Uses of GBIF in scientific research

Peer-reviewed research citing GBIF as a data source, with at least one author from Canada.
For all researches, please visit our "Peer-reviewed publications" page.

List of publications

  • Cabİ e, soreng rj G (2017)

    Taxonomy of Poa jubata and a new section of the genus (Poaceae)


    Poa jubata A. Kern. is an ephemeral, southeastern European species of which little is known. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of Poa L. including all previously identified major lineages, shows this species to be isolated, with a genotype here designated as J (plastid) J (nrDNA). It is assigned to the monotypic P. sect. Jubatae sect. nov. The section is differentiated from other Poa sections in having 5-nerved upper glumes, very narrow palea flanges, an annual habit, and erect solitary culms. Poa jubata occurs along coastal regions of the Balkans and is rather rare. Two new collections were made in 2015 in Thrace, Turkey, in vernal pool habitats with clay soils, thus expanding its known habitat. The species is described in detail, illustrated, and its relationships are discussed.

    Keywords: Balkans region, DNA, Europe, Morphology, annual habit, genotype, phylogeny, taxonomy

  • Carvajal-Endara S, Hendry A, Emery N, Davies T (2017)

    Habitat filtering not dispersal limitation shapes oceanic island floras: species assembly of the Galápagos archipelago

    Ecology Letters.

    Remote locations, such as oceanic islands, typically harbour relatively few species, some of which go on to generate endemic radiations. Species colonising these locations tend to be a non-random subset from source communities, which is thought to reflect dispersal limitation. However, non-random colonisation could also result from habitat filtering, whereby only a few continental species can become established. We evaluate the imprints of these processes on the Galápagos flora by analysing a comprehensive regional phylogeny for ~ 39 000 species alongside information on dispersal strategies and climatic suitability. We found that habitat filtering was more important than dispersal limitation in determining species composition. This finding may help explain why adaptive radiation is common on oceanic archipelagoes – because colonising species can be relatively poor dispersers with specific niche requirements. We suggest that the standard assumption that plant communities in remote locations are primarily shaped by dispersal limitation deserves reconsideration.

    Keywords: Balkans region, DNA, Europe, Morphology, annual habit, genotype, phylogeny, taxonomy

  • Feldman R, Peers M, Pickles R, Thornton D, Murray D (2017)

    Climate driven range divergence among host species affects range-wide patterns of parasitism

    Global Ecology and Conservation 9 1-10.

    Species interactions like parasitism influence the outcome of climate-driven shifts in species ranges. For some host species, parasitism can only occur in that part of its range that overlaps with a second host species. Thus, predicting future parasitism may depend on how the ranges of the two hosts change in relation to each other. In this study, we tested whether the climate driven species range shift of Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) accounts for predicted changes in parasitism of two other species from the family Cervidae, Alces alces (moose) and Rangifer tarandus (caribou), in North America. We used MaxEnt models to predict the recent (2000) and future (2050) ranges (probabilities of occurrence) of the cervids and a parasite Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (brainworm) taking into account range shifts of the parasite’s intermediate gastropod hosts. Our models predicted that range overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and P. tenuis will decrease between 2000 and 2050, an outcome that reflects decreased overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and O. virginianus and not the parasites, themselves. Geographically, our models predicted increasing potential occurrence of P. tenuis where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to decline, but minimal spatial overlap where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to increase. Thus, parasitism may exacerbate climate-mediated southern contraction of A. alces and R. tarandus ranges but will have limited influence on northward range expansion. Our results suggest that the spatial dynamics of one host species may be the driving force behind future rates of parasitism for another host species.

    Keywords: Boreal, Cervidae, Climate change, Evolution, Parasitism, Synergistic effects

  • Fleming K, Beresford D (2017)

    Range expansion pattern of Carabus granulatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in eastern North America and a new northern range record

    BioInvasions Records 6(1) 13-17.

    This paper reports the first record of Carabus granulatus L. from Moosonee, Ontario. The record extends the range of the species northward in Ontario by approximately 200 km. Carabus granulatus was first introduced into North America in 1890 from Europe. The historic area of C. granulatus in North America was plotted against year. The square root of area occupied by C. granulatus was linear over time (R2 = 0.96, a type 1 expansion curve) a pattern associated with expansion driven by neighbourhood diffusion.

