Extracted from the Mendeley GBIF Public Library.
Báez S, Malizia A, Carilla J, Blundo C, Aguilar M, Aguirre N et al. (2015)
PloS one 10(5) e0126594.
General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.
Gomez J, Cassini M (2015)
Environmental predictors of habitat suitability and biogeographical range of Franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei)
Global Ecology and Conservation 3 90-99.
The aim of this study was to use species distribution models to estimate the effects of environmental variables on the habitat suitability of river dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei (franciscanas) along their overall biogeographical distribution. Based on the literature, we selected six environmental variables to be included in the models; four climatic factors (surface sea temperature, salinity, turbidity and productivity) and two biotic factors (prey availability and fishing effort). We determined that the biographic range is under the following limits: temperature less than 19°C, a salinity of 36 psu and a minimal probability of the occurrence of fish C. guatucupa of 0.297. In the discussion, we postulate hypotheses on the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that cause these associations between environmental predictors and Franciscanas distribution. There was a good fit between the distribution predicted by the species distribution model and the one proposed by the experts of the International Union for Conservation of Nature; however, our analysis failed to highlight the fundamental role of bycatch as the main threat to this dolphin species.
Keywords: Food preference, Marine mammal, Salinity, Species distribution model, Temperature
Hinojosa L, Gaxiola A, Pérez M, Carvajal F, Campano M, Quattrocchio M et al. (2015)
Non-congruent fossil and phylogenetic evidence on the evolution of climatic niche in the gondwana genus Nothofagus
Journal of Biogeography.
Aim We used fossil and phylogenetic evidence to reconstruct climatic niche evolution in Nothofagus, a Gondwana genus distributed in tropical and temperate latitudes. To assess whether the modern distribution of the genus can be explained by the tropical conservatism hypothesis, we tested three predictions: (1) species from all Nothofagus subgenera coexisted under mesothermal climates during the early Eocene; (2) tolerance to microthermal climates evolved during the Eocene–Oligocene cooling from an ancestor that grew under mesothermal conditions; and (3) the climatic niche in Nothofagus is phylogenetically conserved. Location Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Papua-New Guinea and South America. Methods We estimated the palaeoclimate of the Early Eocene, fossil-bearing Ligorio Marquez Formation (LMF, Chile), using coexistence and leaf physiognomic analysis. We reconstructed ancestral climatic niches of Nothofagus using extant species distributions and a time-calibrated phylogeny. Finally, we used the morphological disparity index and phylogenetic generalized least squares to assess whether climatic variables follow a Brownian motion (BM) or an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck (OU) model of evolution. Results Our palaeoclimatic estimates suggest mesothermal conditions for the LMF, where macrofossils associated with subgenera Lophozonia and possibly Fuscospora, and fossil pollen of Brassospora and Fuscospora/Nothofagus were recorded. These results are not supported by our phylogenetic analysis, which instead suggests that the ancestor of Nothofagus lived under microthermal to marginally mesothermal conditions, with tolerance to mesothermal conditions evolving only in the subgenus Brassospora. Precipitation and temperature dimensions of the realized climatic niche fit with a gradual BM or constrained OU model of evolution. Main Conclusions Our results suggest that the use of phylogenetic reconstruction methods based only on present distributions of extant taxa to infer ancestral climatic niches is likely to lead to erroneous results when climatic requirements of ancestors differ from their extant descendants, or when much extinction has occurred.
Keywords: Eocene, Gondwana, Nothofagaceae, into the tropics, niche modelling, palaeoclimate, phylogenetic signal, tropical conservatism hypothesis
Lucifora, L. O., Barbini, S. A., Di Giácomo, E. E., Waessle, J. A. & Figueroa D (2015)
Estimating the geographic range of a threatened shark in a data-poor region: Cetorhinus maximus in the South Atlantic Ocean
Advancing biodiversity science 61.
The distribution of the pla nktivorous basking shark, Cetorhinus maximus , is influenced by zooplankton abundance at small scales and temperature at medium scales in the North Atlantic. Here, we estimate the distribution of basking sharks on South Atlantic continental shelves, and the relative importance of chlorophyll concentration, as a proxy for zooplankton abundance, and temperature in det ermining habitat suitability for basking sharks at large scales. We us ed maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and maximum likelihood (MaxLike) speci es distribution modelling to test three hypotheses: the distribution of basking sharks is determined by (1) temperature, (2) chlor ophyll concentration, or (3) both chlorophyll and temperature, while c onsidering other factors, such as oxygen and salinity. Off South America, basking shark habitat included subtropical, temperate and cool-temperate waters between approximately 20 o S and 55 o S. Off Africa, basking shark habitat was limited to cool-temperate waters off Namibia an d southern South Africa. MaxLik e models had a better fit than MaxEnt models. The best model included minimum chlorophyll concentration, dissolved oxygen concentration, and sea surface temperature range, supporting hypothesis 3. However, of all variables included in th e best model, minimum chlorophyll concentration had the highes t influence on basking shark distribution. Unlike the Nort h Atlantic distribution, the South Atlan tic distribution of basking sharks includ es subtropical and cool-temperate waters. This difference is explained by high minimum chlorophyll concentration off southern Brazil as compar ed to North Atlantic subtropical areas. Observati ons in other regions of the world support this conclusion. The highest habitat suita bility for basking sharks is located close to nearshore areas that experience high anthropogenic impact
Keywords: Basking shark, Chondrichthyes, Geographic, MaxEnt, MaxLike, Southern Hemisphere, range
Molineri C, Salles F, Peters J (2015)
Phylogeny and biogeography of Asthenopodinae with a revision of Asthenopus, reinstatement of Asthenopodes, and the description of the new genera Hubbardipes and Priasthenopus (Ephemeroptera, Polymitarcyidae).
