Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.
Aguiar L, Bernard E, Ribeiro V, Machado R, Jones G (2016)
Global Ecology and Conservation 5 22-33.
Most extant species are survivors of the last climate change event 20,000 years ago. While past events took place over thousands of years, current climate change is occurring much faster, over a few decades. We modelled the potential distribution area of bat species in the Brazilian Cerrado, a Neotropical savannah, and assessed the potential impacts of climate change up to 2050 in two scenarios. First we evaluated what the impact on the distributions of bat species would be if they were unable to move to areas where climate conditions might be similar to current ones. The novelty of our paper is that, based on least-cost-path analyses, we identified potential corridors that could be managed now to mitigate potential impacts of climate change. Our results indicate that on average, in the future bat species would find similar climate conditions 281 km southeast from current regions. If bat species were not able to move to new suitable areas and were unable to adapt, then 36 species (31.6%) could lose >80% of their current distribution area, and five species will lose more than 98% of their distribution area in the Brazilian Cerrado. In contrast, if bat species are able to reach such areas, then the number of highly impacted species will be reduced to nine, with none of them likely to disappear from the Cerrado. We present measures that could be implemented immediately to mitigate future climate change impacts.
Keywords: Brazil, Brazilian Cerrado, Chiroptera, Conservation, Ecological niche models
Batalha-Filho H, Miyaki C (2016)
Late Pleistocene divergence and postglacial expansion in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: multilocus phylogeography of Rhopias gularis (Aves: Passeriformes)
Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research.
In the last decade, phylogeographic studies have revealed a complex evolutionary history of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (AF) biota. Here, we investigated the evolutionary history of Rhopias gularis, an endemic bird of the AF, based on sequences of two mitochondrial genes and three nuclear introns from 64 specimens from 15 localities. We addressed three main questions: (1) Does the genetic diversity of R. gularis exhibit a distribution pattern congruent with the refuge hypothesis postulated for the AF? (2) Is the population genetic structure of R. gularis congruent with those observed in other AF species? (3) What were the possible historical events responsible for the population structure of this species? Our mtDNA data revealed two phylogroups: (1) phylogroup central-south, with samples from the central and southern parts of the range; (2) and phylogroup north, which included individuals from southern Bahia. Nevertheless, nuclear loci did not reveal any evidence of population structure. Bottleneck tests indicated that the central-south lineage experienced demographic expansion, starting around 20 kya, which coincides with the end of the last glacial maximum. However, there was no evidence of population growth in phylogroup north. Isolation with migration analysis indicated that these phylogroups split c.a. 304 kya, with limited gene flow among them. Palaeodistribution models indicated that R. gularis had a reduced distribution in the south and central AF during the last glacial maximum. Our results support a diversification scenario that is in accordance with proposed Pleistocene refugia. The phylogeographic results from our study exhibited spatial and temporal concordances and discordances with previous studies of organisms from the AF. Differences in habitat requirements of these species could be behind this complex scenario. Future studies correlating variables of the niche of these species with the observed phylogeographic patterns may help understand why there are congruent and incongruent results.
Keywords: Last glacial maximum, Thamnophilidae, coalescence, refuge hypothesis
Carneiro L, Lima A, Machado R, Magnusson W (2016)
Limitations to the Use of Species-Distribution Models for Environmental-Impact Assessments in the Amazon.
PloS one 11(1) e0146543.
Species-distribution models (SDM) are tools with potential to inform environmental-impact studies (EIA). However, they are not always appropriate and may result in improper and expensive mitigation and compensation if their limitations are not understood by decision makers. Here, we examine the use of SDM for frogs that were used in impact assessment using data obtained from the EIA of a hydroelectric project located in the Amazon Basin in Brazil. The results show that lack of knowledge of species distributions limits the appropriate use of SDM in the Amazon region for most target species. Because most of these targets are newly described and their distributions poorly known, data about their distributions are insufficient to be effectively used in SDM. Surveys that are mandatory for the EIA are often conducted only near the area under assessment, and so models must extrapolate well beyond the sampled area to inform decisions made at much larger spatial scales, such as defining areas to be used to offset the negative effects of the projects. Using distributions of better-known species in simulations, we show that geographical-extrapolations based on limited information of species ranges often lead to spurious results. We conclude that the use of SDM as evidence to support project-licensing decisions in the Amazon requires much greater area sampling for impact studies, or, alternatively, integrated and comparative survey strategies, to improve biodiversity sampling. When more detailed distribution information is unavailable, SDM will produce results that generate uncertain and untestable decisions regarding impact assessment. In many cases, SDM is unlikely to be better than the use of expert opinion.
Keywords: Last glacial maximum, Thamnophilidae, coalescence, refuge hypothesis
Leite Y, Costa L, Loss A, Rocha R, Batalha-Filho H, Bastos A et al. (2016)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1513062113-.
