Uses of GBIF in scientific research

Peer-reviewed research citing GBIF as a data source, with at least one author from Canada.
Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.

List of publications

  • Costea, M., García, M. A., Stefanovic, S., 2015.

    A Phylogenetically Based Infrageneric Classification of the Parasitic Plant Genus Cuscuta (Dodders, Convolvulaceae)

    Systematic Botany 40(1) 269-285.

    Cuscuta (dodders, Convolvulaceae) is one of the largest and most economically important lineages of parasitic plants. The genus has a sub-cosmopolitan distribution with more than 75% of the species diversifying in the New World. The last monograph, published by Truman George Yuncker in 1932, provided a solid species-level taxonomic foundation. However, as revealed by recent phylogenetic studies, its infrageneric classification has been in great need of a taxonomic reappraisal, mainly because the morphological characters used in the previous classifications have been greatly affected by convergent evolution. Several recent phylogenetic and character evolution studies with broad sampling, as well as species-level revisions, have illustrated the deficiencies of previous classifications and provided an explicit and robust phylogenetic framework. Here we propose a new phylogenetic classification that places all 194 currently accepted species of Cuscuta into four subgenera and 18 sections. Sections have a strong morphological and biogeographical predictive value and include from one to 31 species. Thirteen section names are new or applied for the first time at the sectional rank: Babylonicae (Yunck.) M. A. Garcı ́ a, Subulatae (Engelm.) Costea & Stefanovic ́ , Obtusilobae (Engelm.) Costea & Stefanovic ́ , Prismaticae (Yunck.) Costea & Stefanovic ́ , Ceratophorae (Yunck.) Costea & Stefanovic ́ , Umbellatae (Yunck.) Costea & Stefanovic ́ , Gracillimae Costea & Stefanovic ́ , Californicae (Yunck.) Costea & Stefanovic ́ , Indecorae (Yunck.) Costea & Stefanovic ́ , Oxycarpae (Engelm. ex Yunck.) Costea & Stefanovic ́ , Racemosae (Yunck.) Costea & Stefanovic ́ , Partitae Costea & Stefanovic ́ ,and Denticulatae (Yunck.) Costea & Stefanovic ́ . An identification key to sections is included together with an overview of morphology, geographical distribution, taxonomic notes, and lists of included species.

    Keywords: Molecular phylogeny, morphology, systematics, taxo


  • Muir, C., 2015.

    Selection constrains phenotypic evolution in a functionally important plant trait

    bioRxiv 015172.

    A long-standing idea is that the macroevolutionary adaptive landscape -- a `map' of phenotype to fitness -- constrains evolution because certain phenotypes are fit, while others are universally unfit. Such constraints should be evident in traits that, across many species, cluster around particular modal values, with few intermediates between modes. Here, I compile a new global database of 599 species from 94 plant families showing that stomatal ratio, an important functional trait affecting photosynthesis, is multimodal, hinting at distinct peaks in the adaptive landscape. The dataset confirms that most plants have all their stomata on the lower leaf surface (hypostomy), but shows for the first time that species with roughly half their stomata on each leaf surface (amphistomy) form a distinct mode in the trait distribution. Based on a new evolutionary process model, this multimodal pattern is unlikely without constraint. Further, multimodality has evolved repeatedly across disparate families, evincing long-term constraint on the adaptive landscape. A simple cost-benefit model of stomatal ratio demonstrates that selection alone is sufficient to generate an adaptive landscape with multiple peaks. Finally, phylogenetic comparative methods indicate that life history evolution drives shifts between peaks. This implies that the adaptive benefit conferred by amphistomy -- increased photosynthesis -- is most important in plants with fast life histories, challenging existing ideas that amphistomy is an adaptation to thick leaves and open habitats. I conclude that peaks in the adaptive landscape have been constrained by selection over much of land plant evolution, leading to predictable, repeatable patterns of evolution.

    Keywords: Adaptive landscape, amphistomy, phenotypic constrain, phylogenetic comparative methods, stomata


  • Cornwell, W., Westoby, M., Falster, D., FitzJohn, R., O'Meara, B., Pennell, M., McGlinn, D., Eastman, J., Moles, A., Reich, P., Tank, D., Wright, I., Aarssen, L., Beaulieu, J., Kooyman, R., Leishman, M., Miller, E., Niinemets, ., Oleksyn, J., Ordonez, A., Royer, D., Smith, S., Stevens, P., Warman, L., Wilf, P., Zanne, A., 2014.

