Uses of GBIF in scientific research

Peer-reviewed research citing GBIF as a data source, with at least one author from Canada.
For all researches, please visit our "Peer-reviewed publications" page.

List of publications

  • Cabİ e, soreng rj G (2017)

    Taxonomy of Poa jubata and a new section of the genus (Poaceae)


    Poa jubata A. Kern. is an ephemeral, southeastern European species of which little is known. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of Poa L. including all previously identified major lineages, shows this species to be isolated, with a genotype here designated as J (plastid) J (nrDNA). It is assigned to the monotypic P. sect. Jubatae sect. nov. The section is differentiated from other Poa sections in having 5-nerved upper glumes, very narrow palea flanges, an annual habit, and erect solitary culms. Poa jubata occurs along coastal regions of the Balkans and is rather rare. Two new collections were made in 2015 in Thrace, Turkey, in vernal pool habitats with clay soils, thus expanding its known habitat. The species is described in detail, illustrated, and its relationships are discussed.

    Keywords: Balkans region, DNA, Europe, Morphology, annual habit, genotype, phylogeny, taxonomy

  • Feldman R, Peers M, Pickles R, Thornton D, Murray D (2017)

    Climate driven range divergence among host species affects range-wide patterns of parasitism

    Global Ecology and Conservation 9 1-10.

    Species interactions like parasitism influence the outcome of climate-driven shifts in species ranges. For some host species, parasitism can only occur in that part of its range that overlaps with a second host species. Thus, predicting future parasitism may depend on how the ranges of the two hosts change in relation to each other. In this study, we tested whether the climate driven species range shift of Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) accounts for predicted changes in parasitism of two other species from the family Cervidae, Alces alces (moose) and Rangifer tarandus (caribou), in North America. We used MaxEnt models to predict the recent (2000) and future (2050) ranges (probabilities of occurrence) of the cervids and a parasite Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (brainworm) taking into account range shifts of the parasite’s intermediate gastropod hosts. Our models predicted that range overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and P. tenuis will decrease between 2000 and 2050, an outcome that reflects decreased overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and O. virginianus and not the parasites, themselves. Geographically, our models predicted increasing potential occurrence of P. tenuis where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to decline, but minimal spatial overlap where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to increase. Thus, parasitism may exacerbate climate-mediated southern contraction of A. alces and R. tarandus ranges but will have limited influence on northward range expansion. Our results suggest that the spatial dynamics of one host species may be the driving force behind future rates of parasitism for another host species.

    Keywords: Boreal, Cervidae, Climate change, Evolution, Parasitism, Synergistic effects

  • Fleming K, Beresford D (2017)

    Range expansion pattern of Carabus granulatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in eastern North America and a new northern range record

    BioInvasions Records 6(1) 13-17.

    This paper reports the first record of Carabus granulatus L. from Moosonee, Ontario. The record extends the range of the species northward in Ontario by approximately 200 km. Carabus granulatus was first introduced into North America in 1890 from Europe. The historic area of C. granulatus in North America was plotted against year. The square root of area occupied by C. granulatus was linear over time (R2 = 0.96, a type 1 expansion curve) a pattern associated with expansion driven by neighbourhood diffusion.

    Keywords: distribution, ground beetle, invasive species, neighborhood diffusion, radial expansion

  • Rubio de Casas R, Willis C, Pearse W, Baskin C, Baskin J, Cavender-Bares J (2017)

    Global biogeography of seed dormancy is determined by seasonality and seed size: a case study in the legumes

    New Phytologist.

    Seed dormancy is expected to provide ecological advantages by adjusting germination to the favorable growth period. However, many species produce nondormant seeds, particularly in wet tropical forests, a biogeographic pattern that is not well accounted for in current models. We hypothesized that the global distribution of dormant seeds derives from their adaptive value in predictably fluctuating (i.e. seasonal) environments. However, the advantage conferred by dormancy might ultimately depend on other seed attributes, particularly size. This general model was tested within a phylogenetically informed framework using a data set comprising > 216 000 world-wide observations of Fabaceae, spanning three orders of magnitude in seed size and including both dormant and nondormant seeds. Our results confirmed our hypothesis: nondormant seeds can only evolve in climates with long growing seasons and/or in lineages that produce larger seeds. Conversely, dormancy should be evolutionarily stable in temperate lineages with small seeds. When the favorable season is fleeting, seed dormancy is the only adaptive strategy. Based on these results, we predict that, within a given lineage, taxa producing larger, nondormant seeds will necessarily predominate in aseasonal environments, while plants bearing small, dormant seeds will be dominant under short growing seasons.