The forest refuge hypothesis (FRH) has long been a paradigm for explaining the extreme biological diversity of tropical forests. According to this hypothesis, forest retraction and fragmentation during glacial periods would have promoted reproductive isolation and consequently speciation in forest patches (ecological refuges) surrounded by open habitats. The recent use of paleoclimatic models of species and habitat distributions revitalized the FRH, not by considering refuges as the main drivers of allopatric speciation, but instead by suggesting that high contemporary diversity is associated with historically stable forest areas. However, the role of the emerged continental shelf on the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspot of eastern South America during glacial periods has been ignored in the literature. Here, we combined results of species distribution models with coalescent simulations based on DNA sequences to explore the congruence between scenarios of forest dynamics through time and the genetic structure of mammal species cooccurring in the central region of the Atlantic Forest. Contrary to the FRH predictions, we found more fragmentation of suitable habitats during the last interglacial (LIG) and the present than in the last glacial maximum (LGM), probably due to topography. We also detected expansion of suitable climatic conditions onto the emerged continental shelf during the LGM, which would have allowed forests and forest-adapted species to expand. The interplay of sea level and land distribution must have been crucial in the biogeographic history of the Atlantic Forest, and forest refuges played only a minor role, if any, in this biodiversity hotspot during glacial periods.
Keywords: Atlantic Forest, Quaternary, continental shelf, last glacial maximum, sea level
Mai P, Rossado A, Bonifacino J, Waechter J (2016)
Phytotaxa 244(2) 125.
The genus Peperomia is represented by eight species in Uruguay: P. catharinae , P. comarapana , P. hispidula , P. increscens , P. pereskiifolia , P. psilostachya , P. tetraphylla and P. trineuroides . Peperomia psilostachya is reported for the first time for the flora of Uruguay, from material collected in moist hillside and riverside forests from the northeast and east of the country. Three new synonyms are proposed: P. arechavaletae var. arechavaletae as synonym of P. trineuroides , P. arechavaletae var. minor of P. tetraphylla and P. trapezoidalis of P. psilostachya . Lectotypes for P. arechavaletae, P. arechavaletae var. minor and P. tacuariana , and a neotype for P. herteri are designated. The taxonomic treatment includes synonymies used in Uruguay, morphological descriptions, distribution and habitat data, phenology, conservation assesment, observations, and material examined for each species treated. A species identification key, plant illustrations and distribution maps in Uruguay are provided.
Keywords: Magnoliids, Uruguay, conservation assessment, geographic distribution, identification key, new records, new synonyms, typification
Morales A, Villalobos F, Velazco P, Simmons N, Piñero D (2016)
Journal of Biogeography.
Aim To explore whether environmental factors are correlated with genetic and morphometric differences in the widely distributed bat species Tadarida brasiliensis. Location North America and Central America. Methods We used an extensive sampling comprising 131 localities that represent heterogeneous environments across the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. Museum specimens were examined and 25 craniodental characters were recorded. Individuals were genotyped at one mitochondrial locus (mtDNA) and nine nuclear loci (nDNA). Clustering and phylogenetic analyses were used to identify differentiated groups. Environmental variables and PCA-env approaches were used to determine the climatic niche and to measure the niche overlap, equivalence and similarity between groups. Mantel tests between genetic groupings and environmental variables, dispersal costs, Euclidean geographical distances and niche overlap were performed. Results We identified six genetic groups within Central and North American T. brasiliensis based on nDNA. The most strongly differentiated group, in both nDNA and mtDNA, was located in central Mexico. Morphometric data showed that individuals from populations in Florida are slightly larger than the others. Niche overlap was detected among Neotropical groups but not among Nearctic groups. The currently recognized subspecies were not recovered as distinct groups with either genetic or morphometric data. Main conclusions Our approaches suggest that environmental niche variation may help shape the distribution of genetic variation across heterogeneous landscapes, particularly in widely distributed species. Environmental niche analyses suggest that genetic differences between migratory and non-migratory groups of T. brasiliensis may be promoted by climatic variation throughout the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. In addition, genetic and morphometric analyses do not support the current subspecies classification of T. brasiliensis in North and Central America, which should be abandoned.
Keywords: Tadarida brasiliensis, ecological niche, genetic structure, morphometric, phylogeography, subspecies
Aguiar L, da Rosa R, Jones G, Machado R (2015)
Effect of chronological addition of records to species distribution maps: The case of Tonatia saurophila maresi (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in South America
Ecological niche models have become very popular for analysing the potential distribution of species. Nevertheless, models are strongly influenced by many factors, such as spatial resolution, environmental variables and the quality of distribution records. In this paper, we evaluated how ecological niche models changed with the addition of records accumulated over four decades. Our model species was the stripe-headed round-eared bat (Tonatia saurophila). Thus, with data organized in chronological order, we could observe how the models changed in predicting distributions over time in comparison with all known point locations. We tested if partial models could predict the occurrence of new unpublished records for savannah areas in central Brazil, considering that the species is typically associated with forest environments. Our results indicate a high omission rate for models built with point localities from the 1970s and 1980s (58.5% and 50.0% of all known points respectively), and predicted that the species could occur in central Brazil. Although T. saurophila has indeed been recorded recently in central Brazil, it was found in places different from those predicted by the models using these restricted earlier data. Nevertheless, the environmental suitability of such areas is significantly different from sites largely described in earlier records from the Amazonia region, as shown by principal components analysis. We argue that populations of T. saurophila that occupy open habitats in central South America (including Caatinga, Cerrado, Chaco and semi-deciduous interior forests) deserve further study at the genetic level to determine if bats in these very different habitats are taxonomically distinct from Amazonian populations. Our results also suggest that models based on very limited datasets for species occurrence can lead conservationists or decision makers to wrong conclusions.
