Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.
Householder, J., Wittmann, F., Tobler, M., Janovec, J., 2015.
Montane bias in lowland Amazonian Peatlands: Plant assembly on heterogeneous landscapes and potential significance to palynological inference
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 423 138-148.
Past temperature changes in tropical mountain regions are commonly inferred from vertical elevational shifts of montane indicator taxa in the palynological record. However temperature is one of several abiotic factors driving the low-elevational limits of species and many montane taxa can occur in warmer lowlands by tracking appropriate habitat types, especially highly flooded wetlands. In this paper we explore ways in which lowland habitat heterogeneity might introduce error into paleo-temperature reconstructions, based on field data of seven modern peatland vegetation communities in the southern Peruvian Amazon (~200masl). Peat-rich substrates are common edaphic transitions in pollen cores and provide detailed records of past vegetation change. The data show that indicators of modern peatlands include genera with montane as well as lowland distributions, while indicators of surrounding forests on mineral substrates have predominantly lowland distributions. Based on family-level analyses we find that modern peatland vegetation communities have taxonomic compositions appearing to be 389m to 1557m (mean=1050±391m) above their actual elevations due to a high abundance and number of families with high elevation optima. We interpret the relatively higher prevalence of montane elements in modern peatlands as habitat tracking of a conserved montane niche on heterogeneous lowland landscapes. We suggest that both high moisture availability and stressful edaphic conditions of peatland habitat may explain the montane bias observed. To the extent that fossilization provides a better record of past vegetation that occurred proximate to the site of deposition, we suggest that habitat tracking of montane elements may introduce a cool bias in lowland paleo-temperature reconstructions based on pollen proxies.
Keywords: Amazon, Andes, Climate history, Gentry, Montane, Peatland, Wetland
Molineri, C., Salles, F., Peters, J., 2015.
Phylogeny and biogeography of Asthenopodinae with a revision of Asthenopus, reinstatement of Asthenopodes, and the description of the new genera Hubbardipes and Priasthenopus (Ephemeroptera, Polymitarcyidae).
The Neotropical species of Asthenopodinae are revised in a formal phylogenetic context. The five known species of Asthenopus Eaton, 1871, together with other five new species were included in a cladistic analysis using morphological characters (continuous and discretes). Representatives of the Afro-Oriental group of the subfamily (Povilla Navás, 1912 and Languidipes Hubbard, 1984) were also included to test the monophyletic hypothesis traditionally accepted for the group. Additional taxa representing the other subfamilies of Polymitarcyidae were incorparated: Ephoron Williamson, 1802 (Polymitarcyinae) and Campsurus Eaton, 1868, Tortopus Needham & Murphy, 1924 and Tortopsis Molineri, 2010 (Campsurinae). A matrix of 17 taxa and 72 characters was analyzed under parsimony resulting in a single tree supporting the monophyly of the subfamily Asthenopodinae. Other results include the monophyly of the Afro-Oriental taxa (Povilla and Languidipes), the paraphyletic nature of Neotropical Asthenopodinae, and the recognition of four South American genera: Asthenopus (including Asthenopuscurtus (Hagen), 1861, Asthenopusangelae de Souza & Molineri, 2012, Asthenopusmagnus sp. n., Asthenopushubbardi sp. n., Asthenopusguarani sp. n.), Asthenopodes Ulmer, 1924, stat. n. (including Asthenopuspicteti Hubbard, 1975, stat. n., Asthenopodestraverae sp. n., Asthenopodeschumuco sp. n.), Priasthenopus gen. n. (including Priasthenopusgilliesi (Domínguez), 1988, comb. n.), and Hubbardipes gen. n. (including Hubbardipescrenulatus (Molineri et al.), 2011, comb. n.). Descriptions, diagnoses, illustrations and keys are presented for all Neotropical taxa of Asthenopodinae (adults of both sexes, eggs and nymphs). Additionally a key to the subfamilies and genera of Polymitarcyidae is included. A quantitative biogeographic analysis of vicariance is presented and discussed through the study of the "taxon history" of the group. Abstract available from the publisher.
Keywords: Campsurinae, Campsurus, Ephemeroidea, Ephemeroptera, Fossoriae, Languidipes, Neotropics, Povilla, Tortopsis, Tortopus, evolution, vicariance
Oliveira, U., Brescovit, A., Santos, A., 2015.
PloS one 10(1) e0116673.
We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE), based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units.
Keywords: Biogeography, Ecosystems, Interpolation, Kernel methods, Rivers, brazil, forests, species delimitation
Almeida, D., Gusmão, L., Miller, A., 2014.
Mycosphere 5 379-391.
During an investigation of ascomycetes carried out in one area of Caatinga and three enclaves of the Atlantic Forest in the semi-arid region of Brazil, we found ten interesting species of hysteriaceous ascomycetes. Psiloglonium clavisporum and Rhytidhysteron opuntiae are new records for South America and Anteaglonium abbreviatum, Hysterium angustatum and Hysterobrevium smilacis are new records for Brazil. All species are described, illustrated and discussed.
