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Arango S, Obando R, Aldrete A (2017)
New species of Prolachesilla Mockford &amp; Sullivan (Psocodea: ‘Psocoptera’: Lachesillidae: Graphocaeciliini) from Bolivia and Mexico
Zootaxa 4244(3) 440.
The genus Prolachesilla Mockford & Sullivan presently includes nine species, all described when the genus was erected; since then, no other species have been discovered. Here, we describe and illustrate one Bolivian and three Mexican species. This is the first record of Prolachesilla from Bolivia. A key to the species of the genus is included.
Keywords: Cochabamba, Oaxaca, neotropics, sympatry, taxonomy
Aguirre-Santoro J (2017)
Taxonomy of the Ronnbergia Alliance (Bromeliaceae: Bromelioideae): new combinations, synopsis, and new circumscriptions of Ronnbergia and the resurrected genus Wittmackia
Plant Systematics and Evolution 1-26.
The Ronnbergia Alliance is a recently described lineage composed of two highly supported and identifiable clades with strong geographic correlation: the Pacific and the Atlantic clades. These clades, however, are composed by species currently placed in the polyphyletic genera Aechmea, Hohenbergia, and Ronnbergia. This study aims to reorganize the species that comprise both the Pacific and Atlantic clades into stable and predictable taxonomic categories. In this context, the 26 species that compose the Pacific clade are here circumscribed in the genus Ronnbergia, whereas the 44 species grouped in the Atlantic clade are assigned to the resurrected genus Wittmackia. An updated circumscription of these two genera is presented, including a taxonomic key to recognize the species. Additionally, the respective taxonomic transferences and general information to the species are presented in the form of a synopsis. This taxonomic treatment will facilitate future approaches on the study of the systematics, conservation, and evolution of the Ronnbergia Alliance.
Keywords: Atlantic Forest, Caribbean, Chocó-Darién region, Ronnbergia, Wittmackia
Avendaño J, Arbeláez-Cortés E, Cadena C (2017)
On the importance of geographic and taxonomic sampling in phylogeography: A reevaluation of diversification and species limits in a Neotropical thrush (Aves, Turdidae)
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.
Phylogeographic studies seeking to describe biogeographic patterns, infer evolutionary processes, and revise species-level classification should properly characterize the distribution ranges of study species, and thoroughly sample genetic variation across taxa and geography. This is particularly necessary for widely distributed organisms occurring in complex landscapes, such as the Neotropical region. Here, we clarify the geographic range and revisit the phylogeography of the Black-billed Thrush (Turdus ignobilis), a common passerine bird from lowland tropical South America, whose evolutionary relationships and species limits were recently evaluated employing phylogeographic analyses based on partial knowledge of its distribution and incomplete sampling of populations. Our work employing mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences sampled all named subspecies and multiple populations across northern South America, and uncovered patterns not apparent in earlier work, including a biogeographic interplay between the Amazon and Orinoco basins and the occurrence of distinct lineages with seemingly different habitat affinities in regional sympatry in the Colombian Amazon. In addition, we found that previous inferences about the affinities and taxonomic status of Andean populations assumed to be allied to populations from the Pantepui region were incorrect, implying that inferred biogeographic and taxonomic scenarios need re-evaluation. We propose a new taxonomic treatment, which recognizes two distinct biological species in the group. Our findings illustrate the importance of sufficient taxon and geographic sampling to reconstruct evolutionary history and to evaluate species limits among Neotropical organisms. Considering the scope of the questions asked, advances in Neotropical phylogeography will often require substantial cross-country scientific collaboration.
Keywords: Colombia, Turdus ignobilis, biogeography, phylogenetic accuracy, taxon sampling, taxonomy
Correa Ayram C, Mendoza M, Etter A, Pérez Salicrup D (2017)
Anthropogenic impact on habitat connectivity: A multidimensional human footprint index evaluated in a highly biodiverse landscape of Mexico
Ecological Indicators 72 895-909.
