Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.
Aguiar L, da Rosa R, Jones G, Machado R (2015)
Effect of chronological addition of records to species distribution maps: The case of Tonatia saurophila maresi (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in South America
Ecological niche models have become very popular for analysing the potential distribution of species. Nevertheless, models are strongly influenced by many factors, such as spatial resolution, environmental variables and the quality of distribution records. In this paper, we evaluated how ecological niche models changed with the addition of records accumulated over four decades. Our model species was the stripe-headed round-eared bat (Tonatia saurophila). Thus, with data organized in chronological order, we could observe how the models changed in predicting distributions over time in comparison with all known point locations. We tested if partial models could predict the occurrence of new unpublished records for savannah areas in central Brazil, considering that the species is typically associated with forest environments. Our results indicate a high omission rate for models built with point localities from the 1970s and 1980s (58.5% and 50.0% of all known points respectively), and predicted that the species could occur in central Brazil. Although T. saurophila has indeed been recorded recently in central Brazil, it was found in places different from those predicted by the models using these restricted earlier data. Nevertheless, the environmental suitability of such areas is significantly different from sites largely described in earlier records from the Amazonia region, as shown by principal components analysis. We argue that populations of T. saurophila that occupy open habitats in central South America (including Caatinga, Cerrado, Chaco and semi-deciduous interior forests) deserve further study at the genetic level to determine if bats in these very different habitats are taxonomically distinct from Amazonian populations. Our results also suggest that models based on very limited datasets for species occurrence can lead conservationists or decision makers to wrong conclusions.
Keywords: Maxent, bat, biogeography, conservation, ecological niche model, neotropical savannah
Alimi T, Fuller D, Qualls W, Herrera S, Arevalo-Herrera M, Quinones M et al. (2015)
Predicting potential ranges of primary malaria vectors and malaria in northern South America based on projected changes in climate, land cover and human population.
Parasites & vectors 8 431.
BACKGROUND: Changes in land use and land cover (LULC) as well as climate are likely to affect the geographic distribution of malaria vectors and parasites in the coming decades. At present, malaria transmission is concentrated mainly in the Amazon basin where extensive agriculture, mining, and logging activities have resulted in changes to local and regional hydrology, massive loss of forest cover, and increased contact between malaria vectors and hosts. METHODS: Employing presence-only records, bioclimatic, topographic, hydrologic, LULC and human population data, we modeled the distribution of malaria and two of its dominant vectors, Anopheles darlingi, and Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. in northern South America using the species distribution modeling platform Maxent. RESULTS: Results from our land change modeling indicate that about 70,000 km(2) of forest land would be lost by 2050 and 78,000 km(2) by 2070 compared to 2010. The Maxent model predicted zones of relatively high habitat suitability for malaria and the vectors mainly within the Amazon and along coastlines. While areas with malaria are expected to decrease in line with current downward trends, both vectors are predicted to experience range expansions in the future. Elevation, annual precipitation and temperature were influential in all models both current and future. Human population mostly affected An. darlingi distribution while LULC changes influenced An. nuneztovari s.l. distribution. CONCLUSION: As the region tackles the challenge of malaria elimination, investigations such as this could be useful for planning and management purposes and aid in predicting and addressing potential impediments to elimination.
Keywords: An. darlingi, An. nuneztovari s.l, Climate, Land-use changes, Malaria, Maxent, Population expansion, South America, Species distribution models, change
Barbosa N, Fernandes G, Sanchez-Azofeifa A (2015)
A relict species restricted to a quartzitic mountain in tropical America: an example of microrefugium?
Acta Botanica Brasilica 29(3) 299-309.
We examined the distribution of Coccoloba cereifera, a tropical endemic species that occurs in a small area in the Espinhaço mountain range, southeastern Brazil. It is hypothesized that its narrow distribution is strongly related to the spatially scattered distribution of sandfields. However, this soil type extends far beyond the small region where C. cereifera is currently found, indicating that other factors might be involved in the distribution of this species. Coccoloba cereifera also displays all traits of a relict population in a microrefugium. As a result, we were encouraged to explore other factors potentially related to the distribution of the species. In an attempt to aid in the understanding of the processes and mechanisms that lead C. cereiferato present the narrow actual distribution, we applied two distribution modelling approaches to investigate the potential distribution of the species beyond the small known distribution area. The distribution seems to be strongly associated with sandy patches/grasslands formed among rocky outcrops and is limited by some topoclimatic and/or topographic features. Some of them related to the existence of a microrefugium, a fact also suggested by the pattern of distribution of the species in the past. From the management point of view, the existence of a microrefugium in this area calls for changes in conservation efforts and priorities.
