Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.
Acosta A, Giannini T, Imperatriz-Fonseca V, Saraiva A (2016)
Worldwide Alien Invasion: A Methodological Approach to Forecast the Potential Spread of a Highly Invasive Pollinator.
PloS one 11(2) e0148295.
The ecological impacts of alien species invasion are a major threat to global biodiversity. The increasing number of invasion events by alien species and the high cost and difficulty of eradicating invasive species once established require the development of new methods and tools for predicting the most susceptible areas to invasion. Invasive pollinators pose serious threats to biodiversity and human activity due to their close relationship with many plants (including crop species) and high potential competitiveness for resources with native pollinators. Although at an early stage of expansion, the bumblebee species Bombus terrestris is becoming a representative case of pollinator invasion at a global scale, particularly given its high velocity of invasive spread and the increasing number of reports of its impacts on native bees and crops in many countries. We present here a methodological framework of habitat suitability modeling that integrates new approaches for detecting habitats that are susceptible to Bombus terrestris invasion at a global scale. Our approach did not include reported invaded locations in the modeling procedure; instead, those locations were used exclusively to evaluate the accuracy of the models in predicting suitability over regions already invaded. Moreover, a new and more intuitive approach was developed to select the models and evaluate different algorithms based on their performance and predictive convergence. Finally, we present a comprehensive global map of susceptibility to Bombus terrestris invasion that highlights priority areas for monitoring.
Aguiar L, Bernard E, Ribeiro V, Machado R, Jones G (2016)
Global Ecology and Conservation 5 22-33.
Most extant species are survivors of the last climate change event 20,000 years ago. While past events took place over thousands of years, current climate change is occurring much faster, over a few decades. We modelled the potential distribution area of bat species in the Brazilian Cerrado, a Neotropical savannah, and assessed the potential impacts of climate change up to 2050 in two scenarios. First we evaluated what the impact on the distributions of bat species would be if they were unable to move to areas where climate conditions might be similar to current ones. The novelty of our paper is that, based on least-cost-path analyses, we identified potential corridors that could be managed now to mitigate potential impacts of climate change. Our results indicate that on average, in the future bat species would find similar climate conditions 281 km southeast from current regions. If bat species were not able to move to new suitable areas and were unable to adapt, then 36 species (31.6%) could lose >80% of their current distribution area, and five species will lose more than 98% of their distribution area in the Brazilian Cerrado. In contrast, if bat species are able to reach such areas, then the number of highly impacted species will be reduced to nine, with none of them likely to disappear from the Cerrado. We present measures that could be implemented immediately to mitigate future climate change impacts.
Keywords: Brazil, Brazilian Cerrado, Chiroptera, Conservation, Ecological niche models
Batalha-Filho H, Miyaki C (2016)
Late Pleistocene divergence and postglacial expansion in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: multilocus phylogeography of Rhopias gularis (Aves: Passeriformes)
Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research.
In the last decade, phylogeographic studies have revealed a complex evolutionary history of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (AF) biota. Here, we investigated the evolutionary history of Rhopias gularis, an endemic bird of the AF, based on sequences of two mitochondrial genes and three nuclear introns from 64 specimens from 15 localities. We addressed three main questions: (1) Does the genetic diversity of R. gularis exhibit a distribution pattern congruent with the refuge hypothesis postulated for the AF? (2) Is the population genetic structure of R. gularis congruent with those observed in other AF species? (3) What were the possible historical events responsible for the population structure of this species? Our mtDNA data revealed two phylogroups: (1) phylogroup central-south, with samples from the central and southern parts of the range; (2) and phylogroup north, which included individuals from southern Bahia. Nevertheless, nuclear loci did not reveal any evidence of population structure. Bottleneck tests indicated that the central-south lineage experienced demographic expansion, starting around 20 kya, which coincides with the end of the last glacial maximum. However, there was no evidence of population growth in phylogroup north. Isolation with migration analysis indicated that these phylogroups split c.a. 304 kya, with limited gene flow among them. Palaeodistribution models indicated that R. gularis had a reduced distribution in the south and central AF during the last glacial maximum. Our results support a diversification scenario that is in accordance with proposed Pleistocene refugia. The phylogeographic results from our study exhibited spatial and temporal concordances and discordances with previous studies of organisms from the AF. Differences in habitat requirements of these species could be behind this complex scenario. Future studies correlating variables of the niche of these species with the observed phylogeographic patterns may help understand why there are congruent and incongruent results.
Keywords: Last glacial maximum, Thamnophilidae, coalescence, refuge hypothesis
Cardoso A, Carvalho H, Benathar T, Serrão S, Nagamachi C, Pieczarka J et al. (2016)
Integrated Cytogenetic and Mitochondrial DNA Analyses Indicate That Two Different Phenotypes of Hypancistrus (L066 and L333) Belong to the Same Species.