    Keywords: distribution, ground beetle, invasive species, neighborhood diffusion, radial expansion

  • Brown K, Farris Z, Yesuf G, Gerber B, Rasambainarivo F, Karpanty S et al. (2016)

    Modeling co-occurrence between toxic prey and naïve predators in an incipient invasion

    Biodiversity and Conservation 1-19.

    Biological invasions can represent important threats to endemic species, including those within the invaders’ food webs. The Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus) was introduced to Madagascar in 2011. This introduction presents a potentially dangerous prey item to a relatively naïve, highly diverse endemic carnivore fauna. Using a multivariate niche modeling approach (background test), we assessed the predicted niche overlap between D. melanostictus and six endemic carnivores in eastern Madagascar. The overlap between this potential prey and predators was assessed on four environmental niche axes: temperature, precipitation, vegetation cover and elevation. Our results showed a mixture of niche overlap and divergence between D. melanostictus and the six carnivores for environmental axes tested. There was significant overlap with five of the carnivores on temperature and NDVI axes. On the precipitation axis, there was significant overlap between D. melanostictus with two species. Our results suggested that wide-ranging, locally rare carnivores may overlap extensively with D. melanostictus. The six carnivores that inhabit the eastern rainforest of Madagascar will likely share multiple, niche axes with this novel potential prey item. Species that eat the non-native common toad and are susceptible to its toxins are at conservation risk because their populations may not be robust enough to adapt quickly to this threat. We advocate closely monitoring these emerging interactions and suggest a preemptive conservation strategy for carnivores potentially at risk.

    Keywords: Asian common toad, Background test, Carnivores, Ecological niche models, Invasive alien species, Madagascar

  • Cardinal-McTeague W, Sytsma K, Hall J (2016)

    Biogeography and diversification of Brassicales: A 103million year tale

    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.

    Brassicales is a diverse order perhaps most famous because it houses Brassicaceae and, its premier member, Arabidopsis thaliana. This widely distributed and species-rich lineage has been overlooked as a promising system to investigate patterns of disjunct distributions and diversification rates. We analyzed plastid and mitochondrial sequence data from five gene regions (>8000bp) across 150 taxa to: (1) produce a chronogram for major lineages in Brassicales, including Brassicaceae and Arabidopsis, based on greater taxon sampling across the order and previously overlooked fossil evidence, (2) examine biogeographical ancestral range estimations and disjunct distributions in BioGeoBEARS, and (3) determine where shifts in species diversification occur using BAMM. The evolution and radiation of the Brassicales began 103Mya and was linked to a series of inter-continental vicariant, long-distance dispersal, and land bridge migration events. North America appears to be a significant area for early stem lineages in the order. Shifts to Australia then African are evident at nodes near the core Brassicales, which diverged 68.5Mya (HPD=75.6–62.0). This estimated age combined with fossil evidence, indicates that some New World clades embedded amongst Old World relatives (e.g., New World capparoids) are the result of different long distance dispersal events, whereas others may be best explained by land bridge migration (e.g., Forchhammeria). Based on these analyses, the Brassicaceae crown group diverged in Europe/Northern Africa in the Eocene, circa 43.4Mya (HPD=46.6–40.3) and Arabidopsis separated from close congeners circa 10.4Mya. These ages fall between divergent dates that were previously published, suggesting we are slowly converging on a robust age estimate for the family. Three significant shifts in species diversification are observed in the order: (1) 58Mya at the crown of Capparaceae, Cleomaceae and Brassicaceae, (2) 38Mya at the crown of Resedaceae+Stixis clade, and (3) 21Mya at the crown of the tribes Brassiceae and Sisymbrieae within Brassicaceae.

    Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana, BAMM, BEAST, BioGeoBEARS, Brassicaceae, Cleomaceae, K–Pg extinction event, Pierid butterflies, Species diversification, Whole genome duplication

  • Chai S, Zhang J, Nixon A, Nielsen S, Leishman M, Gallagher R et al. (2016)

    Using Risk Assessment and Habitat Suitability Models to Prioritise Invasive Species for Management in a Changing Climate

    PLOS ONE 11(10) e0165292.