The Neotropical species of Asthenopodinae are revised in a formal phylogenetic context. The five known species of Asthenopus Eaton, 1871, together with other five new species were included in a cladistic analysis using morphological characters (continuous and discretes). Representatives of the Afro-Oriental group of the subfamily (Povilla Navás, 1912 and Languidipes Hubbard, 1984) were also included to test the monophyletic hypothesis traditionally accepted for the group. Additional taxa representing the other subfamilies of Polymitarcyidae were incorparated: Ephoron Williamson, 1802 (Polymitarcyinae) and Campsurus Eaton, 1868, Tortopus Needham & Murphy, 1924 and Tortopsis Molineri, 2010 (Campsurinae). A matrix of 17 taxa and 72 characters was analyzed under parsimony resulting in a single tree supporting the monophyly of the subfamily Asthenopodinae. Other results include the monophyly of the Afro-Oriental taxa (Povilla and Languidipes), the paraphyletic nature of Neotropical Asthenopodinae, and the recognition of four South American genera: Asthenopus (including Asthenopuscurtus (Hagen), 1861, Asthenopusangelae de Souza & Molineri, 2012, Asthenopusmagnus sp. n., Asthenopushubbardi sp. n., Asthenopusguarani sp. n.), Asthenopodes Ulmer, 1924, stat. n. (including Asthenopuspicteti Hubbard, 1975, stat. n., Asthenopodestraverae sp. n., Asthenopodeschumuco sp. n.), Priasthenopus gen. n. (including Priasthenopusgilliesi (Domínguez), 1988, comb. n.), and Hubbardipes gen. n. (including Hubbardipescrenulatus (Molineri et al.), 2011, comb. n.). Descriptions, diagnoses, illustrations and keys are presented for all Neotropical taxa of Asthenopodinae (adults of both sexes, eggs and nymphs). Additionally a key to the subfamilies and genera of Polymitarcyidae is included. A quantitative biogeographic analysis of vicariance is presented and discussed through the study of the "taxon history" of the group. Abstract available from the publisher.
Keywords: Campsurinae, Campsurus, Ephemeroidea, Ephemeroptera, Fossoriae, Languidipes, Neotropics, Povilla, Tortopsis, Tortopus, evolution, vicariance
Nori J, Moreno Azócar D, Cruz F, Bonino M, Leynaud G (2015)
Translating niche features: Modelling differential exposure of Argentine reptiles to global climate change
Global climate change affects the distributions of ectotherms and may be the cause of several conservation problems, such as great displacement of climatic suitable spaces for species and, consequently, important reductions of the extent of liveable places, threatening the existence of many of them. Species exposure (and hence vulnerability) to global climate change is linked to features of their climatic niches (such as the relative position of the inhabited localities of each species in the climatic space), and therefore to characteristics of their geographic ranges (such as the extent of the distributions or altitudinal range inhabited by the species). In order to analyze the pattern of response of Argentine reptiles to global climate change, we ran phylogenetic generalized least squares models using species exposure to global climate change as a response variable, and (i) niche properties (breadth and position of the species in the climate space) and (ii) general features of the distribution of species (maximum latitude, altitudinal range, maximum elevation, distributional range and proximity to the most important dispersal barrier) as predictors. Our results suggest that the best way to explain climate change exposure is by combining breadth and position of climatic niche of the species or combining geographic features that are indicators of both niche characteristics. Our best model shows that in our study area, species with the narrowest distributional ranges that also inhabit the highest elevations are the most exposed to the effects of global climate change. In this sense, reptile species from Yungas, Puna and Andes ecoregions could be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change. We believe that these types of models may represent an interesting tool for determining species and places particularly threatened by the effects of global climate change, which should be strongly considered in conservation planning.
Keywords: climate change exposure, climatic niche, phylogenetic generalized least square model, species distribution
Wetterer JK M (2015)
Transactions of the American Entomological Society 141(1) 222-231.