Keywords: Coccoloba cereifera, Espinhaço Mountains, Serra do Cipó, maximum entropy, rupestrian grasslands
Cardoso S, Amanqui F, Serique K, dos Santos J, Moreira D (2015)
Future Generation Computer Systems.
Current implementations of gazetteers, geographic directories that associate place names to geographic coordinates, cannot use semantics to answer complex queries (most gazetteers are just thesauri of place names), use domain ontologies for place name disambiguation, make their data sets available in the Semantic Web or support the use of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). A new generation of gazetteers has to tackle these problems. In this paper, we present a new architecture for gazetteers that uses VGI and Semantic Web tools, such as ontologies and Linked Open Data to overcome these limitations. We also present a gazetteer, the Semantic Web Interactive Gazetteer (SWI), implemented using this architecture, and show that it can be used to add absent geographic coordinates to biodiversity records. In our tests, we use this gazetteer to correct geographic data from a big sample (around 142,000 occurrence records of Amazonian specimens) from SpeciesLink, a big repository of biodiversity collection records from Brazil. The tests showed that the SWI Gazetteer was able to add geographic coordinates to around 30,000 records, increasing the records with coordinates from 30.29% to 57.5% of the total number of records in the sample (representing an increase of 90%).
Keywords: Gazetteer, Semantic Web, Volunteered geographic information
Carlos-Júnior L, Neves D, Barbosa N, Moulton T, Creed J (2015)
Occurrence of an invasive coral in the southwest Atlantic and comparison with a congener suggest potential niche expansion.
Ecology and evolution 5(11) 2162-71.
Tubastraea tagusensis, a coral native to the Galapagos Archipelago, has successfully established and invaded the Brazilian coast where it modifies native tropical rocky shore and coral reef communities. In order to understand the processes underlying the establishment of T. tagusensis, we tested whether Maxent, a tool for species distribution modeling, based on the native range of T. tagusensis correctly forecasted the invasion range of this species in Brazil. The Maxent algorithm was unable to predict the Brazilian coast as a suitable environment for the establishment of T. tagusensis. A comparison between these models and a principal component analysis (PCA) allowed us to examine the environmental dissimilarity between the two occupied regions (native and invaded) and to assess the species' occupied niche breadth. According to the PCA results, lower levels of chlorophyll-a and nitrate on the Atlantic coast segregate the Brazilian and Galapagos environments, implying that T. tagusensis may have expanded its realized niche during the invasion process. We tested the possible realized niche expansion in T. tagusensis by assuming that Tubastraea spp. have similar fundamental niches, which was supported by exploring the environmental space of T. coccinea, a tropical-cosmopolitan congener of T. tagusensis. We believe that the usage of Maxent should be treated with caution, especially when applied to biological invasion (or climate change) scenarios where the target species has a highly localized native (original) distribution, which may represent only a small portion of its fundamental niche, and therefore a violation of a SDM assumption.
Keywords: Coral species, Tubastraea coccinea, Tubastraea tagusensis, marine invasions, niche breadth, species distribution modeling
Collins R, Duarte Ribeiro E, Nogueira Machado V, Hrbek T, Farias I (2015)
A preliminary inventory of the catfishes of the lower Rio Nhamundá, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes).
Biodiversity data journal(3) e4162.
