Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.
Abulizi A, Feng Z, Yang J Z (2015)
Invasion of the Himalayan hotspot by Acacia farnesiana: how the human footprint influences the potential distribution of alien species
Current Science 109(1) 183-189.
The invasion of alien species in their non - native range has resulted i n inevitable consequences. Thus, the p o- tential distribution of alien species must be delineated to anticipate and reduce their negative effect on native ecosystems. The potential distribution can be pr e- dicted using invasive species distribution mo d els (iSD Ms). Thus far, few studies have investigated the human influence on the distribution of alien species when modelling their potential distribution. In the present study, we predict the potential distribution of Acacia farnesiana in the Himalayan hotspot usi ng a popular iSDM. The effect of human influence was studied by comparing the potential distribution pr e- dicted u s ing only bioclimatic variables and that using both bi o climatic and human footprint variables. We found that using both bioclimatic and human fo o t- print variables, the pote n tial distribution of target species could be 55.38% larger than that of u s ing only bioclimatic variables. This proves the positive effect of human activities on distribution of invasive species. Among the six considered bioclima tic variables, the mean temperature of the coldest quarter, the precip i- tation of the coldest quarter, and temperature seaso n- ality are the most influential factors in determining the potential distribution of A. farnes i ana .
Keywords: Air Pollution, Atmosphere, Bangladesh, Bhopal Gas Disaster, Bhutan, Biodiversity, Burma, Cities, Climate Change, Court, Dams, Deforestation, Districts, Drought, E-Waste, Environment, Environment Clearance, Environment Impact Assessment (EIA), Fisheries, Floods, Food Safety, Food Security, Forests, Forests Clearance, GM Crops, Government, Hazardous Waste, Health, Hospital Waste, India, Industry, Irrigation, Lakes, Lifestyles and Health, Livestock, MGNREGA, Maldives, Mining, National Green Tribunal (NGT), Natural Disasters, Nepal, Obesity, Ozone Layer, Pakistan, Pesticides, Pollution, Poverty, Public Transport, Renewable Energy, Rivers, Rural Development, Sanitation, Solar Energy, Solid Waste, South Asia, Sri Lanka, Sustainable Development, Toxins, Tribals, Urbanisation, Water Harvesting, Water Pollution, Water Supply, Western Ghats, Wildlife, Wind Energy
Ahrends A, Hollingsworth P, Ziegler A, Fox J, Chen H, Su Y et al. (2015)
Global Environmental Change 34 48-58.
The first decade of the new millennium saw a boom in rubber prices. This led to rapid and widespread land conversion to monoculture rubber plantations in continental SE Asia, where natural rubber production has increased >50% since 2000. Here, we analyze the subsequent spread of rubber between 2005 and 2010 in combination with environmental data and reports on rubber plantation performance. We show that rubber has been planted into increasingly sub-optimal environments. Currently, 72% of plantation area is in environmentally marginal zones where reduced yields are likely. An estimated 57% of the area is susceptible to insufficient water availability, erosion, frost, or wind damage, all of which may make long-term rubber production unsustainable. In 2013 typhoons destroyed plantations worth US$ >250 million in Vietnam alone, and future climate change is likely to lead to a net exacerbation of environmental marginality for both current and predicted future rubber plantation area. New rubber plantations are also frequently placed on lands that are important for biodiversity conservation and ecological functions. For example, between 2005 and 2010 >2500km2 of natural tree cover and 610km2 of protected areas were converted to plantations. Overall, expansion into marginal areas creates potential for loss-loss scenarios: clearing of high-biodiversity value land for economically unsustainable plantations that are poorly adapted to local conditions and alter landscape functions (e.g. hydrology, erosion) – ultimately compromising livelihoods, particularly when rubber prices fall.
Keywords: Biodiversity, Cash crops, Deforestation, Rubber, South East Asia
An M, Zeng L, Zhang T, Zhong Y (2015)
Phylogeography of Thlaspi arvense (Brassicaceae) in China Inferred from Chloroplast and Nuclear DNA Sequences and Ecological Niche Modeling.
International journal of molecular sciences 16(6) 13339-55.
Thlaspi arvense is a well-known annual farmland weed with worldwide distribution, which can be found from sea level to above 4000 m high on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). In this paper, a phylogeographic history of T. arvense including 19 populations from China was inferred by using three chloroplast (cp) DNA segments (trnL-trnF, rpl32-trnL and rps16) and one nuclear (n) DNA segment (Fe-regulated transporter-like protein, ZIP). A total of 11 chloroplast haplotypes and six nuclear alleles were identified, and haplotypes unique to the QTP were recognized (C4, C5, C7 and N4). On the basis of molecular dating, haplotypes C4, C5 and C7 have separated from others around 1.58 Ma for cpDNA, which corresponds to the QTP uplift. In addition, this article suggests that the T. arvense populations in China are a mixture of diverged subpopulations as inferred by hT/vT test (hT ≤ vT, cpDNA) and positive Tajima's D values (1.87, 0.05 < p < 0.10 for cpDNA and 3.37, p < 0.01 for nDNA). Multimodality mismatch distribution curves and a relatively large shared area of suitable environmental conditions between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as well as the present time recognized by MaxEnt software reject the sudden expansion population model.
