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Liston A, Goergen G, Koch F (2017)
Revisions of the Afrotropical genera of Argidae and species of Pampsilota Konow, 1899 (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinoidea)
Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 64(1) 1-25.
The Afrotropical fauna contains five genera of Argidae. These are keyed. New subjective synonyms, followed by the valid name in brackets, are Calarge Enslin, 1911 [Arge Schrank, 1802], Calarge africana Enslin, 1911 [Arge congrua Konow, 1907], Clyparge Pasteels, 1963 [Scobina Lepeletier & Serville, 1828], Clyparge terminalis Pasteels, 1963 [Scobina poecila (Klug, 1834)], and Sterictophora [sic] afra Pasteels, 1963 [Sphacophilus afer comb. n., species inquirenda near S. monjarasi Smith & Morales-Reyes, 2015]. The type material of both C. terminalis and S. afra was probably collected in the New World, but labelled with the wrong locality “Kamerun”. An introduction of both species to Africa, not followed by long-term establishment, seems less likely. The removal of these taxa from the faunal list of the region is recommended. The nine known Afrotropical species of Pampsilota are revised, and an illustrated dichotomous identification key presented, with distribution maps for all species. Four species are here described as new to science: P. dahomeyanus Goergen, Koch & Liston, sp. n., P. nigeriae Liston & Koch, sp. n., P. tsavoensis Liston & Koch, sp. n., and P. zebra Liston & Koch, sp. n. Lectotypes are designated for Pampsilota afer Konow, 1899, and Cipdele africana Mocsáry, 1909. The immature stages and host plant of only one species are known: P. dahomeyanus on Lannea nigritana (Anacardiaceae). Its larval morphology strongly resembles that of European and North American species of Arge. We provisionally retain Pampsilota as a valid genus, although it could justifiably be treated as comprising merely a species group, or groups, within Arge.
Keywords: Anacardiaceae, Lannea, Taxonomic revision, distributions, host, key, new species, new synonymy
Dotchamou F, Atindogbe G, Sode A, Fonton H (2016)
Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development (JAEID) 110(1) 173-194.
Parkia biglobosa is an indigenous species which, traditionally contributes to the resilience of the agricultural production system in terms of food security, source of income, poverty reduction and ecosystem stability. Therefore, it is important to improve knowledge on its density, current and future spatial distribution. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the tree density, the climate change effects on the spatial distribution of the species in the future for better conservation. The modeling of the current and future geographical distribution of the species is based on the principle of Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) on a total of 286 occurrence points from field work and Global Biodiversity Information Facility GBIF-Data Portal-(www.gbif.org). Two climatic models (HadGEM2_ES and Csiro_mk3_6_0) have been used under two scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 for the projection of the species distribution at the horizon 2050. The correlation analyses and Jackknife test have helped to identify seven variables which are less correlated (r < 0.80) with highest modeling participation. The soil, annual precipitation (BIO12) and temperature (diurnal average Deviation) are the variables which have mostly contributed to performance of the models. Currently, 53% of national territory, spread from north to south is very suitable to the cultivation of P. biglobosa. The scenarios have predicted at the horizon 2050, a loss of the habitats which are currently very suitable for the cultivation and conservation of P. biglobosa, to the benefit of moderate and weak habitats. 51% and 57% are the highest proportion of this lost which will be registered with HadGEM2_ES model under two scenarios. These results revealed that the suitable habitat of the species is threatened by climate change in Benin. In order to limit damage such as decreased productivity, extinction of species, some appropriate solutions must be found.
Keywords: Benin, MAXENT, climate change, locust bean, scenario RCP
Ganglo J, Kakpo S (2016)
Completeness of Digital Accessible Knowledge of Plants of Benin and Priorities for Future Inventory and Data Discovery
Biodiversity Informatics 11.
Discovery of and access to primary biodiversity data are critical components in informed decision-making regarding sustainable use of biological resources and conservation of biodiversity. Primary biodiversity data are increasingly available from Benin, but information about completeness of this information across the country is still lacking for most groups. This study analyzed the Digital Accessible Knowledge regarding the plants of Benin to identify gaps in both geographic and environmental dimensions. Many gaps exist in plant data for Benin, particularly in the northern most departments; central and southern Benin are better known, but some gaps remain even there. The resulting view of Beninese Digital Accessible Knowledge can guide future inventory and data discovery efforts.