    Keywords: distribution, ground beetle, invasive species, neighborhood diffusion, radial expansion

  • Grossenbacher D, Brandvain Y, Auld J, Burd M, Cheptou P, Conner J et al. (2017)

    Self-compatibility is over-represented on islands

    New Phytologist.

    Because establishing a new population often depends critically on finding mates, individuals capable of uniparental reproduction may have a colonization advantage. Accordingly, there should be an over-representation of colonizing species in which individuals can reproduce without a mate, particularly in isolated locales such as oceanic islands. Despite the intuitive appeal of this colonization filter hypothesis (known as Baker's law), more than six decades of analyses have yielded mixed findings. We assembled a dataset of island and mainland plant breeding systems, focusing on the presence or absence of self-incompatibility. Because this trait enforces outcrossing and is unlikely to re-evolve on short timescales if it is lost, breeding system is especially likely to reflect the colonization filter. We found significantly more self-compatible species on islands than mainlands across a sample of > 1500 species from three widely distributed flowering plant families (Asteraceae, Brassicaceae and Solanaceae). Overall, 66% of island species were self-compatible, compared with 41% of mainland species. Our results demonstrate that the presence or absence of self-incompatibility has strong explanatory power for plant geographical patterns. Island floras around the world thus reflect the role of a key reproductive trait in filtering potential colonizing species in these three plant families.

    Keywords: Baker's law, biogeography, ecological filtering, island, mainland, self‐incompatibility

  • Hoekman D, LeVan K, Ball G, Browne R, Davidson R, Erwin T et al. (2017)

    Design for ground beetle abundance and diversity sampling within the National Ecological Observatory Network

    Ecosphere 8(4) e01744.

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will monitor ground beetle populations across a network of broadly distributed sites because beetles are prevalent in food webs, are sensitive to abiotic factors, and have an established role as indicator species of habitat and climatic shifts. We describe the design of ground beetle population sampling in the context of NEON's long-term, continental-scale monitoring program, emphasizing the sampling design, priorities, and collection methods. Freely available NEON ground beetle data and associated field and laboratory samples will increase scientific understanding of how biological communities are responding to land-use and climate change.

    Keywords: Carabidae, SpecialFeature: NEON Design, abundance, climate, diversity, global change, ground beetles, long-term monitoring

  • Pitteloud C, Arrigo N, Suchan T, Mastretta-Yanes A, Vila R, Dincă V et al. (2017)

    Climatic niche evolution is faster in sympatric than allopatric lineages of the butterfly genus Pyrgus

    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 284(1852).

    Understanding how speciation relates to ecological divergence has long fascinated biologists. It is assumed that ecological divergence is essential to sympatric speciation, as a mechanism to avoid competition and eventually lead to reproductive isolation, while divergence in allopatry is not necessarily associated with niche differentiation. The impact of the spatial context of divergence on the evolutionary rates of abiotic dimensions of the ecological niche has rarely been explored for an entire clade. Here, we compare the magnitude of climatic niche shifts between sympatric versus allopatric divergence of lineages in butterflies. By combining next-generation sequencing, parametric biogeography and ecological niche analyses applied to a genus-wide phylogeny of Palaearctic Pyrgus butterflies, we compare evolutionary rates along eight climatic dimensions across sister lineages that diverged in large-scale sympatry versus allopatry. In order to examine the possible effects of the spatial scale at which sympatry is defined, we considered three sets of biogeographic assignments, ranging from narrow to broad definition. Our findings suggest higher rates of niche evolution along all climatic dimensions for sister lineages that diverge in sympatry, when using a narrow delineation of biogeographic areas. This result contrasts with significantly lower rates of climatic niche evolution found in cases of allopatric speciation, despite the biogeographic regions defined here being characterized by significantly different climates. Higher rates in allopatry are retrieved when biogeographic areas are too widely defined—in such a case allopatric events may be recorded as sympatric. Our results reveal the macro-evolutionary significance of abiotic niche differentiation involved in speciation processes within biogeographic regions, and illustrate the importance of the spatial scale chosen to define areas when applying parametric biogeographic analyses.

    Keywords: climatic niche, macro-evolutionary processes, next-generation sequencing, parametric biogeography

  • Rubio de Casas R, Willis C, Pearse W, Baskin C, Baskin J, Cavender-Bares J (2017)

    Global biogeography of seed dormancy is determined by seasonality and seed size: a case study in the legumes

    New Phytologist.