Keywords: MaxEnt, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, admixture, molecular dating, population structure
Call A, Sun Y, Yu Y, Pearman P, Thomas D, Trigiano R et al. (2015)
Genetic structure and post-glacial expansion of Cornus florida L. (Cornaceae): integrative evidence from phylogeography, population demographic history, and species distribution modeling
Journal of Systematics and Evolution.
Repeated global climatic cooling and warming cycles during the Pleistocene played a major role in the distribution and evolution of the Earth biota. Here, we integrate phylogeography, coalescent-based Bayesian estimation of demographic history, and species distribution modeling (SDM) to understand the genetic patterns and biogeography of the flowering dogwood, Cornus florida subsp. florida L., since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Natural populations of the species are severely threatened by dogwood anthracnose. We genotyped 306 plants from 73 locations of the species across most of its native distribution with three DNA regions from the plastid genome, ndhF-rpl32, rps16 and trnQ-rps16. The genealogy and haplotype network reconstruction revealed two haplotype lineages diverging ≈3.70 million years ago. We detected no clear geographic structuring of genetic variation, although significant local structure appeared to be evident, likely due to a combination of substantial localized seed dispersal by small mammals and small population size/limited sampling at a location. The spatial distribution of haplotype frequencies, estimated population demographic history, and results from hindcasting analysis using SDM suggested refugia in southeastern North America and population reduction during the LGM, followed by rapid post-glacial expansion to the north. Forecasting analysis using SDM predicted range shifts to the north under ongoing global warming. Our results further suggested that gene flow via seed dispersal has been high but insufficient to counter the effect of genetic drift. This study demonstrates the benefit of integrating genetic data and species distribution modeling to obtain corroborative evidence in elucidating recent biogeographic history and understanding of genetic patterns and species evolution.
Keywords: Bayesian skyride plot, Cornus florida, LGM, phylogeography, plastid DNA, post-glacial range expansion, species distribution modeling
Egan A, Pan B (2015)
Phytotaxa 218(2) 147.
Pueraria stracheyi has long been recognized as erroneously placed in the genus Pueraria . Here we examined the history behind this collection, past hypotheses concerning its taxonomic affinities, and morphological and ecological comparisons with Shuteria and Apios carnea , wherein we conclude that Pueraria stracheyi represents a synonym of the latter.
Keywords: Eudicots, India, Leguminosae, Shuteria, Sir Richard Strachey, taxonomy
Escobar L, Awan M, Qiao H (2015)
Anthropogenic disturbance and habitat loss for the red-listed Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus): Using ecological niche modeling and nighttime light satellite imagery
Biological Conservation 191 400-407.
Habitat loss is a critical factor driving extinction of biodiversity worldwide, with models of future land use anticipating increases in rates of destruction of native habitats worldwide. The Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus) is a red-listed species with a broad geographic range that has been fragmented dramatically by land use change. Remaining populations of U. thibetanus occupy diverse habitats, ranging from highlands to coastal regions. We integrated ecological niche models (ENMs) with nighttime satellite imagery to identify areas suitable for U. thibetanus after anthropogenic alteration. We found that at least 10% of the potential distributional area for the species is not suitable owing to urban or suburban encroachment. U. thibetanus seems to persist in highland areas, characterized by low temperature and high precipitation, whereas humans concentrate in lowlands and less-extreme climatic conditions. ENMs based solely on climate frequently overestimate suitable areas available for species; nighttime light imagery offers a robust alternative to refining estimates of species' ranges, designing protected areas and corridors, prioritizing threatened species, and determining areas of human–wildlife conflict across broad areas. Our approach is transferable to other taxa and contexts, and should be considered in conservation planning and policy implementation.
Keywords: Disturbance, Ecological niche model, Habitat loss, Land use change, Nighttime lights, Ursus thibetanus
Fandohan A, Oduor A, Sodé A, Wu L, Cuni-Sanchez A, Assédé E et al. (2015)
Modeling vulnerability of protected areas to invasion by Chromolaena odorata under current and future climates
Ecosystem Health and Sustainability 1(6) art20.
Invasive plant species and climate change are among the biggest threats to the ecological integrity of many ecosystems, including those of protected areas. Effective management of invasive plants requires information regarding their spatial distributions. Using maximum entropy, we modeled habitat suitability for an invasive plant species Chromolaena odorata under current and future climatic conditions (HadGEM2-ES and MIROC5) in protected areas of four West African countries (Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Togo). Under current climatic conditions, approximately 73% of total land area within the protected areas was suitable for colonization by C. odorata. Under future climate projections, the total area of suitable habitats for this invasive plant was projected to decrease by 7–9% (HadGEM2-ES) and 12–14% (MIROC5). Country-specific patterns suggest that major protected areas in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana will be more vulnerable to invasion by C. odorata than those in Benin and Togo under both current and futu...
Keywords: Chromolaena odorata, HadGEM2-ES, MIROC5, Siam weed, West Africa, climate change, maximum entropy, representative concentration pathways, risk assessment
Li S, Mao L, Spicer R, Lebreton-Anberrée J, Su T, Sun M et al. (2015)
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 425 14-40.