    Functional distinctiveness of major plant lineages

    Journal of Ecology 102(2) 345-356.

    1. Plant traits vary widely across species and underpin differences in ecological strategy. Despite centuries of interest, the contributions of different evolutionary lineages to modern-day functional diversity remain poorly quantified. 2. Expanding data bases of plant traits plus rapidly improving phylogenies enable for the first time a data-driven global picture of plant functional diversity across the major clades of higher plants. We mapped five key traits relevant to metabolism, resource competition and reproductive strategy onto a phylogeny across 48324 vascular plant species world-wide, along with climate and biogeo- graphic data. Using a novel metric, we test whether major plant lineages are functionally distinctive. We then highlight the trait–lineage combinations that are most functionally distinctive within the present-day spread of ecological strategies. 3. For some trait–clade combinations, knowing the clade of a species conveys little information to neo- and palaeo-ecologists. In other trait–clade combinations, the clade identity can be highly reveal- ing, especially informative clade–trait combinations include Proteaceae, which is highly distinctive, representing the global slow extreme of the leaf economic spectrum. Magnoliidae and Rosidae con- tribute large leaf sizes and seed masses and have distinctively warm, wet climatic distributions. 4. Synthesis. This analysis provides a shortlist of the most distinctive trait–lineage combinations along with their geographic and climatic context: a global view of extant functional diversity across the tips of the vascular plant phylogeny.

    Keywords: Kolmogorov–Smirnov Importance index, determinants of plant community diversity and stru, functional traits, geographic and climatic distributions, leaf nitrogen, leaf size, maximum adult height, phylogenetic tree, seed mass, specific leaf area


  • DiTommaso, A., Darbyshire, S., Marschner, C., Averill, K., 2014.

    North-East, North-Central, Mid-Atlantic United States and Southern Canada: Japanese Hedgeparsley ( Torilis japonica )—A New Invasive Species in the United States?

    Invasive Plant Science and Management 7(4) 553-560.

    Japanese hedgeparsley is an annual (or sometimes biennial) forb introduced from Eurasia and found throughout much of the eastern United States and parts of extreme southern Canada. In North America, Japanese hedgeparsley is commonly found in ruderal habitats, such as roadsides, railroad rights-of-way, forest edges, and urban waste spaces. This species has not yet been listed as a noxious invasive, but its expanding populations have caused concern in several Midwestern states. The primary threat from Japanese hedgeparsley is its vigorous growth habit, which creates dense patches, and its dispersal ability, facilitated by its clinging, burr-like fruits. Some confusion on identification exists within the Torilis genus, with similar species (particularly T. arvensis) frequently misidentified in herbaria and the literature. Here, we review aspects of the etymology, taxonomy, biology, distribution, and management of Japanese hedgeparsley with the objective of increasing awareness of the potential threat posed by this species and its closely related congeners.

    Keywords: Apiaceae, Torilis, distribution, invasive species, ruderal, understory vegetation


  • Ekrem, T., KEvan, P., Woodcock, T., Herbert, P., 2014.

    The Most Northerly Black Witch (Ascalapha odorata): A Tropical Moth in the Canadian Arctic

    The Canadian Field Naturalist 128 77-79.

    A specimen of the Black Witch (Ascalapha odorata) was collected in August 2006 near Churchill, Manitoba, at 58.7652°N. This represents the most northerly record for this species. DNA barcode comparison of 93 specimens of A. odorata in the Barcode of Life Data Systems revealed low genetic divergence even though these specimens were collected from a large geographical area. The haplotype of the Churchill specimen was shared by only one other individual (collected in the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico) in the Barcode of Life Data Systems. A definite assignment of the geographic origin of the Churchill specimen is not possible with current data, but more extensive analysis of Central American populations with additional genetic markers might resolve this uncertainty.