The diversity of Hypancistrus species in the Xingu River is remarkable and the variation in color morphs represents a real challenge to taxonomists to delimit species boundaries. One of the most recognizable Hypancistrus complexes is the worm-lined species, known in the aquarium trade as King Tiger Plec in English, Hypancistrus "pão" in Portuguese or under the L-numbers L066 and L333 that represent two melanic pigment pattern phenotypes. To assess the identity of these two phenotypes, we described their karyotypes and sequenced part of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (DNA barcode). These fishes have 52 chromosomes (40 meta-submetacentric and 12 subtelo-acrocentric) and a strong heteromorphism in chromosome pair 21 was observed, which does not correlate with the two phenotypes or sex. DNA barcodes separated the samples analyzed from Hypancistrus zebra and other publicly available sequences of Loricariidae showing no divergence between the two phenotypes. The data set indicates that worm-lined Hypancistrus from the Xingu form a single species with clear chromosomal and melanic pigment pattern polymorphisms.
Keywords: Last glacial maximum, Thamnophilidae, coalescence, refuge hypothesis
Carneiro L, Lima A, Machado R, Magnusson W (2016)
Limitations to the Use of Species-Distribution Models for Environmental-Impact Assessments in the Amazon.
PloS one 11(1) e0146543.
Species-distribution models (SDM) are tools with potential to inform environmental-impact studies (EIA). However, they are not always appropriate and may result in improper and expensive mitigation and compensation if their limitations are not understood by decision makers. Here, we examine the use of SDM for frogs that were used in impact assessment using data obtained from the EIA of a hydroelectric project located in the Amazon Basin in Brazil. The results show that lack of knowledge of species distributions limits the appropriate use of SDM in the Amazon region for most target species. Because most of these targets are newly described and their distributions poorly known, data about their distributions are insufficient to be effectively used in SDM. Surveys that are mandatory for the EIA are often conducted only near the area under assessment, and so models must extrapolate well beyond the sampled area to inform decisions made at much larger spatial scales, such as defining areas to be used to offset the negative effects of the projects. Using distributions of better-known species in simulations, we show that geographical-extrapolations based on limited information of species ranges often lead to spurious results. We conclude that the use of SDM as evidence to support project-licensing decisions in the Amazon requires much greater area sampling for impact studies, or, alternatively, integrated and comparative survey strategies, to improve biodiversity sampling. When more detailed distribution information is unavailable, SDM will produce results that generate uncertain and untestable decisions regarding impact assessment. In many cases, SDM is unlikely to be better than the use of expert opinion.
Keywords: Last glacial maximum, Thamnophilidae, coalescence, refuge hypothesis
Ferreira G, Ferreira P, Chautems A, Waechter J (2016)
Subtropical species of Sinningia (Gesneriaceae): distribution patterns and limiting environmental factors
Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 222 86-95.
The neotropical genus Sinningia Nees encompasses tuberous herbs or subshrubs which occupy a wide range of environments with respect to climate and soil or substrate types. The genus has more than 70 species distributed from Southern Mexico to Northern Argentina, with a diversity centre in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. In this ecosystem, a large number of species occur in several particular vegetation types, occupying terrestrial, rupestrial and epiphytic substrates. The aims of this study were to describe the distribution patterns of subtropical Sinningia species, and to determine possible limiting factors for their range extension. We summarized environmental data for 21 subtropical species. Ten geographical and ecological variables were subdivided into several regional or local conditions. The occurrence of species in each of these conditions was obtained from published material, herbarium reviews and field expeditions. We used exploratory multivariate approaches, (cluster and ordination analyses) to assess the contribution of these variables to species’ ecological and geographical distributions. Comparisons between groups of species were evaluated using randomization tests. Two major patterns of geographic distribution were identified for subtropical Sinningia species: widespread and restricted. Species richness according to spatial and climatic variables showed four distinct patterns. Habitat tolerance of the species also distinguished two groups in a wider continuum context. Cluster analysis resulted in two stable groups, which coincided almost entirely with an a priori classification based on geographic range. Ordination analysis showed a distinction between widespread and restricted species, as well as a gradient of substrate occupancy. Patterns of ecological and geographical distribution were strongly related to the evolutionary history of the genus. The southern distribution limit of Sinningia is mainly linked to shifts in vegetation types around the 30°S parallel, where the northern forested Atlantic and Paranean biogeographic provinces give place to the southern non-forested Espinal and Pampean provinces.
Keywords: Biogeography, Corytholoma, Dircaea, Ecology, Plasticity
Leite Y, Costa L, Loss A, Rocha R, Batalha-Filho H, Bastos A et al. (2016)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1513062113-.
The forest refuge hypothesis (FRH) has long been a paradigm for explaining the extreme biological diversity of tropical forests. According to this hypothesis, forest retraction and fragmentation during glacial periods would have promoted reproductive isolation and consequently speciation in forest patches (ecological refuges) surrounded by open habitats. The recent use of paleoclimatic models of species and habitat distributions revitalized the FRH, not by considering refuges as the main drivers of allopatric speciation, but instead by suggesting that high contemporary diversity is associated with historically stable forest areas. However, the role of the emerged continental shelf on the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspot of eastern South America during glacial periods has been ignored in the literature. Here, we combined results of species distribution models with coalescent simulations based on DNA sequences to explore the congruence between scenarios of forest dynamics through time and the genetic structure of mammal species cooccurring in the central region of the Atlantic Forest. Contrary to the FRH predictions, we found more fragmentation of suitable habitats during the last interglacial (LIG) and the present than in the last glacial maximum (LGM), probably due to topography. We also detected expansion of suitable climatic conditions onto the emerged continental shelf during the LGM, which would have allowed forests and forest-adapted species to expand. The interplay of sea level and land distribution must have been crucial in the biogeographic history of the Atlantic Forest, and forest refuges played only a minor role, if any, in this biodiversity hotspot during glacial periods.