Keywords: Maxent, bat, biogeography, conservation, ecological niche model, neotropical savannah
Alimi T, Fuller D, Qualls W, Herrera S, Arevalo-Herrera M, Quinones M et al. (2015)
Predicting potential ranges of primary malaria vectors and malaria in northern South America based on projected changes in climate, land cover and human population.
Parasites & vectors 8 431.
BACKGROUND: Changes in land use and land cover (LULC) as well as climate are likely to affect the geographic distribution of malaria vectors and parasites in the coming decades. At present, malaria transmission is concentrated mainly in the Amazon basin where extensive agriculture, mining, and logging activities have resulted in changes to local and regional hydrology, massive loss of forest cover, and increased contact between malaria vectors and hosts. METHODS: Employing presence-only records, bioclimatic, topographic, hydrologic, LULC and human population data, we modeled the distribution of malaria and two of its dominant vectors, Anopheles darlingi, and Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. in northern South America using the species distribution modeling platform Maxent. RESULTS: Results from our land change modeling indicate that about 70,000 km(2) of forest land would be lost by 2050 and 78,000 km(2) by 2070 compared to 2010. The Maxent model predicted zones of relatively high habitat suitability for malaria and the vectors mainly within the Amazon and along coastlines. While areas with malaria are expected to decrease in line with current downward trends, both vectors are predicted to experience range expansions in the future. Elevation, annual precipitation and temperature were influential in all models both current and future. Human population mostly affected An. darlingi distribution while LULC changes influenced An. nuneztovari s.l. distribution. CONCLUSION: As the region tackles the challenge of malaria elimination, investigations such as this could be useful for planning and management purposes and aid in predicting and addressing potential impediments to elimination.
Keywords: An. darlingi, An. nuneztovari s.l, Climate, Land-use changes, Malaria, Maxent, Population expansion, South America, Species distribution models, change
Barbosa N, Fernandes G, Sanchez-Azofeifa A (2015)
A relict species restricted to a quartzitic mountain in tropical America: an example of microrefugium?
Acta Botanica Brasilica 29(3) 299-309.
We examined the distribution of Coccoloba cereifera, a tropical endemic species that occurs in a small area in the Espinhaço mountain range, southeastern Brazil. It is hypothesized that its narrow distribution is strongly related to the spatially scattered distribution of sandfields. However, this soil type extends far beyond the small region where C. cereifera is currently found, indicating that other factors might be involved in the distribution of this species. Coccoloba cereifera also displays all traits of a relict population in a microrefugium. As a result, we were encouraged to explore other factors potentially related to the distribution of the species. In an attempt to aid in the understanding of the processes and mechanisms that lead C. cereiferato present the narrow actual distribution, we applied two distribution modelling approaches to investigate the potential distribution of the species beyond the small known distribution area. The distribution seems to be strongly associated with sandy patches/grasslands formed among rocky outcrops and is limited by some topoclimatic and/or topographic features. Some of them related to the existence of a microrefugium, a fact also suggested by the pattern of distribution of the species in the past. From the management point of view, the existence of a microrefugium in this area calls for changes in conservation efforts and priorities.
Keywords: Coccoloba cereifera, Espinhaço Mountains, Serra do Cipó, maximum entropy, rupestrian grasslands
Cardoso S, Amanqui F, Serique K, dos Santos J, Moreira D (2015)
Future Generation Computer Systems.
Current implementations of gazetteers, geographic directories that associate place names to geographic coordinates, cannot use semantics to answer complex queries (most gazetteers are just thesauri of place names), use domain ontologies for place name disambiguation, make their data sets available in the Semantic Web or support the use of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). A new generation of gazetteers has to tackle these problems. In this paper, we present a new architecture for gazetteers that uses VGI and Semantic Web tools, such as ontologies and Linked Open Data to overcome these limitations. We also present a gazetteer, the Semantic Web Interactive Gazetteer (SWI), implemented using this architecture, and show that it can be used to add absent geographic coordinates to biodiversity records. In our tests, we use this gazetteer to correct geographic data from a big sample (around 142,000 occurrence records of Amazonian specimens) from SpeciesLink, a big repository of biodiversity collection records from Brazil. The tests showed that the SWI Gazetteer was able to add geographic coordinates to around 30,000 records, increasing the records with coordinates from 30.29% to 57.5% of the total number of records in the sample (representing an increase of 90%).
Keywords: Gazetteer, Semantic Web, Volunteered geographic information