    Keywords: 2008, 2014, a, america, ascalapha odorata, be limited to central, black witch, distribution, dna barcoding, figure 1, genetic divergence, manitoba, mariposa de la muerte, migration, migratory, odorata is thought to, of, the natural breeding range


  • Elmendorf, S., Henry, G., Hollister, R., Fosaa, A., Gould, W., Hermanutz, L., Hofgaard, A., Jónsdóttir, I., Jorgenson, J., Lévesque, E., Magnusson, B., Molau, U., Myers-Smith, I., Oberbauer, S., Rixen, C., Tweedie, C., Walker, M., 2014.

    Experiment, monitoring, and gradient methods used to infer climate change effects on plant communities yield consistent patterns

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(2) 201410088.

    SignificanceMethodological constraints can limit our ability to quantify potential impacts of climate warming. We assessed the consistency of three approaches in estimating warming effects on plant community composition: manipulative warming experiments, repeat sampling under ambient temperature change (monitoring), and space-for-time substitution. The three approaches showed agreement in the direction of change (an increase in the relative abundance of species with a warmer thermal niche), but differed in the magnitude of change estimated. Experimental and monitoring approaches were similar in magnitude, whereas space-for-time comparisons indicated a much stronger response. These results suggest that all three approaches are valid, but experimental warming and long-term monitoring are best suited for forecasting impacts over the coming decades. Inference about future climate change impacts typically relies on one of three approaches: manipulative experiments, historical comparisons (broadly defined to include monitoring the response to ambient climate fluctuations using repeat sampling of plots, dendroecology, and paleoecology techniques), and space-for-time substitutions derived from sampling along environmental gradients. Potential limitations of all three approaches are recognized. Here we address the congruence among these three main approaches by comparing the degree to which tundra plant community composition changes (i) in response to in situ experimental warming, (ii) with interannual variability in summer temperature within sites, and (iii) over spatial gradients in summer temperature. We analyzed changes in plant community composition from repeat sampling (85 plant communities in 28 regions) and experimental warming studies (28 experiments in 14 regions) throughout arctic and alpine North America and Europe. Increases in the relative abundance of species with a warmer thermal niche were observed in response to warmer summer temperatures using all three methods; however, effect sizes were greater over broad-scale spatial gradients relative to either temporal variability in summer temperature within a site or summer temperature increases induced by experimental warming. The effect sizes for change over time within a site and with experimental warming were nearly identical. These results support the view that inferences based on space-for-time substitution overestimate the magnitude of responses to contemporary climate warming, because spatial gradients reflect long-term processes. In contrast, in situ experimental warming and monitoring approaches yield consistent estimates of the magnitude of response of plant communities to climate warming.

    Keywords: climate change, space-for-time substitution, thermophilization, tundra, warming experiment


  • FitzJohn, R., Pennell, M., Zanne, A., Stevens, P., Tank, D., Cornwell, W., 2014.

    How much of the world is woody?

    Journal of Ecology 102(5) 1266-1272.

    1.The question posed by the title of this paper is a basic one, and it is surprising that the answer is not known. Recently assembled trait datasets provide an opportunity to address this, but scaling these datasets to the global scale is challenging because of sampling bias. Although we currently know the growth form of tens of thousands of species, these data are not a random sample of global diversity; some clades are exhaustively characterised, while others we know little–to–nothing about. 2.Starting with a database of woodiness for 39,313 species of vascular plants (12% of taxonomically resolved species, 59% of which were woody), we estimated the status of the remaining taxonomically resolved species by randomisation. To compare the results of our method to conventional wisdom, we informally surveyed a broad community of biologists. No consensus answer to the question existed, with estimates ranging from 1% to 90% (mean: 31.7%). 3.After accounting for sampling bias, we estimated the proportion of woodiness among the world's vascular plants to be between 45% and 48%. This was much lower than a simple mean of our dataset and much higher than the conventional wisdom. 4.Synthesis: Alongside an understanding of global taxonomic diversity (i.e., number of species globally), building a functional understanding of global diversity is an important emerging research direction. This approach represents a novel way to account for sampling bias in functional trait datasets and to answer basic questions about functional diversity at a global scale.

    Keywords: Databases, Determinantes of plant community diversity and str, Functional diversity, Herbaceousness, Macroecology, Sampling bias, Woodiness


  • Forasiepi, A., Soibelzon, L., Gomez, C., Sánchez, R., Quiroz, L., Jaramillo, C., Sánchez-Villagra, M., 2014.