To better understand vegetation dynamics and the Asian monsoonal climate in the Neogene, we reconstructed the vegetational succession and climate of Wenshan basin in southwestern China during the late Miocene (11.62–5.33Ma). We used newly available palynological data and the results of a quantitative bioclimatic analysis. The late Miocene palynoflora in Wenshan basin resembles that of modern evergreen broadleaf vegetation in subtropical East Asia. Based on pollen elements and reconstructed palaeoclimates in 72 samples, we found the composition of the vegetation in the Wenshan basin fluctuated during the late Miocene and was likely driven by natural climate variability. Quantitative estimates suggest that the mean annual temperature (MAT) ranged from 16.6 to 17.5°C; the mean annual precipitation (MAP) was ~1500mm; and the monsoon intensity index (MSI) ranged from 11.3 to 17.1. Our results indicate that the Wenshan basin experienced a warm, wet, and temperate to subtropical climate. By comparison with other late Miocene sites in Yunnan, we show that temperatures differed slightly from region to region and, overall, annual and seasonal precipitation levels were higher in the late Miocene than at present, but with a weaker monsoon intensity than in the Wenshan basin today.
Keywords: China, Miocene, Monsoon, Palaeoclimate, Pollen, Vegetation dynamics
Li X, Dong F, Lei F, Alström P, Zhang R, Ödeen A et al. (2015)
Shaped by uneven Pleistocene climate: mitochondrial phylogeographic pattern and population history of White Wagtail Motacilla alba (Aves: Passeriformes)
Journal of Avian Biology.
We studied the phylogeography and population history of the White Wagtail Motacilla alba, which has a vast breeding range, covering areas with different Pleistocene climatic histories. The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit II gene (ND2) and Control Region (CR) were analyzed for 273 individuals from 45 localities. Our data comprised all nine subspecies of White Wagtail. Four primary clades were inferred (M, N, SW and SE), with indications of M. grandis being nested within M. alba. The oldest split was between two haplotypes from the endemic Moroccan M. a. subpersonata (clade M) and the others, at 0.63–0.96 Mya; other divergences were at 0.31–0.38 Mya. The entire differentiation falls within the part of the Pleistocene characterized by Milankovitch cycles of large amplitudes and durations. Clade N was distributed across the northern Palearctic; clade SW in southwestern Asia plus the British Isles and was predicted by Ecological niche models (ENMs) to occur also in Central and South Europe; and clade SE was distributed in Central and East Asia. The deep divergence within M. a. subpersonata may reflect retention of ancestral haplotypes. Regional differences in historical climates have had different impacts on different populations: clade N expanded after the last glacial maximum (LGM), whereas milder Pleistocene climate of East Asia allowed clade SE a longer expansion time (since MIS 5); clade SW expanded over a similarly long time as clade SE, which is untypical for European species. ENMs supported these conclusions in that the northern part of the Eurasian continent was unsuitable during the LGM, whereas southern parts remained suitable. The recent divergences and poor structure in the mitochondrial tree contrasts strongly with the pronounced, well defined phenotypical differentiation, indicating extremely fast plumage divergence.
Keywords: China, Miocene, Monsoon, Palaeoclimate, Pollen, Vegetation dynamics
Lim, H. C., Zou, F. S., Sheldon F (2015)
Microsoft Word - LIM Genetic differentiation in two widespread, open-forest bird species of Southeast Asia ( Copsychus saularis and Megalaima haemacephala ): Insights from ecological niche modeling - LIM1.pdf
Current Zoology 61(5) 1-21.
cological niche modeling has emerged as an useful tool in the investigation of the phylogeographic histories of species or communities in a region. The high biodiversity (oftentimes cryptic), and complex geogra phy and geological history of Southeast Asia particularly call for multipronged approaches in phylogeographic inve stigations. Past studies have focused on taxa that are ass ociated with lowland rainforests, which is the dominant natural vegetation type. Here, we combine published phylogenetic data, ecological ni che modeling and paleo-climate models to reveal potential drivers of divergence in two ope n-forest bird species, the oriental magpi e-robin Copsychus saularis and Coppersmith barbet Megalaima haemacephala . In spite of broad overlap in current distributions, there are subtle differences in their climatic niches, which result in different responses to past climatic changes. For C. saularis , both Last Glacial Maximum climate models indicated that the entire Sundaland was climati cally suitable, while phylogenetic analyses found divergent easte rn and western Sundaland lineages. We thus postulate that this genetic divergence was a result of past separations of coastal habitats into eastern and western portions due to the emergence of Sunda shelf as s ea-level fell. The current separation of morphological subspecies in Borneo is maintained by low climatic suitab ility (high annual rainfall) in certain regions. The extirpation of M. haemacephala from Borneo and southern Malay Peninsula might have been driven by unsuitable conditions (high temperature seasonality) in central Sundaland an d/or the lack of open woodlands. Our study shows that ecological niche m odeling adds a powerful dimension to our attempt to understand l ineage evolution in space
Keywords: Barbet, Indo-Burma, Magpie -ro, Malay Archipelago