Keywords: biodiversity, taxonomy, tropical microfungi
Carlos-Júnior, L., Barbosa, N., Moulton, T., Creed, J., 2014.
Marine Environmental Research.
All organisms have a set of ecological conditions (or niche) which they depend on to survive and establish in a given habitat. The ecological niche of a species limits its geographical distribution. In the particular case of non-indigenous species (NIS), the ecological requirements of the species impose boundaries on the potential distribution of the organism in the new receptor regions. This is a theoretical assumption implicit when Ecological Niche Models (ENMs) are used to assess the potential distribution of NIS. This assumption has been questioned, given that in some cases niche shift may occur during the process of invasion. We used ENMs to investigate whether the model fit with data from the native range of the coral Tubastraea coccinea Lesson, 1829 successfully predicts its invasion in the Atlantic. We also identified which factors best explain the distribution of this NIS. The broad native distributional range of T. coccinea predicted the invaded sites well, especially along the Brazilian coast, the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. The occurrence of T. coccinea was positively related to calcite levels and negatively to eutrophy, but was rather unaffected to other variables that often limit other marine organisms, suggesting that this NIS has wide ecological limits, a trait typical of invasive species.
Keywords: Benthic ecology, Distribution dynamics, Ecological Niche Models, Equatorial and southern Atlantic, Invasive species, Tubastraea coccinea
Collevatti, R., Lima-Ribeiro, M., Terribile, L., Guedes, L., Rosa, F., Telles, M., 2014.
Recovering species demographic history from multi-model inference: the case of a Neotropical savanna tree species
BMC Evolutionary Biology 14(1) 213.
Background: Glaciations were recurrent throughout the Quaternary and potentially shaped species genetic structure worldwide by affecting population dynamics. Here, we implemented a multi-model inference approach to recover the distribution dynamics and demographic history of a Neotropical savanna tree, Tabebuia aurea (Bignoniaceae). Exploring different algorithms and paleoclimatic simulations, we used ecological niche modelling to generate alternative hypotheses of potential demographic changes through the last glacial cycle and estimated genetic parameters using coalescent modelling. Results: Comparing predictions from demographic hypotheses with genetic parameters of modern populations, our findings revealed a likely scenario of population decline, with spatial displacement towards Northeast Brazil from the last glacial maximum to the mid-Holocene. Subsequently, populations expanded in response to the return of the climatically suitable conditions in Central-West Brazil. Nevertheless, a wide historical refugium across Central Brazil likely maintained large populations connected throughout time. The expected genetic signatures from such predicted distribution dynamics are also corroborated by spatial genetic structure observed in modern populations. Conclusion: By exploring uncertainties inherent in multiple working hypotheses, we have shown that multi-model inference is a fruitful and efficient approach to recover the nature, timing and geographical context of the Tabebuia aurea population dynamic in response to the Quaternary climate changes.
Keywords: Coalescent simulation, Ecological niche modelling, Genetic connectivity, Habitat tracking, Multiple working hypotheses, Quaternary climate changes
Costa, M., Batista, R., Gurgel-Gonçalves, R., 2014.
Acta Scientiarum Predicting geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species (Aves: Furnariidae) in South America based on ecological niche modeling
Acta Scientiarum 36(3) 299-306.
Phacellodomus Reichenbach, 1853, comprises nine species of Furnariids that occur in South America in open and generally dry areas. This study estimated the geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species in South America by ecological niche modeling. Applying maximum entropy method, models were produced for eight species based on six climatic variables and 949 occurrence records. Since highest climatic suitability for Phacellodomus species has been estimated in open and dry areas, the Amazon rainforest areas are not very suitable for these species. Annual precipitation and minimum temperature of the coldest month are the variables that most influence the models. Phacellodomus species occurred in 35 ecoregions of South America. Chaco and Uruguayan savannas were the ecoregions with the highest number of species. Despite the overall connection of Phacellodomus species with dry areas, species such as P. ruber, P. rufifrons, P. ferrugineigula and P. erythrophthalmus occurreKeywords:
Keywords: Synallaxinae, climatic variables, ecoregions, maxent
Leidenberger, S., De Giovanni, R., Kulawik, R., Williams, A., Bourlat, S., 2014.
