Uses of GBIF in scientific research

Peer-reviewed research citing GBIF as a data source, with at least one author from Chile.
For all researches, please visit our "Peer-reviewed publications" page.

List of publications

  • Zurano J, Martinez P, Canto-Hernandez J, Montoya-Burgos J, Costa G (2017)

    Morphological and ecological divergence in South American canids

    Journal of Biogeography.

    Aim Closely related species are expected to be similar in their ecological attributes. However, clades colonizing new environments and diversifying due to ecological processes often show morphological and ecological divergence. Canids arrived in South America after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama and diversified to occupy a variety of habitats. We test whether the diversification of this group was followed by divergence in species niches. If ecological processes are associated with species divergences, we expect to see species occupying distinct climatic niches, showing divergent phenotypes, and showing a close association between their phenotypes and ecological attributes. Location South America Methods We use comparative and multivariate climatic niche analysis, geometric morphometric (skull and jaw), and distance-based phylogenetic regressions to test whether the diversification of South American canids was followed by divergence in their climatic niches and phenotypic traits. Results We found a pattern of continental niche occupancy (north to south) along a complex climatic gradient. As species diverged, they evolved distinct climatic tolerances. Climatic niche similarities are not related to species phylogenetic relationships, indicating that closely related species may have distinct climatic tolerances. Our morphological analysis also showed strong phenotypic divergence between species. Our results suggest that these differences were related to climatic and trophic niches. Results show divergent phenotypes in both the skull and jaw, and that there is a close association between phenotype and ecological strategies. Main conclusions Our study integrates phylogenetic history, ecological and morphological data to study the evolution of South American canids. Canid colonization of South America was followed by species ecological divergences. Our results support the hypothesis that ecological processes are the main drivers of diversification of this clade and illustrate a complex biogeographical history of ecological diversification of canids at continental scale.

  • Martínez-Vilalta J, Sala A, Asensio D, Galiano L, Hoch G, Palacio S et al. (2016)

    Dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in terrestrial plants: a global synthesis

    Ecological Monographs.

    Plants store large amounts of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). While multiple functions of NSC have long been recognized, the interpretation of NSC seasonal dynamics is often based on the idea that stored NSC is a reservoir of carbon that fluctuates depending on the balance between supply via photosynthesis and demand for growth and respiration (the source-sink dynamics concept). Consequently, relatively high NSC concentrations in some plants have been interpreted to reflect excess supply relative to demand. An alternative view, however, is that NSC accumulation reflects the relatively high NSC levels required for plant survival; an important issue that remains highly controversial. Here, we assembled a new global database to examine broad patterns of seasonal NSC variation across organs (leaves, stems and belowground), plant functional types (coniferous, drought deciduous angiosperms, winter deciduous angiosperms, evergreen angiosperms, and herbaceous) and biomes (boreal, temperate, Mediterranean and tropical). We compiled data from 123 studies, including seasonal measurements for 179 species under natural conditions. Our results showed that, on average, NSC account for ~10% of dry plant biomass and are highest in leaves and lowest in stems, whereas belowground organs show intermediate concentrations. Total NSC, starch and soluble sugars (SS) varied seasonally, with a strong depletion of starch during the growing season and a general increase during winter months, particularly in boreal and temperate biomes. Across functional types, NSC concentrations were highest and most variable in herbaceous species and in conifer needles. Conifers showed the lowest stem and belowground NSC concentrations. Minimum NSC values were relatively high (46% of seasonal maximums on average for total NSC) and, in contrast to average values, were similar among biomes and functional types. Overall, although starch depletion was relatively common, seasonal depletion of total NSC or SS was rare. These results are consistent with a dual view of NSC function: whereas starch acts mostly as a reservoir for future use, soluble sugars perform immediate functions (e.g., osmoregulation) and are kept above some critical threshold. If confirmed, this dual function of NSC will have important implications for the way we understand and model plant carbon allocation and survival under stress.

    Keywords: NSC, carbon storage, global synthesis, non-structural carbon compounds, osmoregulation, plant carbon economy, seasonal dynamics, soluble sugars, source-sink imbalances, starch, stress responses, terrestrial plants

  • Taucare-Ríos A, Bizama G, Bustamante R (2016)

    Using Global and Regional Species Distribution Models (SDM) to Infer the Invasive Stage of Latrodectus geometricus (Araneae: Theridiidae) in the Americas

    Environmental Entomology.

