Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.
Domínguez M, Agrain F, Flores G, Roig-Juñent S (2016)
The main goal of this study is to use multiple insect phylogenies along with geographical information to test known vicariance hypotheses for Southern South America. We analysed the phylogenies and geographical distributions of seven insect genera endemic to southern South America using Hovenkamp's (1997) protocol, which have been in part implemented in software (vicariance inference program). Using this software, we were able to hypothesize 55 traceable vicariance events; among these, we recognized four supported vicariance events (i.e. confirmed by more than a single sister group). The first supported vicariance event consisted of an East/West separation of the faunas in all analysed trees; the second supported vicariance event is a North/South separation of the fauna located East of the Andes; the third supported vicariance event was found in the southernmost fauna located East of the Andes, which separates allopatric Patagonian species in a North/South direction; and finally, the fourth supported vicariance event separates in a North/South direction clades of the Central Chilean fauna located West of the Andes. Our results suggest that these four supported vicariance events could be correlated with the uplifting of the Andes and the marine ingressions that occurred during the Cenozoic that is the estimated age at which these events occurred. Finally, we discuss that current software implementation of Hovenkamp's ideas need to be expanded, particularly regarding the automated selection of traceable vicariance events.
Báez S, Malizia A, Carilla J, Blundo C, Aguilar M, Aguirre N et al. (2015)
PloS one 10(5) e0126594.
General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.
Cuyckens G, Christie D, Domic A, Malizia L, Renison D (2015)
Climate change and the distribution and conservation of the world’s highest elevation woodlands in the South American Altiplano
Global and Planetary Change.
Climate change is becoming an increasing threat to biodiversity. Consequently, methods for delineation, establishment and management of protected areas must consider the species’ future distribution in response to future climate conditions. Biodiversity in high altitude semiarid regions may be particularly threatened by future climate change. In this study we assess the main environmental variables that best explain present day presence of the world’s highest elevation woodlands in the South American Altiplano, and model how climate change may affect the future distribution of this unique ecosystem under different climate change scenarios. These woodlands are dominated by Polylepis tarapacana (Rosaceae), a species that forms unique biological communities with important conservation value. Our results indicate that five environmental variables are responsible for 91% and 90.3% of the present and future P. tarapacana distribution models respectively, and suggest that at the end of the 21st century, a significant reduction (56%) in the potential habitat for this species due to more arid conditions. Since it is predicted that P. tarapacana’s potential distribution will be severely reduced in the future, we propose a new network of national protected areas across this species distribution range in order to insure the future conservation of this unique ecosystem. Based on an extensive literature review we identify research topics and recommendations for on-ground conservation and management of P. tarapacana woodlands.
Keywords: MaxEnt, Polylepis tarapacana, models, potential distribution
Díaz S, Kattge J, Cornelissen J, Wright I, Lavorel S, Dray S et al. (2015)
Earth is home to a remarkable diversity of plant forms and life histories, yet comparatively few essential trait combinations have proved evolutionarily viable in today’s terrestrial biosphere. By analysing worldwide variation in six major traits critical to growth, survival and reproduction within the largest sample of vascular plant species ever compiled, we found that occupancy of six-dimensional trait space is strongly concentrated, indicating coordination and trade-offs. Three-quarters of trait variation is captured in a two-dimensional global spectrum of plant form and function. One major dimension within this plane reflects the size of whole plants and their parts; the other represents the leaf economics spectrum, which balances leaf construction costs against growth potential. The global plant trait spectrum provides a backdrop for elucidating constraints on evolution, for functionally qualifying species and ecosystems, and for improving models that predict future vegetation based on continuous variation in plant form and function.
Keywords: MaxEnt, Polylepis tarapacana, models, potential distribution
Gomez J, Cassini M (2015)
Environmental predictors of habitat suitability and biogeographical range of Franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei)
Global Ecology and Conservation 3 90-99.
The aim of this study was to use species distribution models to estimate the effects of environmental variables on the habitat suitability of river dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei (franciscanas) along their overall biogeographical distribution. Based on the literature, we selected six environmental variables to be included in the models; four climatic factors (surface sea temperature, salinity, turbidity and productivity) and two biotic factors (prey availability and fishing effort). We determined that the biographic range is under the following limits: temperature less than 19°C, a salinity of 36 psu and a minimal probability of the occurrence of fish C. guatucupa of 0.297. In the discussion, we postulate hypotheses on the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that cause these associations between environmental predictors and Franciscanas distribution. There was a good fit between the distribution predicted by the species distribution model and the one proposed by the experts of the International Union for Conservation of Nature; however, our analysis failed to highlight the fundamental role of bycatch as the main threat to this dolphin species.