Mapping present and future potential distribution patterns for a meso-grazer guild in the Baltic Sea
Journal of Biogeography Forthcoming.
pute the extent and intensity of change in species’ potential distributions. Indi- vidual ecological niche models were generated under present conditions and then projected into a future climate change scenario (2050) for a food web consisting of a guild of meso-grazers (Idotea spp.), their host algae (Fucus vesi- culosus and Fucus radicans) and their fish predator (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We used occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), literature and museum collections, together with five environmental layers at a resolution of 5 and 30 arc-minutes. Results Habitat suitability for Idotea balthica and Idotea chelipes in the Baltic Sea seems to be mostly determined by temperature and ice cover rather than by salinity. 2050 predictions for all modelled species show a northern/north- eastern shift in the Baltic Sea. The distribution ranges for Idotea granulosa and G. aculeatus are predicted to become patchier in the Baltic than in the rest of northern Europe, where the species will gain more suitable habitats. Main conclusions For the Baltic Sea, climate-induced changes resulted in a gain of suitable habitats for F. vesiculosus, I. chelipes and I. balthica, whereas lower habitat suitability was predicted for I. granulosa, F. radicans and G. aculeatus. The predicted north-eastern shift of I. balthica and I. chelipes into the dis- tribution area of F. radicans in the Baltic Sea may result in increased grazing pressure. Such additional threats to isolated Baltic populations can lead to a higher extinction risk for the species, especially as climate changes are likely to be very rapid.
Keywords: Baltic Sea, climate change, e-Science, ecological niche modelling, food web, fucus radicans, fucus vesiculosus, gasterosteus aculeatus, idotea, workflows
López-Uribe, M., Zamudio, K., Cardoso, C., Danforth, B., 2014.
Climate, physiological tolerance and sex-biased dispersal shape genetic structure of Neotropical orchid bees
Molecular Ecology 23(7) 1874-90.
Understanding the impact of past climatic events on the demographic history of extant species is critical for predicting species' responses to future climate change. Palaeoclimatic instability is a major mechanism of lineage diversification in taxa with low dispersal and small geographical ranges in tropical ecosystems. However, the impact of these climatic events remains questionable for the diversification of species with high levels of gene flow and large geographical distributions. In this study, we investigate the impact of Pleistocene climate change on three Neotropical orchid bee species (Eulaema bombiformis, E. meriana and E. cingulata) with transcontinental distributions and different physiological tolerances. We first generated ecological niche models to identify species-specific climatically stable areas during Pleistocene climatic oscillations. Using a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear markers, we inferred calibrated phylogenies and estimated historical demographic parameters to reconstruct the phylogeographical history of each species. Our results indicate species with narrower physiological tolerance experienced less suitable habitat during glaciations and currently exhibit strong population structure in the mitochondrial genome. However, nuclear markers with low and high mutation rates show lack of association with geography. These results combined with lower migration rate estimates from the mitochondrial than the nuclear genome suggest male-biased dispersal. We conclude that despite large effective population sizes and capacity for long-distance dispersal, climatic instability is an important mechanism of maternal lineage diversification in orchid bees. Thus, these Neotropical pollinators are susceptible to disruption of genetic connectivity in the event of large-scale climatic changes.
Keywords: Adaptation, Animals, Bees, Bees: classification, Bees: genetics, Biological, Cell Nucleus, Cell Nucleus: genetics, Central America, Climate, Climate Change, DNA, Ecosystem, Female, Genetic Markers, Genetic Variation, Haplotypes, Male, Microsatellite Repeats, Mitochondrial, Mitochondrial: genetics, Models, Molecular Sequence Data, Phylogeny, Phylogeography, Physiological, Physiological: genetics, Sequence Analysis, South America, Species Specificity
Messias, P., Vidal Jr., J., Koch, I., Christianini, A., 2014.
Host specificity and experimental assessment of the early establishment of the mistletoe Phoradendron crassifolium (Pohl ex DC.) Eichler (Santalaceae) in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in southeast Brazil
Acta Botanica Brasilica 28(4) 577-582.
Mistletoe establishment relies heavily on a seed reaching a proper host plant. Small frugivorous birds usually disperse large numbers of mistletoe seeds. However, in the field, mistletoes are absent from some potential available hosts. We investigated whether the mistletoe Phoradendron crassifolium has some preferences for specific host trees in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in southeast Brazil. We surveyed 397 tree individuals of 50 species within 25 families. Seven of those species (14%) bore P. crassifolium infections. Although prevalence at the individual level was low (11.6%), there were marked deviations in infection levels among species and families. Most (87%) of the infections (40 of 46) occurred in species belonging to the families Anacardiaceae (Lithraea molleoides and Tapirira guianensis) and Siparunaceae (Siparuna guianensis), which nevertheless accounted for only 26% of the potential individual hosts (103 of 397). We also performed an experiment simulating bird behavior. We inoculated 480 mistletoe seeds to the bark of four potential hosts in field, following the fate of the seeds for five months. No differences in host preference were observed. The low specificity detected at the local level was confirmed by a survey of exsiccata collected over the geographical distribution of the mistletoe, suggesting that P. crassifolium prevalence is more dependent on dispersal limitation than on mistletoe-host compatibility.
Keywords: host compatibility, prevalence, seed dispersal, seed predation