, (1) one model with native records and, (2) one model with native and invasive records, to provide an approximate map of the potential geographical distribution for this species in Ecuador. Both models showed significant differences in the prediction of suitable areas, model 2 being the most consistent in relation to occurrence records. Here, we present the invasive potential of the American bullfrog to occupy a wide variety of environments such as Amazonia, if human activities lead to an accidental or induced introduction. Furthermore, this study is the first survey about the distribution of the American bullfrog in Ecuador, thus identifying some susceptible areas where conservation efforts should be focused to prevent new settlements and uncontrolled breeding of this species.

    Keywords: Ecuador, Invasive potential, Invasive species, Lithobates catesbeianus, Potential distribution modeling


  • Cajo, D., 2011.

    Modelos de distribución de especies y su aplicación para la gestión de territorio

    Teledetección 2011 48-57.

    Modeling was performed for the species Triatoma dimidiata, Chagas disease vector, through the application of four ecological modeling techniques: Logistic regression, DOMAIN, BIOCLIM and Maxent, which were evaluated using the statistical test that determined AUC ecological model that best fits the bioclimatic skills areas where the species is distributed. As the logistic regression showed higher specificity (0.8), it was used to make a distribution of ranks in order to assign categorical values determining the area with greater suitability for the presence of the species. We also performed an application of this model for the management of land as a tool of medical entomology, using the geographical area with very high suitability as a limit within which are the rural villages where you should make compañas prevention to avoid massive infection of this disease.

    Keywords: Ecuador, Invasive potential, Invasive species, Lithobates catesbeianus, Potential distribution modeling