The Rio Nhamundá is a poorly-known clearwater river draining the southern Guiana Shield of Brazil. In this study we report the findings of a preliminary ichthyological survey, focusing on catfishes (Siluriformes). We identify a total of 36 species (31 genera, seven families) from the Nhamundá, including 11 species already recorded from the river. Overall, our survey results show that even rapid surveys can provide important information on Amazon fish biodiversity, suggesting potential new species, providing range extensions for nominal species, and additionally highlighting taxa in need of taxonomic revision and genetic study. As well as the traditional forms of data collected on biodiversity surveys (i.e. preserved specimen vouchers), our study also provides "new" types of data in the form of DNA barcodes and images of fishes exhibiting colouration in life, information that will be invaluable in future work addressing difficult groups. O Rio Nhamundá é um rio de água clara, pouco conhecido, que drena parte do Escudo das Guianas em território brasileiro. Nesse estudo, nós reportamos os resultados de um levantamento ictiofaunístico preliminar dessa área, tendo como foco os bagres (Siluriformes). Nós identificamos um total de 36 espécies (31 gêneros, sete famílias) provenientes de nossa coleta, e adicionamos 11 espécies já conhecidas para o rio. De maneira geral, os resultados de nossa pesquisa mostram que mesmo levantamentos rápidos podem gerar informações importantes sobre a biodiversidade de peixes amazônicos, sugerindo potenciais espécies novas, ampliando a área de distribuição de espécies, além de apontar a necessidade de revisões taxonômicas e estudos genéticos para alguns taxa. Para além das formas tradicionais de dados coletados em pesquisas de biodiversidade (i.e. espécimes preservados), nosso estudo fornece "novas" formas de dados, como DNA barcodes e imagens com o padrão de coloração dos espécimes vivos, informações essas que serão de valor inestimável para futuros estudos que abordem grupos taxonômicos difíceis.
Keywords: Amazon, Biodiversity, Checklist, Guiana Shield, Ichthyology
Diniz-Filho J, Barbosa A, Collevatti R, Chaves L, Terribile L, Lima-Ribeiro M et al. (2015)
Spatial autocorrelation analysis and ecological niche modelling allows inference of range dynamics driving the population genetic structure of a Neotropical savanna tree
Journal of Biogeography.
Aim Spatial autocorrelation analysis of genetic diversity was combined with ecological niche modelling (ENM) to better infer how ecological and evolutionary processes underlie population structure in Eugenia dysenterica, a widely distributed tree in the ‘Cerrado’ region of Central Brazil. Location ‘Cerrado’ region, Central Brazil. Methods Data were derived from 11 microsatellite loci in 23 populations of E. dysenterica, totalling 249 allele frequencies. The expected heterozygosity (He) within populations and the first principal coordinates extracted from pairwise FST and from the difference between RST and FST among populations were correlated with shifts in suitability from ENM. Frequencies were then analysed using a spatial autocorrelation analysis based on Moran's I and Mantel tests to contrast population differentiation for mean allele frequencies, allele size and shifts in suitability since the Last Glacial Maximum inferred from ENM. Results Spatial correlograms based on Moran's I and Mantel tests showed a linear decrease in autocorrelation with distance, which revealed north-west–south-east gradients in allele frequencies, genetic diversity and differences between RST and FST. These spatial patterns varied among loci and alleles, and the strongest spatial patterns were found for more common alleles with higher levels of differentiation among populations and for those correlated with shifts in ENM suitability. Main conclusions Current genetic diversity and population structure in E. dysenterica can be explained by geographical range shifts associated with Quaternary climate dynamics, thus demonstrating the value of applying spatial analyses to study the ecological and evolutionary processes underlying differentiation even within populations possessing a continuous distribution.
Keywords: Brazil, Eugenia dysenterica, Quaternary glaciations, cerrado, climate change, clinal variation, microsatellites, spatial analysis, spatial genetic variation
Faleiro F, Silva D, de Carvalho R, Särkinen T, De Marco P (2015)
Ring out the bells, we are being invaded! Niche conservatism in exotic populations of the Yellow Bells, Tecoma stans (Bignoniaceae)
Natureza & Conservação 13(1) 24-29.
Species invasions are severe drivers of environmental change. Invasive plants may affect soil dynamics, interactions, and ecosystem functioning, leading to environmental and economic losses. Although species invasion success has been explained by niche conservatism, recent studies have demonstrated that niche shifts may also play a key role in this process. In this study, we tested whether niche shift has occurred during the range expansion of the Yellow Bells, Tecoma stans (Bignoniaceae) and predicted its global risk of invasion. We used Reciprocal Ecological Niche Models techniques and multivariate analyses to test our hypothesis and produce a worldwide invasion risk for this species. Niche spaces of African, Australian, and American exotic populations did not differ substantially from the natural one, although the reciprocal models we fitted for exotic and native occurrences poorly predicted each other. The predictions of the models indicated that T. stans is prone to invade new areas where it has not been recorded yet. Given its competitive abilities, preventive programs in prone-to-be-invaded areas are highly recommended.