Keywords: Food preference, Marine mammal, Salinity, Species distribution model, Temperature
Hinojosa L, Gaxiola A, Pérez M, Carvajal F, Campano M, Quattrocchio M et al. (2015)
Non-congruent fossil and phylogenetic evidence on the evolution of climatic niche in the gondwana genus Nothofagus
Journal of Biogeography.
Aim We used fossil and phylogenetic evidence to reconstruct climatic niche evolution in Nothofagus, a Gondwana genus distributed in tropical and temperate latitudes. To assess whether the modern distribution of the genus can be explained by the tropical conservatism hypothesis, we tested three predictions: (1) species from all Nothofagus subgenera coexisted under mesothermal climates during the early Eocene; (2) tolerance to microthermal climates evolved during the Eocene–Oligocene cooling from an ancestor that grew under mesothermal conditions; and (3) the climatic niche in Nothofagus is phylogenetically conserved. Location Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Papua-New Guinea and South America. Methods We estimated the palaeoclimate of the Early Eocene, fossil-bearing Ligorio Marquez Formation (LMF, Chile), using coexistence and leaf physiognomic analysis. We reconstructed ancestral climatic niches of Nothofagus using extant species distributions and a time-calibrated phylogeny. Finally, we used the morphological disparity index and phylogenetic generalized least squares to assess whether climatic variables follow a Brownian motion (BM) or an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck (OU) model of evolution. Results Our palaeoclimatic estimates suggest mesothermal conditions for the LMF, where macrofossils associated with subgenera Lophozonia and possibly Fuscospora, and fossil pollen of Brassospora and Fuscospora/Nothofagus were recorded. These results are not supported by our phylogenetic analysis, which instead suggests that the ancestor of Nothofagus lived under microthermal to marginally mesothermal conditions, with tolerance to mesothermal conditions evolving only in the subgenus Brassospora. Precipitation and temperature dimensions of the realized climatic niche fit with a gradual BM or constrained OU model of evolution. Main Conclusions Our results suggest that the use of phylogenetic reconstruction methods based only on present distributions of extant taxa to infer ancestral climatic niches is likely to lead to erroneous results when climatic requirements of ancestors differ from their extant descendants, or when much extinction has occurred.
Keywords: Eocene, Gondwana, Nothofagaceae, into the tropics, niche modelling, palaeoclimate, phylogenetic signal, tropical conservatism hypothesis
Lucifora, L. O., Barbini, S. A., Di Giácomo, E. E., Waessle, J. A. & Figueroa D (2015)
Estimating the geographic range of a threatened shark in a data-poor region: Cetorhinus maximus in the South Atlantic Ocean
Advancing biodiversity science 61.
The distribution of the pla nktivorous basking shark, Cetorhinus maximus , is influenced by zooplankton abundance at small scales and temperature at medium scales in the North Atlantic. Here, we estimate the distribution of basking sharks on South Atlantic continental shelves, and the relative importance of chlorophyll concentration, as a proxy for zooplankton abundance, and temperature in det ermining habitat suitability for basking sharks at large scales. We us ed maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and maximum likelihood (MaxLike) speci es distribution modelling to test three hypotheses: the distribution of basking sharks is determined by (1) temperature, (2) chlor ophyll concentration, or (3) both chlorophyll and temperature, while c onsidering other factors, such as oxygen and salinity. Off South America, basking shark habitat included subtropical, temperate and cool-temperate waters between approximately 20 o S and 55 o S. Off Africa, basking shark habitat was limited to cool-temperate waters off Namibia an d southern South Africa. MaxLik e models had a better fit than MaxEnt models. The best model included minimum chlorophyll concentration, dissolved oxygen concentration, and sea surface temperature range, supporting hypothesis 3. However, of all variables included in th e best model, minimum chlorophyll concentration had the highes t influence on basking shark distribution. Unlike the Nort h Atlantic distribution, the South Atlan tic distribution of basking sharks includ es subtropical and cool-temperate waters. This difference is explained by high minimum chlorophyll concentration off southern Brazil as compar ed to North Atlantic subtropical areas. Observati ons in other regions of the world support this conclusion. The highest habitat suita bility for basking sharks is located close to nearshore areas that experience high anthropogenic impact
Keywords: Basking shark, Chondrichthyes, Geographic, MaxEnt, MaxLike, Southern Hemisphere, range
Molineri C, Salles F, Peters J (2015)
Phylogeny and biogeography of Asthenopodinae with a revision of Asthenopus, reinstatement of Asthenopodes, and the description of the new genera Hubbardipes and Priasthenopus (Ephemeroptera, Polymitarcyidae).