    The brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841, is a large spider of the family Theridiidae that belongs to a genus of medical interest owing to its potent neurotoxic venom, which causes severe pain in humans. In America, this alien spider has been found in virtually all countries in the region, mainly associated with human dwellings, but also in agricultural sectors. However, the invasive process and potential distribution of this invasive species across the American continent are completely unknown. In this context, using a combination of both global and regional niche models, it is possible to hypothesize the invasive phase of the species as well as the geographic space where these different phases occur. By comparing the global and regional niches of L. geometricus, we examined its invasive process and potential distribution across the American continent. This work is an innovative approach to understanding the invasion of the brown widow spider in this area and the ecological processes that underlie this invasion. In this context, the global and regional niche comparison constitutes an appropriate tool to account for the complexities of the invasive process, generating different hypotheses amenable to being tested in future studies.

    Keywords: Araneae, biological invasion, invasive spider, realized regional niche, stage of invasion

  • Avalos V, Hernández J (2015)

    Projected distribution shifts and protected area coverage of range-restricted Andean birds under climate change

    Global Ecology and Conservation 4 459-469.

    In this study we projected the effect of anthropogenic climate change in endemic and restricted-range Andean bird species that spread out from the center of Bolivia to southeastern Peru. We also analyzed the representation of these species in protected areas. The ensemble forecasts from niche-based models indicated that 91–100% of species may reduce their range size under full and no dispersal scenarios, including five species that are currently threatened. The large range reduction (average 63%) suggests these mountain species may be threatened by climate change. The strong effects due to range species losses are predicted in the humid mountain forests of Bolivia. The representation of bird species also decreased in protected areas. Partial gap species (94–86%) are expected to increase over the present (62%). This suggests climate change and other non-climate stressors should be incorporated in conservations plans for the long-term persistence of these species. This study anticipates the magnitude of shifts in the distribution of endemic birds, and represents in the study area the first exploration of the representation of range-restricted Andean birds in protected areas under climate change.

    Keywords: Conservation, Gap analysis, Protected areas, Range size, Threatened species

  • Botero-delgadillo E, Bayly N, GÓmez C, PulgarÍn-r. P, PÁez C (2015)

    An assessment of the distribution, population size and conservation status of the Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner Automolus rufipectus: a Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta endemic

    Bird Conservation International 1-15.

    The Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner Automolus rufipectus is one of 19 endemic bird species found in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM) in northern Colombia but until recently it was considered a sub-species of the Ruddy Foliage-gleaner Automolus rubiginosus. Consequently, published information on its distribution and ecology is lacking, and while it is classified as near-threatened, this designation was based on limited quantitative data. To improve our knowledge of the Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner’s geographical distribution, elevation range, population density, habitat use and conservation status, we analysed both historical and recent site locality records and carried out variable distance transects within forested habitats and shade coffee plantations. We modelled the environmental niche of the species and subsequently estimated its extent of occurrence and area of occupancy, as well as population size. Our results consistently showed that the distribution of the Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner is more restricted than previously considered, both geographically and by elevation (we redefine elevation range as 600–1,875 m). This suggests that the species is more at risk of habitat transformation and combined with our estimates of population size (< 10,000 individuals), it is likely that the species will be uplisted to a higher threat category. More positively, and contrary to published accounts, we found that approximately 40% of the species’ range lies within protected areas. Nevertheless, we recommend the implementation of strategies to maintain forest cover on the western flank of the SNSM and further research to better define the species’ habitat needs and population dynamics.

    Keywords: Conservation, Gap analysis, Protected areas, Range size, Threatened species

  • Botero-Delgadillo E, Bayly N, Escudero-Páez S, Moreno M (2015)

    Understanding the distribution of a threatened bird at multiple levels: A hierarchical analysis of the ecological niche of the Santa Marta Bush-Tyrant ( Myiotheretes pernix )

    The Condor 117(4) 629-643.

    ABSTRACT An understanding of the ecological factors determining bird species' distributions is essential for making informed conservation decisions. These data are especially important for range-restricted species, such as the Santa Marta Bush-Tyrant (Myiotheretes pernix), a threatened endemic of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM) in Colombia. Here we adopt a novel hierarchical analysis to describe the bush-tyrant's ecological niche and infer the regional and local determinants of its limited distribution. We first describe habitat selection based on local habitat use and microhabitats used for foraging. We then use a geoprocessing modeling algorithm to combine habitat selection data with a climatic niche model. The resulting model produced an index of habitat suitability, which we converted into a predicted geographic distribution. Santa Marta Bush-Tyrants showed no clear habitat preferences, but favored forested and secondary growth habitats over open areas, at elevations between 2,100 and 3,300 m....