Keywords: Invasion assessment, Invasion ecology, Invasive species, Niche conservatism, Niche modeling
Garcia LG, de Barros Ferraz SF, Alvares CA D (2015)
Modeling suitable climate for Eucalyptus grandis under future climates scenarios in Brazil/Modelagem da aptidão climática do Eucalyptus grandis frente aos cenários de mudanças climáticas no Brasil
Scientia Forestalis 42(104) 503-511.
This study aimed to map areas climatically favorable for Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden in Brazil for the current climate, and predict possible changes in these sites in relation to future climate scenarios. For doing this we used the Species Distribution Modeling (DEM), generating potential areas in Australia and projecting them to Brazil in the present and future climate scenarios, using the concept of maximum entropy (Maxent 3.3.3k). We considered 70 sites of natural occurrence of E. grandis in Australia and seven bioclimatic variables, as follows: mean annual temperature, variation of annual temperature, annual precipitation, precipitation of wettest month, precipitation of driest month, variation of rainfall and altitude. The modeling of the current climate considered the period from 1950 to 2000. The climatic projections were considered as the A1B scenario and the HadCM3 model for three periods: 2010-2039, 2040-2069 and 2070-2099. All models were significant (p < 0.001); showed high AUC values (> 0.95) and low omission errors. The favorable areas for E. grandis at the present time was approximately 1.500.000 km², concentrating on southern, southeastern and midwestern Brazil. When we simulated future climates, the area decreased by 2.8, 4.7 and 3.8% for the scenarios 2010-2039, 2040-2069 and 2070-2099, respectively. The major changes were the decrease in the southeastern region and increase in the northern region. The modeling showed a decrease in the area when considering the future scenarios. Although new areas have been identified as suitable areas, there was a decrease of already known as suitable areas. The use of modeling can be useful in planning the breeding and expansion of genetic material to new areas, and assist in identifying areas in which eucalypt culture becomes more vulnerable to climate, disease and pests.
Keywords: Estatisticas, Eucalipto, Eventos, Floresta, Floresta Plantada, IPEF, Madeira, Nativas, Nutrientes, Pesquisa, Pinus, Publicações, Silvicultura, Solos
Householder J, Wittmann F, Tobler M, Janovec J (2015)
Montane bias in lowland Amazonian Peatlands: Plant assembly on heterogeneous landscapes and potential significance to palynological inference
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 423 138-148.
Past temperature changes in tropical mountain regions are commonly inferred from vertical elevational shifts of montane indicator taxa in the palynological record. However temperature is one of several abiotic factors driving the low-elevational limits of species and many montane taxa can occur in warmer lowlands by tracking appropriate habitat types, especially highly flooded wetlands. In this paper we explore ways in which lowland habitat heterogeneity might introduce error into paleo-temperature reconstructions, based on field data of seven modern peatland vegetation communities in the southern Peruvian Amazon (~200masl). Peat-rich substrates are common edaphic transitions in pollen cores and provide detailed records of past vegetation change. The data show that indicators of modern peatlands include genera with montane as well as lowland distributions, while indicators of surrounding forests on mineral substrates have predominantly lowland distributions. Based on family-level analyses we find that modern peatland vegetation communities have taxonomic compositions appearing to be 389m to 1557m (mean=1050±391m) above their actual elevations due to a high abundance and number of families with high elevation optima. We interpret the relatively higher prevalence of montane elements in modern peatlands as habitat tracking of a conserved montane niche on heterogeneous lowland landscapes. We suggest that both high moisture availability and stressful edaphic conditions of peatland habitat may explain the montane bias observed. To the extent that fossilization provides a better record of past vegetation that occurred proximate to the site of deposition, we suggest that habitat tracking of montane elements may introduce a cool bias in lowland paleo-temperature reconstructions based on pollen proxies.
Keywords: Amazon, Andes, Climate history, Gentry, Montane, Peatland, Wetland