Keywords: GBIF, data cleaning, digital accessible knowledge, gaps, inventory completeness, —Benin
Idohou R, Assogbadjo A, Kakaï R, Peterson A (2016)
Spatio-temporal dynamic of suitable areas for species conservation in West Africa: eight economically important wild palms under present and future climates
Sustainable conservation of tropical resources required understanding of their distribution for effective assessment and definition of conservation priorities. In tropical areas, wild palms are highly valued keystone resources with growing demand for both subsistence uses and commercial trade. Here we focused on eight such species (Borassus aethiopum Mart., Eremospatha macrocarpa (G.Mann & H.Wendl.) H.Wendl., Hyphaene thebaica Mart., Laccosperma opacum (G.Mann & H.Wendl.) Drude, Phoenix reclinata Jacq., Raphia hookeri G.Mann & H.Wendl., Raphia sudanica A. Chev., and Raphia vinifera P.Beauv.). This study tested (i) how those palms distributions may be affected under future climate scenarios, and (ii) if species are effectively conserved currently and under future forecasts for their native distributional areas. Finally, we defined spatial priorities for the species’ conservation. Available bioclimatic and soil data layers were used for the modelling with maximum entropy approaches, and resulting maps were overlaid on the existing protected areas network. Results showed that much of the distribution of the species will remain largely stable, albeit with some expansion and retraction in some species; relationships with protected areas networks suggest that protected portions of species distributions will also remain stable. The areas identified as highest conservation priority differ between models even though the highest-priority areas holding most palm species are located along the coast (from Guinea to Nigeria). Further development of these analyses could aid in forming a more complete picture of the distributions and populations of the species, which in turn could aid in developing effective conservation strategies for this botanically important family.
Keywords: Biodiversity, Ecological niche, GIS, Representative concentration pathways, Zonation
Moutouama J, Fandohan B, Biaou H, Amahowe O, Moutouama F, Natta A (2016)
Potential climate change favored expansion of a range limited species, Haematostaphis barteri Hook f.
Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development (JAEID) 110(2) 397-411.
Understanding impact of climate change on range breadth of rare species can improve the ability to anticipate their decline or expension and take appropriate conservation measures. Haematatostaphis barteri is an agroforestry species of the Sudanian centre of endemism in Africa. We investigeted impact of climate change on range of suitable habitats for this species in Benin,using the Maximum Entropy algorithm under R software. Five environmental variables were used with the regional climate model under the new Representation Concentration Pathways (RCP). Moisture Index of the Moist Quarter and Slope variability had the greatest predictive importance for the range of suitable habitats for H. barteri. Its Potential breadth was found to be currently limited to the Atacora Mountain Chain (AMC) and covers 0.51% of national territory. Climate change was projected to favor expansion of suitable habitats for H. barteri by 0.12% and 0.05%, respectively for the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. These habitats were however mostly out of the local protected areas network. Climate change would extend range of habitats for H. barteri. Observed protection gaps suggest need for integrating this species into formal in situ, on-farm or ex situ conservation schemes.
Keywords: Benin, Haematostaphis barteri, climate change, species distribution modeling
Fandohan A, Koko I, Avocevou-Ayisso C, Gouwakinnou G, Savi M, Assogbadjo A et al. (2015)
Lantana camara (verbenaceae) : a potential threat to the effectiveness of protected areas to conserve flora and fauna in Benin
Agronomie Africaine 27(2) 115-126.
Invasive plant species are today among the biggest threats to integrity of many ecosystems including that of the protected areas. Climate change may exacerbate the negative effects of invasive plant species. Here, we used the Maximum Entropy model to project habitat suitability for Lantana camara L. , an invasive plant species under current and future climates in the national protected areas network of Benin. The models were run using bioclimatic data and data on soil type. Nineteen percent of the total land in the protected areas network was highly suitable for L. camara under current climate. Highly suitable areas under current and future climates cover about 65 % of the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, the major wildlife sanctuary in Benin. Other bio-reserves such as W National Park, Lama, Agoua, Dogo-Kétou, Atchérigbé, Mékrou and Kouandé Forest Reserves were also suitable for the species. Presence of L. camara in the protected areas represents a great potential threat to the global food webs being conserved. Based on these results, areas with highly suitable habitats are at high risk of invasion by L. camara , and should be accorded high priority when formulating appropriate management strategies. Keywords: Invasive species ; Climate change ; Habitat suitability ; Protected areas ; West Africa Lantana camara et les aires protegees au Benin Les espèces invasives font de nos jours partie des plus importantes menaces aux quelles font face les écosystèmes y compris les aires protégées. Les changements climatiques peuvent amplifier leurs effets négatifs. Dans la présente étude, nous avons utilisé un algorithme de modélisation de niche écologique, le Maximum Entropy pour analyser la susceptibilité des habitats à être colonisés par Lantana camara L ., une plante invasive, sous les conditions climatiques actuelles et futures dans les aires protégées du Bénin. Les modèles ont été établis en utilisant des données bioclimatiques et des données relatives aux types de sol. Dans les conditions climatiques actuelles, 19 % de la superficie totale du réseau des aires protégées est significativement favorable à L. camara. Sous les conditions climatiques actuelles et futures, 65 % de la réserve de biosphère de Pendjari, le plus important sanctuaire de faune sauvage du Bénin, est hautement favorable à l’espèce. D’autres bio-réserves telles que le Parc National W et les reserves forestières de Lama, Agoua, Dogo-Kétou, Atchérigbé, Mékrou et Kouandé ont aussi des habitats favorable à l’espèce. En nous fondant sur ces résultats, les zones favorables sont à haut risque d’invasion par L. camara et devraient être priorisées lors de la formulation de stratégies préventives appropriées. Mots clés: Espèces envahissantes ; Changements Climatiques ; Habitats favorables ; Aires protégées, Afrique de l’Ouest.