    Keywords: Colombia, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, distribution, foraging ecology, habitat use, microhabitat

  • Castellanos-frÍas E, Garcia de leÓn D, Bastida F, Gonzalez-andujar J (2015)

    Predicting global geographical distribution of Lolium rigidum (rigid ryegrass) under climate change

    The Journal of Agricultural Science 1-10.

    Lolium rigidum L. (rigid ryegrass) is one of the most extensive and harmful weeds in winter cereal crops. A bioclimatic model for this species was developed using CLIMEX. The model was validated with records from North America and Oceania and used to assess the global potential distribution of L. rigidum under the current climate and under two climate change scenarios. Both scenarios represent contrasting temporal patterns of economic development and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The projections under current climatic conditions indicated that L. rigidum does not occupy the full extent of the climatically suitable area available to it. Under future climate scenarios, the suitable potential area increases by 3·79% in the low-emission CO2 scenario and by 5·06% under the most extreme scenario. The model's projection showed an increase in potentially suitable areas in North America, Europe, South America and Asia; while in Africa and Oceania it indicated regression. These results provide the necessary knowledge for identifying and highlighting the potential invasion risk areas and for establishing the grounds on which to base the planning and management measures required.

    Keywords: Colombia, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, distribution, foraging ecology, habitat use, microhabitat

  • Cuyckens G, Christie D, Domic A, Malizia L, Renison D (2015)

    Climate change and the distribution and conservation of the world’s highest elevation woodlands in the South American Altiplano

    Global and Planetary Change.

    Climate change is becoming an increasing threat to biodiversity. Consequently, methods for delineation, establishment and management of protected areas must consider the species’ future distribution in response to future climate conditions. Biodiversity in high altitude semiarid regions may be particularly threatened by future climate change. In this study we assess the main environmental variables that best explain present day presence of the world’s highest elevation woodlands in the South American Altiplano, and model how climate change may affect the future distribution of this unique ecosystem under different climate change scenarios. These woodlands are dominated by Polylepis tarapacana (Rosaceae), a species that forms unique biological communities with important conservation value. Our results indicate that five environmental variables are responsible for 91% and 90.3% of the present and future P. tarapacana distribution models respectively, and suggest that at the end of the 21st century, a significant reduction (56%) in the potential habitat for this species due to more arid conditions. Since it is predicted that P. tarapacana’s potential distribution will be severely reduced in the future, we propose a new network of national protected areas across this species distribution range in order to insure the future conservation of this unique ecosystem. Based on an extensive literature review we identify research topics and recommendations for on-ground conservation and management of P. tarapacana woodlands.

    Keywords: MaxEnt, Polylepis tarapacana, models, potential distribution

  • Escobar LE, Juarez C M (2015)

    First Report on Bat Mortalities on Wind Farms in Chile

    Gayana 79(1) 11-17.

    In Latin America there is a lack of scienti fi c reports of bat mortality caused by wind farms operation. We report for the fi rst time, clear evidence of bat mortalities from wind farms in Chile. We generated an ecological niche model of the affected species, Tadarida brasiliensis , to explore areas of potential species distribution overlapping with areas with distribution of wind farms in Chile. We found that T. brasiliensis potential distribution overlaps with the current and future distribution of wind farms in Chile. Rapid developments are currently being made within the wind energy industry in Chile. Future research should quantify the impact patterns of wind farms on wildlife, explore mitigation methods, and determine the areas with high biodiversity vulnerability in Chile.

    Keywords: Bat, Tadarida brasiliensi, ecological niche model

  • Fernández M, Navarro L, Apaza-Quevedo A, Gallegos S, Marques A, Zambrana-Torrelio C et al. (2015)

    Challenges and opportunities for the Bolivian Biodiversity Observation Network

    Biodiversity 1-13.

    Pragmatic methods to assess the status of biodiversity at multiple scales are required to support conservation decision-making. At the intersection of several major biogeographic zones, Bolivia has extraordinary potential to develop a monitoring strategy aligned with the objectives of the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON). Bolivia, a GEO Observer since 2005, is already working on the adequacy of national earth observations towards the objectives of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). However, biodiversity is still an underrepresented component in this initiative. The integration of biodiversity into Bolivia’s GEO framework would confirm the need for a country level biodiversity monitoring strategy, fundamental to assess the progress towards the 2020 Aichi targets. Here we analyse and discuss two aspects of the process of developing such a strategy: (1) identification of taxonomic, temporal and spatial coverage of biodiversity data to detect both ava...

    Keywords: Bolivia, GEO BON, baseline, big data integration, biodiversity, monitoring