The Neotropical species of Asthenopodinae are revised in a formal phylogenetic context. The five known species of Asthenopus Eaton, 1871, together with other five new species were included in a cladistic analysis using morphological characters (continuous and discretes). Representatives of the Afro-Oriental group of the subfamily (Povilla Navás, 1912 and Languidipes Hubbard, 1984) were also included to test the monophyletic hypothesis traditionally accepted for the group. Additional taxa representing the other subfamilies of Polymitarcyidae were incorparated: Ephoron Williamson, 1802 (Polymitarcyinae) and Campsurus Eaton, 1868, Tortopus Needham & Murphy, 1924 and Tortopsis Molineri, 2010 (Campsurinae). A matrix of 17 taxa and 72 characters was analyzed under parsimony resulting in a single tree supporting the monophyly of the subfamily Asthenopodinae. Other results include the monophyly of the Afro-Oriental taxa (Povilla and Languidipes), the paraphyletic nature of Neotropical Asthenopodinae, and the recognition of four South American genera: Asthenopus (including Asthenopuscurtus (Hagen), 1861, Asthenopusangelae de Souza & Molineri, 2012, Asthenopusmagnus sp. n., Asthenopushubbardi sp. n., Asthenopusguarani sp. n.), Asthenopodes Ulmer, 1924, stat. n. (including Asthenopuspicteti Hubbard, 1975, stat. n., Asthenopodestraverae sp. n., Asthenopodeschumuco sp. n.), Priasthenopus gen. n. (including Priasthenopusgilliesi (Domínguez), 1988, comb. n.), and Hubbardipes gen. n. (including Hubbardipescrenulatus (Molineri et al.), 2011, comb. n.). Descriptions, diagnoses, illustrations and keys are presented for all Neotropical taxa of Asthenopodinae (adults of both sexes, eggs and nymphs). Additionally a key to the subfamilies and genera of Polymitarcyidae is included. A quantitative biogeographic analysis of vicariance is presented and discussed through the study of the "taxon history" of the group. Abstract available from the publisher.
Keywords: Campsurinae, Campsurus, Ephemeroidea, Ephemeroptera, Fossoriae, Languidipes, Neotropics, Povilla, Tortopsis, Tortopus, evolution, vicariance
Nori J, Moreno Azócar D, Cruz F, Bonino M, Leynaud G (2015)
Translating niche features: Modelling differential exposure of Argentine reptiles to global climate change
Global climate change affects the distributions of ectotherms and may be the cause of several conservation problems, such as great displacement of climatic suitable spaces for species and, consequently, important reductions of the extent of liveable places, threatening the existence of many of them. Species exposure (and hence vulnerability) to global climate change is linked to features of their climatic niches (such as the relative position of the inhabited localities of each species in the climatic space), and therefore to characteristics of their geographic ranges (such as the extent of the distributions or altitudinal range inhabited by the species). In order to analyze the pattern of response of Argentine reptiles to global climate change, we ran phylogenetic generalized least squares models using species exposure to global climate change as a response variable, and (i) niche properties (breadth and position of the species in the climate space) and (ii) general features of the distribution of species (maximum latitude, altitudinal range, maximum elevation, distributional range and proximity to the most important dispersal barrier) as predictors. Our results suggest that the best way to explain climate change exposure is by combining breadth and position of climatic niche of the species or combining geographic features that are indicators of both niche characteristics. Our best model shows that in our study area, species with the narrowest distributional ranges that also inhabit the highest elevations are the most exposed to the effects of global climate change. In this sense, reptile species from Yungas, Puna and Andes ecoregions could be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change. We believe that these types of models may represent an interesting tool for determining species and places particularly threatened by the effects of global climate change, which should be strongly considered in conservation planning.
Keywords: climate change exposure, climatic niche, phylogenetic generalized least square model, species distribution
Thessen A, Bunker D, Buttigieg P, Cooper L, Dahdul W, Domisch S et al. (2015)
PeerJ 3 e1470.
Understanding the interplay between environmental conditions and phenotypes is a fundamental goal of biology. Unfortunately, data that include observations on phenotype and environment are highly heterogeneous and thus difficult to find and integrate. One approach that is likely to improve the status quo involves the use of ontologies to standardize and link data about phenotypes and environments. Specifying and linking data through ontologies will allow researchers to increase the scope and flexibility of large-scale analyses aided by modern computing methods. Investments in this area would advance diverse fields such as ecology, phylogenetics, and conservation biology. While several biological ontologies are well-developed, using them to link phenotypes and environments is rare because of gaps in ontological coverage and limits to interoperability among ontologies and disciplines. In this manuscript, we present (1) use cases from diverse disciplines to illustrate questions that could be answered more efficiently using a robust linkage between phenotypes and environments, (2) two proof-of-concept analyses that show the value of linking phenotypes to environments in fishes and amphibians, and (3) two proposed example data models for linking phenotypes and environments using the extensible observation ontology (OBOE) and the Biological Collections Ontology (BCO); these provide a starting point for the development of a data model linking phenotypes and environments.
Keywords: Biodiversity, Data integration, Environment, Ontology, Phenotype, Semantic web