Evaluating the cumulative effects of the human footprint on landscape connectivity is crucial for implementing policies for the appropriate management and conservation of landscapes. We present an adjusted multidimensional spatial human footprint index (SHFI) to analyze the effects of landscape transformation on the remnant habitat connectivity for 40 terrestrial mammal species representative of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic System in Michoacán (TMVSMich), in western central Mexico. We adjusted the SHFI by adding fragmentation and habitat loss to its original three components: land use intensity, time of human landscape intervention, and biophysical vulnerability. The adjusted SHFI was applied to four scenarios: one grouping all species and three grouping several species by habitat spatial requirements. Using the SHFI as a dispersal resistance surface and applying a circuit theory based approach, we analyzed the effects of cumulative human impact on habitat connectivity in the different scenarios. For evaluating the relationship between habitat loss and connectivity, we applied graph theory-based equivalent connected area (ECA) index. Results show over 60% of the TMVSMich has high SHFI values, considerably lowering current flow for all species. Nevertheless, the effect on connectivity of human impact is higher for species with limited dispersal capacity (100–500m). Our approach provides a new form of evaluating human impact on habitat connectivity that can be applied to different scales and landscapes. Furthermore, the approach is useful for guiding discussions and implementing future biodiversity conservation initiatives that promote landscape connectivity as an adaptive strategy for climate change.
Keywords: Cumulative human impact, Habitat connectivity, Mexico, Multi-species
Restrepo A, Velasco JA D (2017)
Extinction risk or lack of sampling in a threatened species: Genetic structure and environmental suitability of the neotropical frog Pristimantis penelopus (Anura: …
Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 57(1) 1-15.
IUCN Red Lists have been a valuable tool to prioritize conservation plans in endemic neo- tropical frogs. However, many areas in this region are poorly known in terms of their diversity and endemism. Based on examined museum specimens of the threatened species Pristimantis penelopus we revised its geographic distribution and determined the habitat suitability using niche modeling techniques. Using a mitochondrial fragment of COI gene, we determine the phylogenetic position and the extent of the genetic variation across its distribution in Colombia. We present the first records of P. penelopus for the Cordillera Oriental, the western versant of Cordillera Occidental and the northern portion of the Cauca river basin. Based on the molecu- lar phylogenetic analysis, Pristimantis penelopus belongs to the P. ridens series sensu Padial et al. (2014). The mean of intraspecific genetic variation is 2.1% and the variation among population ranges between 2.3 and 3.5%. The genetic distance between the western popu- lations and the Magdalena Valley populations suggests a potential phylogeographic break in northwestern Antioquia. We expand the realized distribution by 258 kilometers north, 200 km east and 223 km northwest. Based on our results and according to the IUCN criteria we pro- pose a new category for the species and highlight the need to increase the surveys in poorly known regions to better understand the geographic distribution and conservation status of listed species.
Keywords: Colombia, IUCN Red List, Niche modeling, Phylogeography, Terrarana
Santos-silva A, Botero J, Taboada-verona C, Taboada-verona C (2017)
Zootaxa 4250(5) 494.
Currently, Psyrassa Pascoe, 1866 includes 37 species distributed mainly in southern United States to Central America (Monné 2016; Tavakilian and Chevillotte 2016). Only four species occur in northern South America: P. meridionalis Martins, 2005 (Ecuador); P. rufescens Nonfried, 1894 (Brazil); P. testacea Linsley, 1935 (Colombia, Venezuela, French Guiana); and P. subglabra Linsley, 1935 (Ecuador).
Keywords: Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Coleoptera
Trujillo-Arias N, Dantas G, Arbeláez-Cortés E, Naoki K, Gómez M, Santos F et al. (2017)
The niche and phylogeography of a passerine reveal the history of biological diversification between the Andean and the Atlantic forests
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.
The Atlantic Forest is separated from the Andean tropical forest by dry and open vegetation biomes (Chaco and Cerrado). Despite this isolation, both rainforests share closely related lineages, which suggest a past connection. This connection could have been important for forest taxa evolution. In this study, we used the Saffron-billed Sparrow (Arremon flavirostris) as a model to evaluate whether the Andean and the Atlantic forests act as a refugia system, as well as to test for a history of biogeographic connection between them. In addition, we evaluated the molecular systematic of intraspecific lineages of the studied species. We modeled the current and past distribution of A. flavirostris, performed phylogeographic analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and used Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) analyses to test for biogeographic scenarios. The major phylogeographic disjunction within A. flavirostris was found between the Andean and the Atlantic forests, with a divergence that occurred during the Mid-Pleistocene. Our paleodistribution models indicated a connection between these forest domains in different periods and through both the Chaco and Cerrado. Additionally, the phylogeographic and ABC analyses supported that the Cerrado was the main route of connection between these rainforests, but without giving decisive evidence against a Chaco connection. Our study with A. flavirostris suggest that the biodiversity of the Andean and of the Atlantic forests could have been impacted (and perhaps enriched?) by cycles of connections through the Cerrado and Chaco. This recurrent cycle of connection between the Andean and the Atlantic Forest could have been important for the evolution of Neotropical forest taxa. In addition, we discussed taxonomic implications of the results and proposed to split the studied taxon into two full species.