Keywords: Climate change, Habitat suitability, Invasive species, Protected areas, West Africa
Fandohan A, Oduor A, Sodé A, Wu L, Cuni-Sanchez A, Assédé E et al. (2015)
Modeling vulnerability of protected areas to invasion by Chromolaena odorata under current and future climates
Ecosystem Health and Sustainability 1(6) art20.
Invasive plant species and climate change are among the biggest threats to the ecological integrity of many ecosystems, including those of protected areas. Effective management of invasive plants requires information regarding their spatial distributions. Using maximum entropy, we modeled habitat suitability for an invasive plant species Chromolaena odorata under current and future climatic conditions (HadGEM2-ES and MIROC5) in protected areas of four West African countries (Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Togo). Under current climatic conditions, approximately 73% of total land area within the protected areas was suitable for colonization by C. odorata. Under future climate projections, the total area of suitable habitats for this invasive plant was projected to decrease by 7–9% (HadGEM2-ES) and 12–14% (MIROC5). Country-specific patterns suggest that major protected areas in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana will be more vulnerable to invasion by C. odorata than those in Benin and Togo under both current and futu...
Keywords: Chromolaena odorata, HadGEM2-ES, MIROC5, Siam weed, West Africa, climate change, maximum entropy, representative concentration pathways, risk assessment
Idohou R, Arino A, Assogbadjo A, Glele Kakai R, Sinsin B (2015)
DIVERSITY OF WILD PALMS (ARECACEAE) IN THE REPUBLIC OF BENIN: FINDING THE GAPS IN THE NATIONAL INVENTORY COMBINING FIELD AND DIGITAL ACCESSIBLE KNOWLEDGE
Biodiversity Informatics 10(2).
Despite many efforts by researchers worldwide to assess the biodiversity of plant groups, many locations on Earth remain not well surveyed and data-deprivation biases often occur. Robust estimates of inventory completeness could help alleviate the problem. This study aimed at identifying areas representing gaps in current knowledge of African palms, with a focus on Benin (West Africa). We assessed the completeness of knowledge of African palms targeting geographical distance and climatic difference from well-known sites. Data derived from intensive fieldwork were combined with independent data available online. Completeness inventory indices were calculated and coupled with other criteria to decide on the extent of knowledge. Results showed a high overall value for inventory completeness, as well as an even distribution of well-known areas across the country. However, poorly-known areas were distinctly identified and correlated to remote locations with low accessibility. This study illustrates how biodiversity survey and inventory efforts can be guided by existing knowledge. We strongly recommend the combination of digital accessible knowledge and fieldwork, coupled with expert knowledge, to obtain a better picture of the completeness of the inventory in tropical ecosystems.
Keywords: Biological databases, GIS, inventory, sampling efficiency, spatial resolution
Padonou E, Teka O, Bachmann Y, Schmidt M, Lykke A, Sinsin B (2015)
Using species distribution models to select species resistant to climate change for ecological restoration of bowé in West Africa
African Journal of Ecology n/a-n/a.
Bowalization is a particular form of land degradation and leads to lateral expansion of ferricrete horizons. The process occurs only in tropical regions. In this study, the most adapted and resistant species towards climate change were identified on bowé. The 15 most common bowé species of the subhumid and semi-arid climate zones of Benin were submitted together with significant environmental variables (elevation, current bioclimatic variables, soil types) to three ecological niche modelling programmes (Maxent, Domain and GARP). For future prediction (2050), IPCC4/CIAT and IPCC5/CMIP5 climate data were applied. Asparagus africanus, Andropogon pseudapricus and Combretum nigricans were identified as the most resistant species for ecological restoration of bowé in the semi-arid climate zone and Asparagus africanus, Detarium microcarpum and Lannea microcarpa in the subhumid climate zone. The ‘Pull’ strategies were identified as appropriate for ecological restoration of bowé in Benin.
Keywords: Benin, Bowé, climate change, ecological restoration, resistant species, subhumid and semi-arid climate zones
Adite A, Sonon S, Gbedjissi G (2013)
Feeding ecology of the mangrove oyster, Crassostrea gasar (Dautzenberg, 1891) in traditional farming at the coastal zone of Benin, West Africa
Natural Science 05(12) 1238-1248.
Wild collection management and farming of the mangrove oyster (Crassostrea gasar) occurring widely at the Benin (West Africa) coastal zone require knowledge on the feeding ecology to explore energy sources and nutritional needs. Six hundred thirty (630) individuals of C. gasar have been sampled in the rearing site at the Benin coastal lagoon to investigate on the trophic ecology of this cultivated bivalve. The diet analysis revealed that C. gasar is a filter-feeder foraging mainly on phytoplankton (72.70%) and substrate particles (22.95%). This trophic specialization results from anatomical structure, mainly the presence of gills which facilitate the filtering of number of plankton taxa.
Keywords: Conservation, Crassostrea, Diet Overlaps, Farming, Filter-Feeder, Food Web, Foraging Strategy, Phytoplankton