Keywords: Atlantic Forest, Quaternary, continental shelf, last glacial maximum, sea level
Mai P, Rossado A, Bonifacino J, Waechter J (2016)
Phytotaxa 244(2) 125.
The genus Peperomia is represented by eight species in Uruguay: P. catharinae , P. comarapana , P. hispidula , P. increscens , P. pereskiifolia , P. psilostachya , P. tetraphylla and P. trineuroides . Peperomia psilostachya is reported for the first time for the flora of Uruguay, from material collected in moist hillside and riverside forests from the northeast and east of the country. Three new synonyms are proposed: P. arechavaletae var. arechavaletae as synonym of P. trineuroides , P. arechavaletae var. minor of P. tetraphylla and P. trapezoidalis of P. psilostachya . Lectotypes for P. arechavaletae, P. arechavaletae var. minor and P. tacuariana , and a neotype for P. herteri are designated. The taxonomic treatment includes synonymies used in Uruguay, morphological descriptions, distribution and habitat data, phenology, conservation assesment, observations, and material examined for each species treated. A species identification key, plant illustrations and distribution maps in Uruguay are provided.
Keywords: Magnoliids, Uruguay, conservation assessment, geographic distribution, identification key, new records, new synonyms, typification
Morales A, Villalobos F, Velazco P, Simmons N, Piñero D (2016)
Journal of Biogeography.
Aim To explore whether environmental factors are correlated with genetic and morphometric differences in the widely distributed bat species Tadarida brasiliensis. Location North America and Central America. Methods We used an extensive sampling comprising 131 localities that represent heterogeneous environments across the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. Museum specimens were examined and 25 craniodental characters were recorded. Individuals were genotyped at one mitochondrial locus (mtDNA) and nine nuclear loci (nDNA). Clustering and phylogenetic analyses were used to identify differentiated groups. Environmental variables and PCA-env approaches were used to determine the climatic niche and to measure the niche overlap, equivalence and similarity between groups. Mantel tests between genetic groupings and environmental variables, dispersal costs, Euclidean geographical distances and niche overlap were performed. Results We identified six genetic groups within Central and North American T. brasiliensis based on nDNA. The most strongly differentiated group, in both nDNA and mtDNA, was located in central Mexico. Morphometric data showed that individuals from populations in Florida are slightly larger than the others. Niche overlap was detected among Neotropical groups but not among Nearctic groups. The currently recognized subspecies were not recovered as distinct groups with either genetic or morphometric data. Main conclusions Our approaches suggest that environmental niche variation may help shape the distribution of genetic variation across heterogeneous landscapes, particularly in widely distributed species. Environmental niche analyses suggest that genetic differences between migratory and non-migratory groups of T. brasiliensis may be promoted by climatic variation throughout the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. In addition, genetic and morphometric analyses do not support the current subspecies classification of T. brasiliensis in North and Central America, which should be abandoned.
Keywords: Tadarida brasiliensis, ecological niche, genetic structure, morphometric, phylogeography, subspecies
Rodrigues J, Coelho M, Varela S, Diniz-Filho J (2016)
In recent years, changes have been detected in the climatic niches of several non-native species. In spite of this, and although Ecological Niche Models (ENMs) assume species show climatic niche conservatism, most studies still use ENM to assess the risks of invasion by alien species. In this study, we tested how niche expansion of the pond slider (Trachemys scripta) differs in invaded continents and how the performance of ENMs is affected by different niche shift scenarios. We described niche equivalence (whether native and invaded niches are identical), unfilling (native niche not present in invasive niche), expansion (invasive niche not present in native niche) and stability, based on the pond slider native and invaded occurrence points. We created an ENM using a Maxent method, based on the native occurrences of this turtle, and evaluated the model's performance using invasive records. Our results indicate that the pond slider niche changed when new areas that were either warmer (Asia and Latin America) or colder (Europe) than its native niche were invaded. Processes related to niche shift (stability, unfilling, and expansion) varied between continents. We also found that niche expansion is not a good predictor of ENM performance, which may indicate that the effects of this process on model performance are more complex than a simple direct effect. Finally, ENMs had especially poor performance when evaluated for sensitivity (percentage of presence records correctly predicted as presences in the models), reiterating the problems of using ENMs and their traditional evaluation methods when focal species do not conserve their native niche. We draw attention to important mitigatory measures, such as environmental education and strong control of trade to manage invasion by the pond slider turtle, since we still lack standard methods to predict the potential invasion risks for new areas when focal species do not conserve their native niche.
Keywords: Trachemys scripta, ecological niche models, freshwater turtles, invasive alien species, model evaluation