Keywords: Andean forest, Approximate Bayesian Computation, Atlantic Forest, Cerrado, Chaco, gallery forests
Alimi T, Fuller D, Herrera S, Arevalo-Herrera M, Quinones M, Stoler J et al. (2016)
BMC public health 16(1) 221.
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in South America has vastly improved in the past decade, leading to a decrease in the malaria burden. Despite the progress, large parts of the continent continue to be at risk of malaria transmission, especially in northern South America. The objectives of this study were to assess the risk of malaria transmission and vector exposure in northern South America using multi-criteria decision analysis. METHODS: The risk of malaria transmission and vector exposure in northern South America was assessed using multi-criteria decision analysis, in which expert opinions were taken on the key environmental and population risk factors. RESULTS: Results from our risk maps indicated areas of moderate-to-high risk along rivers in the Amazon basin, along the coasts of the Guianas, the Pacific coast of Colombia and northern Colombia, in parts of Peru and Bolivia and within the Brazilian Amazon. When validated with occurrence records for malaria, An. darlingi, An. albimanus and An. nuneztovari s.l., t-test results indicated that risk scores at occurrence locations were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than a control group of geographically random points. CONCLUSION: In this study, we produced risk maps based on expert opinion on the spatial representation of risk of potential vector exposure and malaria transmission. The findings provide information to the public health decision maker/policy makers to give additional attention to the spatial planning of effective vector control measures. Therefore, as the region tackles the challenge of malaria elimination, prioritizing areas for interventions by using spatially accurate, high-resolution (1 km or less) risk maps may guide targeted control and help reduce the disease burden in the region.
Keywords: Biostatistics, Environmental Health, Epidemiology, Medicine/Public Health, Public Health, Vaccine, general
Arias-Alzate A, González-Maya J, Arroyo-Cabrales J, Martínez-Meyer E (2016)
Wild Felid Range Shift Due to Climatic Constraints in the Americas: a Bottleneck Explanation for Extinct Felids?
Journal of Mammalian Evolution 1-12.
Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that the ecological niche of species tends to be conservative over evolutionary time in many taxonomic groups, thus representing long-term stable constraints on species geographic distributions. Using an ecological niche modeling approach, we assessed the impact of climatic change on wild felid species potential range shifts over the last 130 K years in the Americas and the potential of such shifts as an extinction driver. We found a significant range shift for most species (both living and extinct) across their distributions driven by large-scale environmental changes. Proportionally, the most drastic range increase for all species occurred in the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 18 K years)–Current transition, while for the Last Inter-Glacial (LIG: 130 K years)–LGM transition an important range reduction occurred, which was larger for extinct North American species. In conclusion, the reduction of climatically suitable areas for many species in the transition LIG–LGM may have produced population reductions, which, in turn, may have played an important role in species’ extinction throughout the continent.
Keywords: Bottlenecks, Ecological niche, Extinction, Felidae, Late Pleistocene, Range shift
Bacon C, Look S, Gutiérrez-Pinto N, Antonelli A, Tan H, Kumar P et al. (2016)
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society.
Four species are recognized in the understorey palm genus Johannesteijsmannia (Arecaceae), all of which occur in close geographical proximity in the Malay Peninsula. We hypothesize that overlapping distributions are maintained by a lack of gene flow among species and that segregation along morphological trait or environmental axes confers ecological divergence and, hence, defines species limits. Although some species have sympatric distributions, differentiation was detected among species in morphological and genetic data, corroborating current species delimitation. Differences in niche breadth were not found to explain the overlapping distribution and co-existence of Johannesteijsmannia spp. Four species formed over the last 3 Mya, showing that diversity accumulated within a short time frame and wide range expansion has not occurred, potentially due to a lack of time for dispersal or the evolution of traits to facilitate movement. An assessment of genetic diversity is presented and, as expected, the widest distribution in the genus harbours the highest genetic diversity.
Keywords: Malesia, Palmae, niche, phylogenetics, speciation