    Accounting for climate change in invasive species risk assessments improves our understanding of potential future impacts and enhances our preparedness for the arrival of new non-native species. We combined traditional risk assessment for invasive species with habitat suitability modeling to assess risk to biodiversity based on climate change. We demonstrate our method by assessing the risk for 15 potentially new invasive plant species to Alberta, Canada, an area where climate change is expected to facilitate the poleward expansion of invasive species ranges. Of the 15 species assessed, the three terrestrial invasive plant species that could pose the greatest threat to Alberta’s biodiversity are giant knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis), tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis), and alkali swainsonpea (Sphaerophysa salsula). We characterise giant knotweed as ‘extremely invasive’, with 21 times the suitable habitat between baseline and future projected climate. Tamarisk is ‘extremely invasive’ with a 64% increase in suitable habitat, and alkali swainsonpea is ‘highly invasive’ with a 21% increase in suitable habitat. Our methodology can be used to predict and prioritise potentially new invasive species for their impact on biodiversity in the context of climate change.

    Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana, BAMM, BEAST, BioGeoBEARS, Brassicaceae, Cleomaceae, K–Pg extinction event, Pierid butterflies, Species diversification, Whole genome duplication

  • Charles-Dominique T, Davies T, Hempson G, Bezeng B, Daru B, Kabongo R et al. (2016)

    Spiny plants, mammal browsers, and the origin of African savannas.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113(38) E5572-9.

    Savannas first began to spread across Africa during the Miocene. A major hypothesis for explaining this vegetation change is the increase in C4 grasses, promoting fire. We investigated whether mammals could also have contributed to savanna expansion by using spinescence as a marker of mammal herbivory. Looking at the present distribution of 1,852 tree species, we established that spinescence is mainly associated with two functional types of mammals: large browsers and medium-sized mixed feeders. Using a dated phylogeny for the same tree species, we found that spinescence evolved at least 55 times. The diversification of spiny plants occurred long after the evolution of Afrotherian proboscideans and hyracoids. However, it is remarkably congruent with diversification of bovids, the lineage including the antelope that predominantly browse these plants today. Our findings suggest that herbivore-adapted savannas evolved several million years before fire-maintained savannas and probably, in different environmental conditions. Spiny savannas with abundant mammal herbivores occur in drier climates and on nutrient-rich soils, whereas fire-maintained savannas occur in wetter climates on nutrient-poor soils.

    Keywords: Africa, Bovidae, coevolution, mammalian herbivory, savanna

  • Cheek M, Semple J (2016)

    First official record of naturalised populations of Solidago altissima L. var. pluricephala M.C. Johnst. (Asteraceae: Astereae) in Africa

    South African Journal of Botany 105 333-336.

    Solidago altissima var. pluricephala is recorded for the first time as naturalised in Africa, with two populations detected in South Africa. One 0.5ha population has been found near Harding and another of 403 shoots near Hilton, both in KwaZulu-Natal. A projected species distribution model for South Africa indicates that the grassland biome is the most at risk from invasion by this species. These plants are most likely garden escapees although we are uncertain how widely they are cultivated in South Africa.

    Keywords: Distribution model, Golden rods, Grasslands, Invasive species, Ornamental plants

  • Dunne J, Maschner H, Betts M, Huntly N, Russell R, Williams R et al. (2016)

    The roles and impacts of human hunter-gatherers in North Pacific marine food webs.

    Scientific reports 6 21179.

    There is a nearly 10,000-year history of human presence in the western Gulf of Alaska, but little understanding of how human foragers integrated into and impacted ecosystems through their roles as hunter-gatherers. We present two highly resolved intertidal and nearshore food webs for the Sanak Archipelago in the eastern Aleutian Islands and use them to compare trophic roles of prehistoric humans to other species. We find that the native Aleut people played distinctive roles as super-generalist and highly-omnivorous consumers closely connected to other species. Although the human population was positioned to have strong effects, arrival and presence of Aleut people in the Sanak Archipelago does not appear associated with long-term extinctions. We simulated food web dynamics to explore to what degree introducing a species with trophic roles like those of an Aleut forager, and allowing for variable strong feeding to reflect use of hunting technology, is likely to trigger extinctions. Potential extinctions decreased when an invading omnivorous super-generalist consumer focused strong feeding on decreasing fractions of its possible resources. This study presents the first assessment of the structural roles of humans as consumers within complex ecological networks, and potential impacts of those roles and feeding behavior on associated extinctions.

    Keywords: Distribution model, Golden rods, Grasslands, Invasive species, Ornamental plants