The South American big-headed ant Pheidole obscurithorax was first found in North America in Mobile, Alabama in 1949. Since then, this species has also been recorded in Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and Texas. We compiled and mapped published and unpublished specimen records of P. obscurithorax from >170 sites in South America and the US to evaluate the current geographic range of this species and its possible future spread. We documented the earliest known records for nine geographic areas (South American countries and US states). Site records of P. obscurithorax ranged 27.5 degrees of latitude (from 6.7°S to 34.2°S) in South America, and 3.5 degrees of latitude (from 28.0°N to 31.5°N) in North America. It may be that the North American populations of P. obscurithorax have a fairly narrow range of climatic tolerances. Earlier genetic analyses of native and exotic populations of P. obscurithorax found that the North America populations appear to originate from a single introduction from a population most closely related to native study populations from a stretch along the Paraná River in Argentina from Resistencia (27.5°S) to Santa Fe (31.6°S). This latitudinal range matches the current latitudinal range of P. obscurithorax in North America. Alternatively, the much greater latitudinal range of P. obscurithorax in South America suggests that exotic populations of P. obscurithorax may have potential for much additional expansion in North America and beyond. In South America, P. obscurithorax has a similar native range as the invasive fire ant Solenopsis invicta . In the North America, exotic populations of P. obscurithorax may spread like S. invicta has, across the southeast of the US and into the West Indies
Keywords: biogeography, biological invasion, exotic range, invasive species, native range
Baranzelli M, Johnson L, Cosacov A, Sérsic A (2014)
Historical and ecological divergence among populations of Monttea chilensis (Plantaginaceae), an endemic endangered shrub bordering the Atacama Desert, Chile
Evolutionary Ecology 28(4) 751-774.
The coastal deserts of northern Chile show an important latitudinal gradient of aridity with more arid areas to the north of the Atacama Desert than to the south. Several plant species have disjunct distributions that correspond with the extremes of this latitudinal gradient. In this study, using genetic (chloroplast and nuclear DNA), morphological (vegetative and floral traits of various kinds) and climatic and topographic information, we explored ecological and historical events that have putatively shaped patterns of variation among Monttea chilensis populations—a species that shows this disjunct distribution. Through phylogeographic and phylogenetic analyses, two divergent lineages were identified located at the latitudinal extremes. The lineage located northern lineage (NG) of the Atacama Desert showed more genetic diversity and better-resolved phylogeographic structure than the southern lineage (SG). Considerable morphological variation across the geographical range corresponds with these genetic groups. We observed contrasting relationships between floral and vegetative traits: populations from the most arid region NG possessed larger flowers, but smaller vegetative values, and vice versa. Niche modelling and multivariate analyses, including environmental data, revealed different environmental requirements for each lineage. NG plants occur in regions with warmer and drier climatic conditions and at higher altitudes, while SG populations inhabit colder and more humid environments and lower altitudes. The evolutionary history of M. chilensis exhibits a phylogeographical footprint consistent with past fragmentation and allopatric differentiation, where the hyper-arid zone formed by the Atacama Desert clearly acted as an important gene flow barrier. This barrier has led to considerable differentiation in morphology and ecology, resulting in two ecotypes or geographical races, suggesting incipient speciation promoted by local adaptation and geographical isolation.
Keywords: biogeography, biological invasion, exotic range, invasive species, native range
Barkworth M, Cialdella A, Gandhi K (2014)
Piptochaetium fuscum (Nees ex Steud.) Barkworth, Ciald., & Gandhi, a new combination replacing Piptochaetium setosum (Trin.) Arechav.
PhytoKeys 35 17-22.
A new name, Piptochaetium fuscum, is provided for a taxon hitherto known as Piptochaetium setosum (Trin.) Arechav. Morphological, anatomical, and molecular studies that argue against including Piptochae- tium in Stipa, and hence use of S. purpurata (Phil.) Columbus & J.P. Sm., are cited.
Keywords: biogeography, biological invasion, exotic range, invasive species, native range
Bosch J, Mardones F, Pérez A, De la Torre A, Muñoz M (2014)
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 12(4) 984.
Wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in many areas of the Palearctic including the Iberian Peninsula have grown continuously over the last century. This increase has led to numerous different types of conflicts due to the damage these mammals can cause to agriculture, the problems they create in the conservation of natural areas, and the threat they pose to animal health. In the context of both wildlife management and the design of health programs for disease control, it is essential to know how wild boar are distributed on a large spatial scale. Given that the quantifying of the distribution of wild species using census techniques is virtually impossible in the case of large-scale studies, modeling techniques have thus to be used instead to estimate animals’ distributions, densities, and abundances. In this study, the potential distribution of wild boar in Spain was predicted by integrating data of presence and environmental variables into a MaxEnt approach. We built and tested models using 100 bootstrapped replicates. For each replicate or simulation, presence data was divided into two subsets that were used for model fitting (60% of the data) and cross-validation (40% of the data). The final model was found to be accurate with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) value of 0.79. Six explanatory variables for predicting wild boar distribution were identified on the basis of the percentage of their contribution to the model. The model exhibited a high degree of predictive accuracy, which has been confirmed by its agreement with satellite images and field surveys.
Keywords: MaxEnt, Sus scrofa, environmental suitability, geographic information, spatial distribution, wildlife management