    Carnivorans at the Great American Biotic Interchange: new discoveries from the northern neotropics

    Die Naturwissenschaften(2011).

    We report two fossil procyonids, Cyonasua sp. and Chapalmalania sp., from the late Pliocene of Venezuela (Vergel Member, San Gregorio Formation) and Colombia (Ware Formation), respectively. The occurrence of these pre-Holocene procyonids outside Argentina and in the north of South America provides further information about the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). The new specimens are recognized in the same monophyletic group as procyonids found in the southern part of the continent, the "Cyonasua group," formed by species of Cyonasua and Chapalmalania. The phylogenetic analysis that includes the two new findings support the view that procyonids dispersed from North America in two separate events (initially, previous to the first major migration wave-GABI 1-and then within the last major migration wave-GABI 4-). This involved reciprocal lineage migrations from North to South America, and included the evolution of South American endemic forms.

    Keywords: Pliocene, neotropics, procyonidae, south america


  • Gerick, A., Munshaw, R., Palen, W., Combes, S., O'Regan, S., 2014.

    Thermal physiology and species distribution models reveal climate vulnerability of temperate amphibians

    Journal of Biogeography 41(4) 713-723.

    Aim: High-latitude ectotherms are predicted to be less physiologically vulnerable to climate warming than tropical species based on their larger thermal safety margins, the distance between ambient temperatures and species' thermal optima. We sought to test the prediction that high latitude amphibians are buffered against the impacts of climate warming. Location: British Columbia, Canada. Methods: We estimated the risk from climate change for three high-latitude amphibian species (Spea intermontana, Rana aurora and Pseudacris regilla) by combining thermal performance experiments with species distribution models and predicted changes in maximum summer temperatures through the 2080s, in order to demonstrate temporal and geographical trends in vulnerability to climate warming among and within species. Results: We found that species have thermal safety margins of 3.2–3.8 °C based on current maximum summer temperatures. However, by the 2080s (emissions scenario A1B), we estimate that 45–82% of our focal species' current distributions will experience maximum summer temperatures above their thermal optima. We also found that by using long-term average temperatures, as some studies have done, there were almost no scenarios in which populations of any species were experiencing temperatures greater than their thermal optima. Main conclusions: Combining spatially explicit species distribution models with performance physiology allows us to predict where limiting temperatures will occur in the coming decades, and can guide climate mitigation and conservation efforts before populations decline. Despite moderate thermal safety margins, high-latitude ectotherms can be highly vulnerable to climate warming when spatio-temporal variation is incorporated into estimates of risk as a result of climate change.

    Keywords: aurora, ecological niche models, global climate change, pseudacris regilla, rana, spea intermontana, thermal physiology


  • Goldsmit, J., Howland, K., Archambault, P., 2014.

    Establishing a baseline for early detection of non-indigenous species in ports of the Canadian Arctic

    Aquatic Invasions 9(3) 327-342.

    The combination of global warming, resource exploitation and the resulting increase in Arctic shipping activity are expected to increase the risk of exotic species introductions to Arctic waters in the near future. Here, we provide for the first time a benthic invertebrate survey for non-indigenous species (NIS) from the Canadian Arctic coasts, incorporating historical information to identify new records. The top three ports at highest risk for introduction of NIS of the Canadian Arctic were surveyed: Churchill (Manitoba), Deception Bay (Quebec) and Iqaluit (Nunavut). A total of 236 genera and species were identified. Based on cross referencing comparisons of contemporary and historical information on species composition and distributions, 14.4% of the taxa identified can be considered new records within the port regions surveyed and 7.2% within the more extended, adjacent surrounding regions. Increased survey effort is the most likely explanation for the majority of new occurrences, however, a small number of records (n=7) were new mentions for Canada and were categorized as cryptogenic since we could not confidently describe them as being either native or introduced. Further research is required to better understand the status of these new taxa. This study provides a benchmark for early detection for benthic invertebrates in the region. Significant costs and intensive labor are involved in monitoring and in early detection surveys, but they provide a great opportunity for identifying native and introduced biodiversity, crucial to analyzing the changes taking place along one of the longest coastlines in the world, the Canadian Arctic coast.

    Keywords: arctic, benthos, biological invasions, risk for introduction, shipping activity, spatial distribution