    Seed dormancy is expected to provide ecological advantages by adjusting germination to the favorable growth period. However, many species produce nondormant seeds, particularly in wet tropical forests, a biogeographic pattern that is not well accounted for in current models. We hypothesized that the global distribution of dormant seeds derives from their adaptive value in predictably fluctuating (i.e. seasonal) environments. However, the advantage conferred by dormancy might ultimately depend on other seed attributes, particularly size. This general model was tested within a phylogenetically informed framework using a data set comprising > 216 000 world-wide observations of Fabaceae, spanning three orders of magnitude in seed size and including both dormant and nondormant seeds. Our results confirmed our hypothesis: nondormant seeds can only evolve in climates with long growing seasons and/or in lineages that produce larger seeds. Conversely, dormancy should be evolutionarily stable in temperate lineages with small seeds. When the favorable season is fleeting, seed dormancy is the only adaptive strategy. Based on these results, we predict that, within a given lineage, taxa producing larger, nondormant seeds will necessarily predominate in aseasonal environments, while plants bearing small, dormant seeds will be dominant under short growing seasons.

    Keywords: climatic niche, macro-evolutionary processes, next-generation sequencing, parametric biogeography

  • Townhill B, Pinnegar J, Tinker J, Jones M, Simpson S, Stebbing P et al. (2017)

    Non-native marine species in north-west Europe: Developing an approach to assess future spread using regional downscaled climate projections

    Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems.

    1. Climate change can affect the survival, colonization and establishment of non-native species. Many non-native species common in Europe are spreading northwards as seawater temperatures increase. The similarity of climatic conditions between source and recipient areas is assumed to influence the establishment of such species, however, in a changing climate those conditions are difficult to predict. 2. A risk assessment methodology has been applied to identify non-native species with proven invasive qualities that have not yet arrived in north-west Europe, but which could become problematic in the future. Those species with the highest potential to become established or be problematic have been taken forward, as well as some that may be economically beneficial, for species distribution modelling to determine future potential habitat distributions under projected climate change. 3. In the past, species distribution models have usually made use of low resolution global environmental datasets. Here, to increase the local resolution of the distribution models, downscaled shelf seas climate change model outputs for north-west Europe were nested within global outputs. In this way the distribution model could be trained using the global species presence data including the species' native locations, and then projected using more comprehensive shelf seas data to understand habitat suitability in a potential recipient area. 4. Distribution modelling found that habitat suitability will generally increase further north for those species with the highest potential to become established or problematic. Most of these are known to be species with potentially serious consequences for conservation. With caution, a small number of species may present an opportunity for the fishing industry or aquaculture. The ability to provide potential future distributions could be valuable in prioritizing species for monitoring or eradication programmes, increasing the chances of identifying problem species early. This is particularly important for vulnerable infrastructure or protected or threatened ecosystems.

    Keywords: alien species, dispersal, invasive, invertebrate, ocean, subtidal

  • Brown K, Farris Z, Yesuf G, Gerber B, Rasambainarivo F, Karpanty S et al. (2016)

    Modeling co-occurrence between toxic prey and naïve predators in an incipient invasion

    Biodiversity and Conservation 1-19.

    Biological invasions can represent important threats to endemic species, including those within the invaders’ food webs. The Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus) was introduced to Madagascar in 2011. This introduction presents a potentially dangerous prey item to a relatively naïve, highly diverse endemic carnivore fauna. Using a multivariate niche modeling approach (background test), we assessed the predicted niche overlap between D. melanostictus and six endemic carnivores in eastern Madagascar. The overlap between this potential prey and predators was assessed on four environmental niche axes: temperature, precipitation, vegetation cover and elevation. Our results showed a mixture of niche overlap and divergence between D. melanostictus and the six carnivores for environmental axes tested. There was significant overlap with five of the carnivores on temperature and NDVI axes. On the precipitation axis, there was significant overlap between D. melanostictus with two species. Our results suggested that wide-ranging, locally rare carnivores may overlap extensively with D. melanostictus. The six carnivores that inhabit the eastern rainforest of Madagascar will likely share multiple, niche axes with this novel potential prey item. Species that eat the non-native common toad and are susceptible to its toxins are at conservation risk because their populations may not be robust enough to adapt quickly to this threat. We advocate closely monitoring these emerging interactions and suggest a preemptive conservation strategy for carnivores potentially at risk.

    Keywords: Asian common toad, Background test, Carnivores, Ecological niche models, Invasive alien species, Madagascar